Stargazing Betelgeuse will be visible as a Supernova in March of 2025

Jul 3, 2021
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On January 14, 2020 the folks at Ligo Laser Interferometer Labs reported a mysterious gravity wave which does not fit the normal signature of a Black Hole merger nor a Neutron Star Black Hole Merger. Some have suggested the signature gravity wave may very well have been a Supernova event, because of its short duration.

Gravitational waves are “ripples” in space-time caused by some of the most violent and energetic processes in the universe. ... Still, a supernova explosion of Betelgeuse might be linked with a gravitational wave burst. As Jackson Ryan explained on CNET last night (January 14, 2020):
Just prior to the gravity wave burst the star Betelgeuse has undergone some unusual dimming in 2019.

The problem is the people of Ligo could not pin-point the location of the gravity wave burst yet they have stated it may have come from the Orion Constellation where Betelgeuse resides.





Gravity waves when traveling through space do not bend around stars as does light, therefore gravity waves would arrive at earth before a Supernova flash.


The waves are virtually unaffected by matter, which means that they travel through the universe, effectively unchanged, providing incredibly accurate information of the sources billions of lights years away.
Since gravity waves is cutting edge science and not enough data has been retrieved to be compared for lag time of light to a gravity wave arrival time; as this is all theory at the moment trying to predict the speed of lights lag time compared to gravity waves from a distant object in space, I have found a calculation. However, my theory is based on a measurement that Betelgeuse's distance in light years is 535 from the Great Pyramid. Something tells me a very advanced civilization built the pyramids which exceeded our technology and to me it could be extra-terrestrial. Mankind has not been able to approximate Betelgeuse's light year distance properly and there is several speculations of its distance online.



Knowing the exact distance in light years to Betelgeuse is pivotal if one were to predict a Supernova flash shortly from Betelgeuse in the future due to a gravity wave emission. I wrote a program in python which predicts the difference from a gravity wave geometric calculation to light years that maybe able to predict when Betelgeuse goes Supernova if it did indeed explode in 1491. This calculation I came up with .99307 x 535 = 529.84795 from my python program. The lag for the light delay should arrive sometime in March of 2025 knowing that the difference in light years is about 5.15205.

Here is a vid that explains what I have done:


For the below code here is some input information for black holes I used to determine distance from the data at Ligo Labs:

When using my python code you input:

Enter Number to divide Proton: 10000
Spin Number: 1
Enter number of Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: 410
Add Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: 160
Subtract Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: 180

or another one

_______________

Enter Number to divide Proton: 1000000
Spin Number: 8
Enter number of Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: 5300
Add Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: 2400
Subtract Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: 2600


Here is the code I programmed for the gravity geometric in python:
Python:
import time
print('''Two to the power of Exponential growth of Gravities
Constant <G> multiplied by the fine structure contant multiplied
by 12 hours divided by n.
________________________________________ ''')
while True:
    n = int(input("Enter Number to divide Proton: "))
    s = int(input("Spin Number: "))
    Parsec = int(input("Enter number of Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: "))
    Plus_Parsec = int(input("Add Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: "))
    Minus_Parsec = int(input("Subtract Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: "))
    start_time = time.time()
    G_constant = (.00000000006674)
    proton_width = (((0.00000000000001)*s)/(n))
    gravity_wave = ((proton_width))
    G = ((pow(2,((1 +(((.00000000006674*.0072973*(12/n))*((( 1 ))))))))))
    Gravities_Geometry = ((G*3.14))
    Distance_to_Gravity_Waves_Source = ((((((G))/(gravity_wave))*86400*365)/((Gravities_Geometry)-((G/2))))/9461000000000000)
 
    Ligos_approximation_Black_hole_merger_from_luminosity = (1000000*3.26*(Parsec+(Plus_Parsec-Minus_Parsec)))
    difference = (Ligos_approximation_Black_hole_merger_from_luminosity-Distance_to_Gravity_Waves_Source)
    print('{0:.14f}'.format(G_constant),'Gravitational Constant')
#    print('{0:.99f}'.format(proton_width),'Proton Width')
#    print('{0:.110f}'.format(gravity_wave),'Gravity Wave')
    print(G,'G as exponential growth')
    print('{0:.15f}'.format(Gravities_Geometry),'Gravities_Geometry')

    print("{:,}".format(Ligos_approximation_Black_hole_merger_from_luminosity),'Ligos distance approximation from luminosity in light years')
    print('{0:,.1f}'.format(Distance_to_Gravity_Waves_Source),'Distance Gravity Wave traveled going by ONeils Gravity Geometric')
    print("{:,}".format(difference),'difference from Ligo and Geometric source in light years')
    e = int(time.time() - start_time)
    print('{:02d}:{:02d}:{:02d}'.format(e // 3600, (e % 3600 // 60), e % 60))


@All

I finally found another Gravity Wave Measurement measured against the diameter of the proton. The first gravity wave found was (GW150914) measured at a 10,000th of the diameter of a proton. It had a spin of -.01 and so in my python code it would be a 1 spin. I should explain Luminosity Distance, it is an approximation in the linear direction because light bends around massive objects on its way from deep space to the measuring point. At some junctures light can bend greater than other junctures, because of mass differences and this is why its an approximation for very deep objects. Often times Luminosity will be printed like this:
5300+2400−2600.

So to find the total light years. You would multiply 1,000,000*3.26*(5300+(2400-2600))light years

Quote

Five years ago the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detected a ripple in spacetime that was just one ten-thousandth the width of a proton
[www.scientificamerican.com]

As I desperately searched the net to see if my Gravity Geometric was correct; I finally stumbled on to an article regarding the gravity wave (GW190521) measured at a 1,000,000th of the diameter of a proton. I then looked at the spin for the GW190521 and it was an .08 and so in my python code it would be an 8 spin which also plays a role in the calculation.

Quote

Then, on 21 May 2019, those waves passed through our planet. Did you feel it? Probably not; the expansion and contraction of space would've stretched you less than a millionth of the diameter of a proton.
[www.syfy.com]

This was great that I found two measurements to test my Gravity Geometric to see how it faired against the approximate luminosity distance measuring stick. And just as I imagined at greater distances than smaller Luminosity as an approximation increases with time, because light bends around other massive objects on its way to where its being measured. On the other hand gravity takes a straight path to the target being measured unhindered by mass. So this is why I'm so excited to show the result. I'm not using Luminosity to show distance and perhaps as I just discussed light not being accurate, that I'm spot on for light years with my Geometric Result.
 
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Nice bit of analysis, and intellectual sweat. Thanks for including the code. I did look up Betelgeuse's distance from Earth and read 640ly as average value. Doing bit of "Kentucky Windage" using the 640ly , the light from a Betelgeuse supernova, given such has occurred, would arrive here in ~6.2 years. So if you're correct, like at a wedding, what we have is the right church and designated pews to select. From my point of expectation of the spectacular event of a Betelgeuse supernova would be a welcome sight anytime within the next decade.
 
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If you're right, then we'd love to hear how you came to that conclusion.
Me, I think Betelgeuse is just going through a 'thermal pulse, it just happens to be in our line of sight. All stars experience two fundamentally different aspects of the fusion process of 'Stellar nucleosynthesis'. The main sequence era of a stars life is the most stable, and longest period of a stars life. This is due to the fact that the binding energy, forces protons to stick together during the proton-proton cycle of nuclear fusion process. The range of the binding energy, is approxiamately the width of an iron nucleous. When a star leaves the main sequence, it cannot initiate the nuclear fusion of Helium into Carbon and Oxygen until the core reaches 100 million degrees. The binding energy still has no problem forcing helium nuclei into one another to form heavier elements. However, all red giant stars are variable stars. Since, the core is converting helium into carbon and oxygen, there is still a thin outer shell of hydrogen burning that envelopes the inner core. It's the combination of the hydrogen burning and the 100 million degrees temperature at the core that causes the expansion of the star to balloon to unimaginable proportions. But as the outer layers expand, they also cool. As they cool, the outer layers then begin to contract. This diaphragm like expansion and contraction results in enormous loss of mass. During the contraction phase of a thermal pulse it is estimated that as much as one solar mass could be lost. The most current spectrographic analysis taken of Beetlejuice has shown that helium is still being converted into carbon and oxygen. This means that it will take at least another hundred thousand years for Betelgeuse to go supernova. I could be wrong though.
 
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Nice bit of analysis, and intellectual sweat. Thanks for including the code. I did look up Betelgeuse's distance from Earth and read 640ly as average value. Doing bit of "Kentucky Windage" using the 640ly , the light from a Betelgeuse supernova, given such has occurred, would arrive here in ~6.2 years. So if you're correct, like at a wedding, what we have is the right church and designated pews to select. From my point of expectation of the spectacular event of a Betelgeuse supernova would be a welcome sight anytime within the next decade.
Thanks Sam,

There are several estimations out there for Betelgeuse's distance what is amazing next to the Great Pyramid measurement in distance of 535 in light years is from the quote below.

Their analysis reported a present-day mass of 16.5 to 19 solar mass--which is slightly lower than the most-recent estimates. The study also revealed how big Betelgeuse is, as well as its distance from Earth. The star's actual size has been a bit of a mystery: earlier studies, for instance, suggested it could be bigger than the orbit of Jupiter. However, the team's results showed Betelgeuse only extends out to two-thirds of that, with a radius 750 times the radius of the sun. Once the physical size of the star is known, it will be possible to determine its distance from Earth. Thus far, the team's results show it is a mere 530 light years from us, or 25 percent closer than previously thought.
 
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If you're right, then we'd love to hear how you came to that conclusion.
Me, I think Betelgeuse is just going through a 'thermal pulse, it just happens to be in our line of sight. All stars experience two fundamentally different aspects of the fusion process of 'Stellar nucleosynthesis'. The main sequence era of a stars life is the most stable, and longest period of a stars life. This is due to the fact that the binding energy, forces protons to stick together during the proton-proton cycle of nuclear fusion process. The range of the binding energy, is approxiamately the width of an iron nucleous. When a star leaves the main sequence, it cannot initiate the nuclear fusion of Helium into Carbon and Oxygen until the core reaches 100 million degrees. The binding energy still has no problem forcing helium nuclei into one another to form heavier elements. However, all red giant stars are variable stars. Since, the core is converting helium into carbon and oxygen, there is still a thin outer shell of hydrogen burning that envelopes the inner core. It's the combination of the hydrogen burning and the 100 million degrees temperature at the core that causes the expansion of the star to balloon to unimaginable proportions. But as the outer layers expand, they also cool. As they cool, the outer layers then begin to contract. This diaphragm like expansion and contraction results in enormous loss of mass. During the contraction phase of a thermal pulse it is estimated that as much as one solar mass could be lost. The most current spectrographic analysis taken of Beetlejuice has shown that helium is still being converted into carbon and oxygen. This means that it will take at least another hundred thousand years for Betelgeuse to go supernova. I could be wrong though.
@ Patrick
You are right it could just be the variable stars dimming from actions within its core; however, this graph shows an unusual dimming just before a gravity wave which maybe from the direction of Betelgeuse. The gravity wave is unusual too being short and some have said that's an indication of a Supernova. There is a problem with trying to determine the nuclear fusion process of a star if we cannot properly determine its exact distance.



I checked out what exactly was being emitted at the end of 2020 from a spectrographic image and it turns out to be Magnesium II which is a metal. So when talking about metals emissions, to me this could signal a close end to a star or its end maybe. And just as I have stated we are in a delay of about 5 years 2 month's to see the Supernova flash from a gravity wave of January 14, 2020 which would set the explosion back to 1491 due to my calculation of Betelgeuse's light year distance of 535. I believe in the next 3 years 8 months Betelgeuse will experience radical changes and it is just a guess by me.



About This Image
HUBBLE SPECTRA TRACE TRAUMATIC OUTBURST ON THE STAR BETELGEUSE


This spectral plot is based on Hubble Space Telescope observations from March 2019 to February 2020. Hubble recorded a surprising outburst in the atmosphere of the nearby red supergiant star Betelgeuse. Measurements of emission from magnesium II were used to trace motion in the star's pulsating atmosphere. Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph captured a dramatic increase in the brightness of magnesium emission in October 2019, in the southeast region of the star, as outlined by the white circle. (Betelgeuse is close enough and big enough for Hubble to resolve the star's enormous disk.) This traumatic event was different from what is normally seen in the star's 420-day pulsation period. At the same time in October, the star abruptly began dimming. This fading continued until February 2020, at which time the Hubble ultraviolet spectral data had returned to normal. The outburst is suspected to have ejected a cloud of hot plasma that cooled to form dust that blocked out a significant portion of the star's light for a few months. Hubble's long baseline of monitoring the star helped put the puzzle pieces together.
 
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In appearance and form, that is a very nice presentation, Stellarwest.

Just prior to the gravity wave burst the star Betelgeuse has undergone some unusual dimming in 2019.
There are several explanation for this, but I think star spots may now be the favored view vs. expelled gases.

The problem is the people of Ligo could not pin-point the location of the gravity wave burst yet they have stated it may have come from the Orion Constellation where Betelgeuse resides.
LIGO has very poor angular resolution on all observations. But, since they have two sites, perhaps it isn't super bad. [I failed to find hard angular resolution specs.]

Gravity waves when traveling through space do not bend around stars as does light...
GR argues otherwise. GR waves have energy, and energy equates to matter, so it can be argued they do bend. But the energy is very weak, so they bend is less.

Another way to think of it, I think, is the idea that from their own inertial frame they aren't bending, it is the bending of spacetime itself where we see their paths appear to alter (bend) from our own inertial frame.

..., therefore gravity waves would arrive at earth before a Supernova flash.
So far, gravity waves have been tested to travel at c -- a prediction in GR. So do you see it differently?

However, my theory is based on a measurement that Betelgeuse's distance in light years is 535 from the Great Pyramid.
How did you derive this distance? The definition of "light year" back then was probably a reference to annual rain fall. Ptolemy (Alexandria) positioned the orbit of Venus to be between Earth and the Sun because to move outside the Sun would be such a waste of space (<1 AU vs 535 x 63,000AU).

Something tells me a very advanced civilization built the pyramids which exceeded our technology and to me it could be extra-terrestrial. Mankind has not been able to approximate Betelgeuse's light year distance properly and there is several speculations of its distance online.
This is true for almost all non-main sequence stars beyond an accurate parallax measurement. Its parallax is about 6mas.

At some junctures light can bend greater than other junctures, because of mass differences and this is why its an approximation for very deep objects. Often times Luminosity will be printed like this:
5300+2400−2600.
Huh?

So to find the total light years. You would multiply 1,000,000*3.26*(5300+(2400-2600))light years
This equates to > 16 billion lyrs. Is this for Betelgeuse?
 
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@ Helio

Thanks and I can see you have been around the block at this site for a while :)

So to find the total light years. You would multiply 1,000,000*3.26*(5300+(2400-2600))light years
This equates to > 16 billion lyrs. Is this for Betelgeuse?
No, in your above quote that's not for Betelgeuse, this merely is how the calculations in my python program is for a conversion to light years.

I should have titled the post a postulation and I really hope the star does show itself as a Supernova in March of 2025. My calculation could up ending the measurement of the Hubble constant if we do see the Supernova when my calculation predicts. To be honest a 5 year lag from a gravity wave burst, if Betelgeuse did explode in 1491 and the light shows 535 years later in 2025 of March seems a little unnerving for me. Yet think about a straight line of a curve arcing from Betelgeuse to Earth as in light and all the matter in between that line one has to wonder the true time delay of its presence upon the light. I don't believe gravity waves are affected to the same degree as light is. Basically what the real measurement is about lag time of light to gravity waves so knowing the impedance factor would be fundamental to astrophysics.

Yes my calculation could be a shot in the dark however I have factored in the fine structure constant which if that figure was different our universe probably would be a chaotic place; it would be a wild form of entropy thus the universe would not have existed very long. My python program also takes into account gravities constant and then knowing that Einstein stated that gravity warps space time and therefore it must have a geometric property I included Pi (3.14) in the equation. My calculation takes on the quantum numbers with the macro numbers of space. I know its unusual calculation, but for two black hole mergers it does compare a lower number for distance of a gravity wave vs. luminosity.

Here are the news feeds of the two gravity events that you can calculate with my python code:

Here is the first gravity wave ever detected:

Again another Black Hole gravity wave news article the other one which show a consistency with my python program:


If people are wondering what I'm writing about, here is the information for my opening article at the top python code. You input this in after you run the python code and it will show you the difference from light years in distance to gravity waves of my gravity geometric calculation. I used a % of two numbers from luminosity and the gravity geometric to help determine the light year distance lag time form January 14, 2020 to March of 2025:

When using my python code you input:
First Gravity Wave detected
Enter Number to divide Proton: 10000
Spin Number: 1
Enter number of Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: 410
Add Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: 160
Subtract Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: 180

or another one

_______________
Other gravity wave I use
Enter Number to divide Proton: 1000000
Spin Number: 8
Enter number of Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: 5300
Add Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: 2400
Subtract Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: 2600
 
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Hi all,

Going back to the magnesium emission post that I replied to Helio in this thread, I searched the net to see how close Betelgeuse would be to a Supernova along with a magnesium emission in October of 2019. As I have theorized we would see a delay in the Supernova flash of Betelgeuse. I'm not sure if Betelgeuse at that time was on its way to an Iron death, but check out this quote below. Who knows how fast Betelgeuse would reach Iron by January 14, 2020 of when the gravity wave was detected here on earth which I suspect an expulsion in 1491. The Mg in the image below would be magnesium! Now what we will be seeing up until March of 2025 due to light delay would be before the 1491 explosion of Betelgeuse as goes my theory; so its like a delayed movie till 2025, because I don't think gravity waves although the speed of light are affected by mass on its way here like light.

What is the real mystery is if Betelgeuse was showing it was at magnesium in October of 2019 would it have reached Iron just prior to January 14, 2020?

You time is an odd thing when you start trying to add in delay for gravity waves vs. light it can twist my mind sometimes lol.



The simplest set of reactions are called helium capture reactions, where helium is captured by a series of more massive elements in the sequence carbon to oxygen to neon to magnesium. Other reactions, which can take place only at the highest temperatures and pressures, are C + O -> Si, and Si + Si -> Fe. Once silicon is fusing into iron, the game is up for the star. No reaction with iron can release more energy. Once this begins to happen, the star has only days until the end.
https://web.njit.edu/~gary/202/Lecture19.html
Here is the magnesium information regarding Betelgeuse:

About This Image
HUBBLE SPECTRA TRACE TRAUMATIC OUTBURST ON THE STAR BETELGEUSE


This spectral plot is based on Hubble Space Telescope observations from March 2019 to February 2020. Hubble recorded a surprising outburst in the atmosphere of the nearby red supergiant star Betelgeuse. Measurements of emission from magnesium II were used to trace motion in the star's pulsating atmosphere. Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph captured a dramatic increase in the brightness of magnesium emission in October 2019, in the southeast region of the star, as outlined by the white circle. (Betelgeuse is close enough and big enough for Hubble to resolve the star's enormous disk.) This traumatic event was different from what is normally seen in the star's 420-day pulsation period. At the same time in October, the star abruptly began dimming. This fading continued until February 2020, at which time the Hubble ultraviolet spectral data had returned to normal. The outburst is suspected to have ejected a cloud of hot plasma that cooled to form dust that blocked out a significant portion of the star's light for a few months. Hubble's long baseline of monitoring the star helped put the puzzle pieces together.



 
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@ Patrick
You are right it could just be the variable stars dimming from actions within its core; however, this graph shows an unusual dimming just before a gravity wave which maybe from the direction of Betelgeuse. The gravity wave is unusual too being short and some have said that's an indication of a Supernova. There is a problem with trying to determine the nuclear fusion process of a star if we cannot properly determine its exact distance.



I checked out what exactly was being emitted at the end of 2020 from a spectrographic image and it turns out to be Magnesium II which is a metal. So when talking about metals emissions, to me this could signal a close end to a star or its end maybe. And just as I have stated we are in a delay of about 5 years 2 month's to see the Supernova flash from a gravity wave of January 14, 2020 which would set the explosion back to 1491 due to my calculation of Betelgeuse's light year distance of 535. I believe in the next 3 years 8 months Betelgeuse will experience radical changes and it is just a guess by me.

@ Patrick
You are right it could just be the variable stars dimming from actions within its core; however, this graph shows an unusual dimming just before a gravity wave which maybe from the direction of Betelgeuse. The gravity wave is unusual too being short and some have said that's an indication of a Supernova. There is a problem with trying to determine the nuclear fusion process of a star if we cannot properly determine its exact distance.



I checked out what exactly was being emitted at the end of 2020 from a spectrographic image and it turns out to be Magnesium II which is a metal. So when talking about metals emissions, to me this could signal a close end to a star or its end maybe. And just as I have stated we are in a delay of about 5 years 2 month's to see the Supernova flash from a gravity wave of January 14, 2020 which would set the explosion back to 1491 due to my calculation of Betelgeuse's light year distance of 535. I believe in the next 3 years 8 months Betelgeuse will experience radical changes and it is just a guess by me.

 
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Gravity waves when traveling through space do not bend around stars as does light, therefore gravity waves would arrive at earth before a Supernova flash.
No, gravity waves travel at lightspeed. Also, there aren't any stars to bend anything between here and Betelgeuse.

However, my theory is based on a measurement that Betelgeuse's distance in light years is 535 from the Great Pyramid. Something tells me a very advanced civilization built the pyramids which exceeded our technology and to me it could be extra-terrestrial.
My crank-science alarm bell just went off and you lost me.

Sorry Stellarwest, but if the sky does light up with a Betelgeuse supernova in March 2025... I'll be amazed but I'll probably think you made a very lucky guess.
 
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Thanks all for the references and pointed comments. I have been hoping to view Betelgeuse's supernova, given that the star "cooperates" while I'm still around. Now I'll be more inclined, possibly even motivated, to look up at Orion for more than a fleeting moment on cold winter nights.
 
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Neutrino Detector

Here is a great live image of Betelgeuse starting at 1:49 of a vid.

View: https://youtu.be/xF5jB9I_rxA



Can someone help me here with this article regarding Borexino. It is Ironic that in January 14, 2020 we had gravity wave event probably from Betelgeuse and then the Borexino detector is picking up never before seen neutrinos in February of 2020 which is indicative of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen – so-called CNO neutrinos. I'm astonished they are saying that these neutrinos are from the Sun. I'm putting my money that there from Betelgeuse. From October of 2019 of Betelgeuse we saw a spectrographic image with an emission of Magnesium so for February of 2020 Betelgeuse could very well be burning Oxygen or Nitrogen.

I do have a long written explanation calculation that if the neutrinos are from Betelgeuse in February caught by Borexino as I don't believe there from the Sun. The calculation seems to correspond to about a two week delay for a neutrino blast into February according to the national geographic article.

There is going to be many figures here, but I'll try and make it clear:

5.15 light years which from January 14, 2020 till March of 2025 Betelgeuse visible Supernova.

So 5.15 ly = 48,723,000,000,000,000 meters

The extra speed would mean that, over a distance of 621 miles (1,000 kilometers), neutrinos travel about 66 feet (20 meters) farther than light travels in the same amount of time.
Then multiply 48,723,000,000,000,000 by .00002 = 974,460,000,000
48,723,000,000,000,000
974,460,000,000
+_________________________
48,723,974,460,000,000

Now divide by a light year in meters
48,723,974,460,000,000/9,461,000,000,000,000,000 = .00514

Now multiply by 5.15 ly x .00514 = .026

Then convert years to days:
.026 x 365 = 9.49

Then convert to weeks compared to a year

9.49 / 52 = .1825

21 days multiplied by hours 24 = 504

504 x .1825 = 91.98 week

Finally Divide 91.98 by 7 days = 13.14 days or roughly two weeks.

I know that figure barely makes it to February, however I'm excited because it close and the delay for a light em radiation was used in my calculation. I did this thinking and calculating until the Sun had just began to rise so if you find some discrepancies I understand.




I investigated the line up for what should expect to see and its gravity waves, neutrinos then light according to this article.

Neutrinos, The Accepted Messengers.
Neutrino’s are nearly massless particles. Their masses are on the order of ones to tens of electron Volts per speed of light squared. For comparison the lightest particle most people learn about in detail is the electron. The electron has a mass just over half a MILLION electron volts per speed of light squared (0.511 MeV/C^2). This compares to the possible mass of the electron-neutrino which is less than 2.2 eV. It is like comparing 2.2 dollars to 0.511 million dollars.
Borexino, a huge underground particle detector in Italy, has picked up a never-before-seen type of neutrino coming from the Sun. These neutrinos confirm a 90-year-old hypothesis and complete our picture of the fusion cycle of the Sun and other stars.


Neutrinos are ultra-light particles produced in nuclear reactions, and the majority of those detected on Earth are produced by the Sun as it fuses hydrogen into helium. But in the 1930s it was predicted that the Sun should also make another type of neutrino through reactions involving carbon, nitrogen and oxygen – so-called CNO neutrinos. And now Borexino has detected these neutrinos for the very first time.

 
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Well as all code truly is in beta phases I updated my code to work for shorter distances like Betelgeuse and perhaps other stars if a gravity wave is detected for short distance bursts. Here in this video I explain:

View: https://youtu.be/SACZ-JArrJw


Enter Number to divide Proton: 4191
Spin Number: 1
Enter number of Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: 150
Add Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: 19
Subtract Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: 5
0.00000000006674 Gravitational Constant
2.0000000000000018 G as exponential growth
6.280000000000006 Gravities_Geometry
534.64 Ligos distance approximation from luminosity in light years
529.2 Distance Gravity Wave traveled going by ONeils Gravity Geometric
5.484519606806884 difference from Ligo and Geometric source in light year

If you would like to check out my python code here it is:

Python:
import time
print('''Two to the power of Exponential growth of Gravities
Constant <G> multiplied by the fine structure contant multiplied
by 12 hours divided by n.
________________________________________ ''')
while True:
    n = int(input("Enter Number to divide Proton: "))
    s = int(input("Spin Number: "))
    Parsec = int(input("Enter number of Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: "))
    Plus_Parsec = int(input("Add Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: "))
    Minus_Parsec = int(input("Subtract Parsec's for Luminosity Distance: "))
    start_time = time.time()
    G_constant = (.00000000006674)
    proton_width = (((0.00000000000001)*s)/(n))
    gravity_wave = ((proton_width))
    G = ((pow(2,((1 +(((.00000000006674*.0072973*(12/n))*((( 1 ))))))))))
    Gravities_Geometry = ((G*3.14))
    Distance_to_Gravity_Waves_Source = (((((((G))/(gravity_wave))*86400*365)/((Gravities_Geometry)-((G/2))))/9461000000000000))/1000000
    
    Ligos_approximation_Black_hole_merger_from_luminosity = (1000000*3.26*(Parsec+(Plus_Parsec-Minus_Parsec)))/1000000
    difference = (Ligos_approximation_Black_hole_merger_from_luminosity-Distance_to_Gravity_Waves_Source)
    print('{0:.14f}'.format(G_constant),'Gravitational Constant')
#    print('{0:.99f}'.format(proton_width),'Proton Width')
#    print('{0:.110f}'.format(gravity_wave),'Gravity Wave')
    print(G,'G as exponential growth')
    print('{0:.15f}'.format(Gravities_Geometry),'Gravities_Geometry')

    print("{:,}".format(Ligos_approximation_Black_hole_merger_from_luminosity),'Ligos distance approximation from luminosity in light years')
    print('{0:,.1f}'.format(Distance_to_Gravity_Waves_Source),'Distance Gravity Wave traveled going by ONeils Gravity Geometric')
    print("{:,}".format(difference),'difference from Ligo and Geometric source in light years')
    e = int(time.time() - start_time)
    print('{:02d}:{:02d}:{:02d}'.format(e // 3600, (e % 3600 // 60), e % 60))
 
Dec 9, 2020
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A bit too deep for me. No matter though, my 25 yo bottle of Johnnie Walker Black is going to age somewhere between 5 and 7 years more. So whether in that time frame, Betelgeuse goes BOOM or not, I and Johnnie Walker are planning on having either a celebratory or a commiserative "blast" to salute that star. (in a dignified way of course).
 
Jul 4, 2021
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This is a bad time for the Hubble Space Telescope to go down on us. We need Hubble now more than ever before we get the James Webb Space Telescope at it's LaGrange point. Oh my goodness this is exciting as hell though. If we can actually document and observe how this star is going to die , then the data we're going to get would be unprecedented. When the dimming was first observed, I remember some astronomers giving estimates on the mass of Betelgeuse as a very wide range somewhere between 9 to 20 solar masses. Which of course means Beetlejuice would not have enough Mass once it was completed with its asymptotic giant Branch star phase it may not have enough Mass to go supernova simply shed its outer layers and reveal of a high-end Mass white dwarf . Apparently it had more than enough mass at the end of it's AGT phase. It seems obhivious the higher-end AssumptionThat's true. You'd think it would be a straight forward analysis in determining where on the Asymptotic giant branch phase it is in, by simply identifying the most complex element being forged. Like you said, if we're that uncertain of the stars actual distance, then that could actually be a more serious situation. I think if Betelgeuse is still in the contraction phase of a thermal pulse then it will be more difficult to obtain an accurate distance. If we're lucky, we'll obtain good spectra in between the contraction and the expansion phases. A lull in the action if you will. Maybe that will give us a static red shift.
 
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Jul 3, 2021
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As I sit here to write this some of you may feel I'm way off regarding the Borexino Neutrinos. I just find it hard to believe that within two weeks of a gravity wave which I feel came from Betelgeuse Borexino are reporting CNO neutrinos which they state came from the Sun and this is a first time event (Could the identification be wrong? I say yes). Is it possible that some of the CNO neutrinos or all them were from Betelgeuse? I say its possible. Looking at Betelgeuse it has an approximate solar mass of about 17.5 M ☉ . We have a spectral image of Betelgeuse emitting Mg in October of 2019. Now if the CNO's which are Oxygen is one from the February report of 2020 which I claim Borexino could be seeing from Betelgeuse as CNO's or a mix from the Sun and maybe all from Betelgeuse, well this has major implications. Let's face it we are speculating here and I'm not the first to have an opinion, but I try with information to use facts. Even astrophysicists are struggling to rap their heads around the Hubble constant so conjectures seems to come out as postulations. So your scratching your head about the timing according to the Bold and Underline quote below and a gravity wave from January 14, 2020. It looks as though to me Betelgeuse blew up, but knowing gravity waves and neutrinos get here prior to light this leaves us with a movie track delayed I figure prior to 1491 of its explosion. So how long will the CNO continue?

It seems that information is adding up for a Supenova explosion of Betelgeuse and I hope my calculation light delay is true for March of 2025.

). In the 20 M ☉ model, shells 2 and 3 complete their major burning about a year before oxygen ignites in the stellar center. Shell 3 is located at 1.32 M, which is too small to allow oxygen to ignite. Later, following a brief, inconsequential “blip” of convective neon burning, oxygen burning ignites in a core devoid of any nuclear energy sources out to more than 3 M. The entropy is higher and the degeneracy is less at both oxygen ignition and depletion (Fig. 2.10). Oxygen burning ignites late, with less than a year remaining in the star’s life. Ultimately the star dies with a relatively large compactness parameter, 0.26
 
Jul 4, 2021
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As I sit here to write this some of you may feel I'm way off regarding the Borexino Neutrinos. I just find it hard to believe that within two weeks of a gravity wave which I feel came from Betelgeuse Borexino are reporting CNO neutrinos which they state came from the Sun and this is a first time event (Could the identification be wrong? I say yes). Is it possible that some of the CNO neutrinos or all them were from Betelgeuse? I say its possible. Looking at Betelgeuse it has an approximate solar mass of about 17.5 M ☉ . We have a spectral image of Betelgeuse emitting Mg in October of 2019. Now if the CNO's which are Oxygen is one from the February report of 2020 which I claim Borexino could be seeing from Betelgeuse as CNO's or a mix from the Sun and maybe all from Betelgeuse, well this has major implications. Let's face it we are speculating here and I'm not the first to have an opinion, but I try with information to use facts. Even astrophysicists are struggling to rap their heads around the Hubble constant so conjectures seems to come out as postulations. So your scratching your head about the timing according to the Bold and Underline quote below and a gravity wave from January 14, 2020. It looks as though to me Betelgeuse blew up, but knowing gravity waves and neutrinos get here prior to light this leaves us with a movie track delayed I figure prior to 1491 of its explosion. So how long will the CNO continue?

It seems that information is adding up for a Supenova explosion of Betelgeuse and I hope my calculation light delay is true for March of 2025.
Is it possible to determine, through gravity wave analysis alone if the stellar remnant is a neutron star or a black hole?
 
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Jul 4, 2021
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Thanks cat! This is obvious how little I knew. I knew that the C.N.O. cycle was reserved for massive stars. What I didn't know, was how powerful an influence it had on the evolution of massive stars with respect to the expediency of how quickly massive stars not only leave the main sequence, but the speed with which they churn their way through the initial stages of Red giant stage. Your hertzprung-Russel diagram of how quickly the massive stars achieve this is graphically evident on the horizontal display in the upper right hand region. This is why the term "Assymptotic giant branch" star is so appropriate. At a glance, as the star converts helium into carbon and oxygen, then from carbon and oxygen to higher end reactions, its the carbon atom that seems to be the catalyst! I've learned so much, in just the last 48 hers. Amazing! I feel humbled, but grateful.
 
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Jun 1, 2020
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It's hard to see that we might be detecting CNO neutrinos from big B.

About 1% of solar neutrinos are likely CNO generated. Earth receives about 7E10 solar neutrinos per sq. cm. per sec.

But from the distance of Betelgeuse, the CNO production would need to be on the order 10E24 more than the Sun just to match the CNO neutrinos from the Sun, if my math is correct. And, of course, even big B isn't likely capable of this.
 
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Jul 3, 2021
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General Relativity light, Diameter of Betelgeuse with Pyramid calculation and Magnitude of Star​

To be honest the entire post really hinges on the news of a gravity wave coming from Betelgeuse on January 14, 2020 and if it did happen, I firmly believe Betelgeuse exploded in 1491. However the delay when we see the Supernova (March 2025) does also depend on my calculation from the python codes gravity wave geometric.

I have other information that relates to the possible accuracy of my prediction of a visible Supernova for Betelgeuse in March of 2025. The information is based on the Solar Ellipse for Einstein's General Relativity light bending, The Great Pyramid calculation for the diameter of Betelgeuse and Absolute Magnitude of the Star Betelgeuse. Please read the below quote in full.


Data from Eddington’s Principe expedition translated into a light deflection of 1.6 arseconds—an angular measurement of distance across the sky—while plates from Dyson’s crew in Sobral suggested 1.98 arcseconds and a margin of uncertainty of some 30 percent. In 2017, Bruns, a retired optical physicist, took images that translated into exactly the number Einstein would predict—a deflection of 1.7512 arcseconds—with an uncertainty, related to atmospheric turbulence, of only 3 percent.

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/total-solar-eclipse-100-years-ago-proved-einsteins-general-relativity-180972278/

The experiment according to Eddington's Principe with the Solar Eclipse that confirmed Einstein's General Relativity of light bending at 1.75 arc seconds which in real time is .12 seconds.




That .12 seconds is the delay of light from the Sun to Earth which is at distance of 0.000015 light years. As you can see light can have a lag time other than its approximate Luminosity distance. Now realizing that my calculation states that light is delayed after a gravity wave release from Betelgeuse is about 5.15 light years. Then my calculation must be taking into account some sort of average mass for distance from Betelgeuse to earth. Yet my calculation, its just using an exponential calculation which takes in account of the Gravitational Constant, timings, distance, the Fine structure constant and Pi (3.14 as a geometric). Can I be right if light has been bent and just from the Sun there is a tiny lag to earth of about .12 seconds and that distance is 0.000015 light years? What about tiny black holes scattered about the universe and is there more lag related events along the way for light from source to destination? Read this:

Planet Nine could be a grapefruit-sized black hole, say astrophysicists. ... These as-yet-unseen black holes are thought to have formed a fraction of a second after the Big Bang. If Planet Nine was such an entity, it would be about the size of a grapefruit, with a mass of five to ten times that of Earth.
I believe there is so much mass at different distances from stars like massive black holes to space dust and all of that mass bends the light minutely or to a greater degree along the way from its source. Now my python program will show greater light distance delays compared to gravity waves which are sourced at greater distances. The big question is my lag time correct? What is for real is that my python calculation for a gravity geometric is unique and regarding how much you search the net there is no other calculation which compared lights lag to gravity waves for lag time. To me when light leaves Betelgeuse sure it speed is at 299,792,458 m/s; however, mass from every direction affects it until it arrives at earth adding time to final arrival compared to a gravity wave.

I have great news for an accurate calculation of the diameter of Betelgeuse from the Calculation of the Great Pyramid Khufu and Absolute magnitude of a star. The diameter from the Great Pyramid calculations achieve a perfect Absolute Magnitude Calculation to obtain 535 light years. Click on the images below and read the information explaining how Absolute Magnitude would affect light years of that number 535 if different.


Khufu Pyramid Encodes Betelgeuse Distance, Age & Diameter

8 sides of Khufu x .4572 meters equivalent to the cubit x 146.5 original Height in meters of Khufu = 535.8384 light years

8 sides of Khufu x .4572 meters equivalent to the cubit x 2,300,000 Khufu blocks = 8,412,480 years

8 sides of Khufu x .4572 meters equivalent to the cubit x 146.5 original Height in meters of Khufu x 2,300,000 Khufu blocks = 1,232,428,320 km Diameter of Betelgeuse








As you can see the Ancient Egyptians or ET new their stellar figures as evidence in Absolute Magnitude of Betelgeuse from it Diameter.
 
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Jul 4, 2021
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I wonder, is there any evidence that their analysis was based on their own interpretation of spectroscopy?
If you could discover somewhere, amongst the vast collection of hieroglyphics that must be strewn about, how incredible it would be. To claim that it would be the most important archeological discovery of all time, would be the 'poster child' understatement of all time.
 
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