Black holes may have existed since the beginning of time (and could explain dark matter mystery)


Oct 22, 2019
There are a number of reports published now on PBH and explaining issues like DM. Here is another example., "How did supermassive black holes form? What is dark matter? In an alternative model for how the universe came to be, as compared to the 'textbook' history of the universe, a team of astronomers propose that both of these cosmic mysteries could be explained by so-called "primordial black holes."

My note. This is an important statement about the origin of BHs in physics. SMBH are difficult to explain using the BB model age for the universe, some 13.8 billion years old. "Black holes of different sizes are still a mystery. We don't understand how supermassive black holes could have grown so huge in the relatively short time available since the universe existed," explains Günther Hasinger. At the other end of the scale, there might also be very small black holes, as suggested by observations from ESA's Gaia, for example. If they exist, they are too small to have formed from dying stars."

Reference paper, Exploring the high-redshift PBH-ΛCDM Universe: early black hole seeding, the first stars and cosmic radiation backgrounds,, 17-Sep-2021. "We explore the observational implications of a model in which primordial black holes (PBHs) with a broad birth mass function ranging in mass from a fraction of a solar mass to ∼10^6 M⊙, consistent with current observational limits, constitute the dark matter component in the Universe."

My observation. Using this cosmology calculator,, I can calculate quickly properties for the universe for z=20 values. The age of the universe is 1.81E+8 years old since the BB event. The light time distance is 13.541 Gyr, the comoving radial distance is 35.858 Gly, thus any object at z=20 is moving away in 3D space much faster than c velocity. 3D space expansion speed ~ 7.6 x 10^10 cm/s or much faster than c velocity. The angular size distance when the postulated PBH formed at z=20, 1.7075 Gly radius. The universe diameter 3.415E+9 ly compared to present size in BB model, 93 billion light years or so because CMBR z ~ 1100 today. Explaining the origin of SMBH is difficult, confirming by independent measurement that objects with z=20 are traveling away in 3D space, expanding much faster than c is difficult, and confirming objects with z=20 formed in a universe about 3.4 billion light years in diameter compared to present size, is difficult. Consider that the cosmology calculators show the universe about 80-82 million light years in diameter when the CMBR freely traveled in space as the universe expanded and we see the CMBR today redshifted by about 1100 or so with a temperature near 3K in cosmology. The CMBR redshift today of 1100 is not a direct spectroscopic redshift measurement like we have for galaxies or some Type 1a SN.
Aug 14, 2020
Were you to put it all into present tense constants, Cosmological Constants '1' and/or '0', rather than past tense absolute (make it the universe 'forms' rather than 'formed'), a great many problems would probably simply vanish as never having been problems in the first place. For one thing, the universe would all of a sudden have unobserved depths of ever renewing universes pushing up out of the depths of space and time, so to speak, to replace the observed surface-layer-singularity of 1-, at most 2-, dimensional "flatland universe" (therefore, the vast majority portion of the universes is that they are always incredibly young and youthful (blackholes always existing from primordial beginning time to end time of last bit of old . . . yet another universal constant (this one an automatic entity, constant, having to do with transition)). The older universe, all universes evolved too complex to continue, going back, fading back, collapsing back, faster than the speed of light returning to the ever energetic primordial wild from whence it, they, always are emerging and evolving in complexity and chaos from.

For all the infinity of universes broad and potentially available to us, that depth is probably not available to us, at least not travel or occupy. We are probably not of that dimensional depth for purposes of occupation. That universality of outpouring rise of youthful depth and mass-energy is in a league with the universality of in-pouring blackholes. The totality of mass-energy averages to '0' (the total, at once average, of positive (+) and negative (-) mass-energy).

It's a Multiverse Universe.
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