At what age will our sun have a liquid surface? Solid?

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newtonian

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At what age will our sun's surface reach the temperature of liquid helium or hydrogen?<br /><br />Solid helium or hydrogen?
 
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priusguy

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Oh. My. God.<br /><br />See my answers to your "cooling white dwarf" thread for calculations.<br /><br />2.5 <b>quadrillion</b> years to reach 125 K (liquid nitrogen). One-eights of that, which is well into liquid hydrogen range will take<br /><br />2.5 quadrillions * (16^3) = <b>ten quintillion</b> (i.e. 10^19) years, and lowering by another factor of four (into liquid helium range) will take 250 times longer still.
 
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newtonian

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What will the core temperature be when the surface temperature reaches 125K in 2.5 quadrillion years?<br /><br />Is there a known insulating factor for the sun's mass at that stage?
 
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vogon13

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Proton decay might protect the suns 'carcass' from Bose-Einstein condensate formation for a very long time indeed.<br /><br /> />1030 years?<br /><br /> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font color="#ff0000"><strong>TPTB went to Dallas and all I got was Plucked !!</strong></font></p><p><font color="#339966"><strong>So many people, so few recipes !!</strong></font></p><p><font color="#0000ff"><strong>Let's clean up this stinkhole !!</strong></font> </p> </div>
 
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newtonian

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What is 10^30 years in words?<br /><br />Any idea on core temperature variance from surface temperatures at that late date?<br /><br /><br /><br />E.g. insulation factors.<br /><br />What is the normal temperature variation from core to surface for a body of the mass of our sun at black dwarf stage?<br /><br />How long would it take to radiate heat out from core to surface?<br /><br />Does the insulating factor of hydrogen, helium, beryllium, carbon, etc. change at these lower temperatures? <br /><br />What would happen if our sun in 2.5 quadrillion years at surface temp of 125C collided and merged with a red or black dwarf while Milky Way merges with thousands of galaxies near the center of gravity of the Great Attractor?
 
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derekmcd

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What is 10^30 years in words?<br /><br />Ten to the thirtieth power? 10 with 30 zeros. Nonillion. <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <div> </div><br /><div><span style="color:#0000ff" class="Apple-style-span">"If something's hard to do, then it's not worth doing." - Homer Simpson</span></div> </div>
 
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newtonian

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No nillion??!!!<br /><br />How about some......<br /><br />[I get silly when I tired - time for me to sleep - see you all soon!]
 
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vogon13

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Everything orbiting the central black hole of our galaxy will <br />radiate gravitational radiation and the orbits will slowly <br />(very slowly) decay . . . .<br /><br /><br />See where this is headed ?<br /><br /> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font color="#ff0000"><strong>TPTB went to Dallas and all I got was Plucked !!</strong></font></p><p><font color="#339966"><strong>So many people, so few recipes !!</strong></font></p><p><font color="#0000ff"><strong>Let's clean up this stinkhole !!</strong></font> </p> </div>
 
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nexium

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Exponents add when you multiply: A million is 10^6, so a million, times a million, times a million, times a million, times a million = 10^30.<br />Our sun will become a white dwarf in 40 billion years, probably sooner: Mainstream opinion is about 4 billion years. It will be about the size of Earth, very high density, so it will cool very slowly. It will have very high surface gravity, but possibly (after it cools many trillions of years) there will be a thin film of ordinay matter = mostly metalic liquid hydrogen and helium gas on the surface. The pressure will be very high due to the extreme gravity. Neil
 
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