Apollo Question (Easy, and Brief)

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xologist

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I would like to know how the Apollo 11, 12, 14 are similar to Apollo 15, and also how they differ from Apollo 15.

Pretty much like a compare and contrast.. I would like a little more knowledge on all this.
 
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CalliArcale

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xologist":1k6nwuqi said:
I would like to know how the Apollo 11, 12, 14 are similar to Apollo 15, and also how they differ from Apollo 15.

Pretty much like a compare and contrast.. I would like a little more knowledge on all this.
I'm not sure that's an easy and brief question. ;-) You could write a book to answer it! But I'll try for a brief answer all the same. The shortest version is that Apollos 11-14 were essentially a test program (Apollo 14 was really a reflight of Apollo 13), while 15-17 were much more capable missions with much higher scientific return (the "J series" missions). Probably the most obvious difference is that the J-series missions carried LRVs -- Lunar Roving Vehicles, and the LMs had much more payload capacity allowing them to bring back far more rock samples.

All were different, though, landing in different terrains, and each successful landing stayed on the surface longer than the one before.

Apollo 11
Duration: 8 days, 3 hours, 18 minutes, 35 seconds
Landing site: Mare Tranquilitatis
Lunar orbit stay: 59.5 hours (30 orbits)
Lunar surface stay: 21.6 hours
Lunar EVA: 2 hours, 32 minutes
Lunar samples: 20 kg7
LM ascent stage left in lunar orbit

Apollo 12
Duration: 10 Days, 04 hours, 36 min, seconds
Landing site: Oceanus Procellarum
Lunar orbit stay: 89 hours (45 orbits)
Lunar surface stay: 31.5 hours
Lunar EVA:
Lunar samples: 34 kg
First Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) deployed; all subsequent missions brought ALSEPs
LM ascent stage impacted Moon for seismology experiments

Apollo 13
Duration: 5.95 days
Landing aborted due to accident during translunar coast which destroyed the CSM's electrical generation capabilities; crew relied upon RTG-powered LM as a "lifeboat" and its descent stage for all course correction burns; entire LM disposed in Earth's atmosphere, targeted for a deep oceanic trench to keep the plutonium-based RTG from threatening anyone. S-IVB impacted the Moon, and was detected by Apollo 12 ALSEP

Apollo 14
Duration: 9 days
Landing site: Fra Mauro
Lunar orbit stay: 67 hours (34 orbits)
Lunar surface stay: 33.5 hours
Lunar EVA: 2 EVAs, 9 hours, 25 minutes
Lunar samples: 42 kg
Reflight of Apollo 13. Accomplished all objectives. LM ascent stage and S-IVB upper stage impacted Moon

Apollo 15
Duration: 12 Days, 17 hours, 12 min
Landing site: Hadley-Apennine
Lunar orbit stay: 145 hours (74 orbits)
Lunar surface stay: 66.9 hours
Lunar EVA: 3 EVAs, 10 hours, 26 minutes (also first EVA during trans-Earth coast, of 38 mins)
Lunar samples: 77 kg
LRV distance: 27.9 km on surface
LM and S-IVB impacted Moon. Small sub-satellite deployed into lunar orbit. First rover on the Moon. First J-series LM. First CSM with sensors for orbital survey of the Moon on the Service Module. (Transearth spacewalk required to retrieve film and tape.)

Apollo 16
Duration: 11 Days, 01 hours, 51 min
Landing site: Descartes Highlands
Lunar orbit stay: 126 hours (64 orbits)
Lunar surface stay: 71 hours
Lunar samples: 95.8 kg
First ultraviolent camera/spectrograph on the Moon; first study of highlands region of Moon

Apollo 17
Duration: 12 Days, 13 hours, 52 min
Landing site: Taurus-Littrow Basin
Lunar orbit stay:
Lunar surface stay: 75 hours
Lunar EVA: 3 EVAs, 22 hours, 4 minutes (1 transearth EVA of 1 hour 6 mins)
Lunar samples: 110.4 kg
LRV distance: 30.5 km
Only scientist-astronaut to land on the Moon, Harrison Schmidtt. Extensive geological studies of the moon.


Some good references:
NASA Historical Archive for Manned Missions
Encyclopedia Astronautica
Wikipedia: The Apollo Program

(Note: I'm missing some data above, but I have to go to an appointment now.)
 
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drwayne

Guest
"The Lunar Modules for the final three Apollo missions (15, 16, and 17) were significantly upgraded to allow for greater landing payload weights and longer lunar surface stay times. The descent engine power was improved by the addition of a ten-inch (254 mm) extension to the engine bell, and the descent fuel tanks were increased in size. Hover times and landing weights were also maximized by having the CSM perform the initial deorbit burn of the attached CSM-LM (a practice begun on Apollo 14), with the LM then separating for the final powered descent to the surface. The most important cargo on these missions was the Lunar Roving Vehicle, which was stowed on Quadrant 1 of the LM Descent Stage and deployed by astronauts after landing. The upgraded capability of these "J-Mission" LMs allowed three day stays on the moon."

Reference:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_Lunar_Module
 
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jamied_uk

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i like those details what about other than the moon isit posable to land on another planet such as saturn for example?
 
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MeteorWayne

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Welcome to Space.com.

This topic really isn't the best place to ask this question (I might suggest you spend a little time reading the forums) but for a quick answer, Jupiter, Syaurn, Uranus and Neptune have no solid surface you can land on.

Venus does, but the temeprature is hotter than the inside of your oven and the atmosphere is Sulfuric Acid and CO2, so is not very invidting. We could land on Mercury, Mars, Pluto and many of the other planet's moons.
 
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drwayne

Guest
jamied_uk":h7pgvpxo said:
i like those details what about other than the moon isit posable to land on another planet such as saturn for example?
One note on posting decorum. In a tread such as this one, where someone is asking a specific question,
throwing in an only vaguely related question is what is referred to as "Hijacking" a thread, and that is not
a good thing.

You also might examine the distances involved in reaching other planets versus that of the moon.

Wayne
 
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