**General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology**
[Submitted on 31 Aug 2020 (

v1), last revised 7 Sep 2020 (this version, v2)]

**Photon spheres, ISCOs, and OSCOs: Astrophysical observables for regular black holes with asymptotically Minkowski cores**
Thomas Berry (Victoria University of Wellington),

Alex Simpson (Victoria University of Wellington),

Matt Visser (Victoria University of Wellington)

Classical black holes contain a singularity at their core. This has prompted various researchers to propose a multitude of modified spacetimes that mimic the physically observable characteristics of classical black holes as best as possible, but that crucially do not contain singularities at their cores. Due to recent advances in near-horizon astronomy, the ability to observationally distinguish between a classical black hole and a potential black hole mimicker is becoming increasingly feasible. Herein, we calculate some physically observable quantities for a recently proposed regular black hole with an asymptotically Minkowski core -- the radius of the photon sphere and the extremal stable timelike circular orbit (ESCO). The manner in which the photon sphere and ESCO relate to the presence (or absence) of horizons is much more complex than for the Schwarzschild black hole. We find situations in which photon spheres can approach arbitrarily close to (near extremal) horizons, situations in which some photon spheres become stable, and situations in which the locations of both photon spheres and ESCOs become multi-valued, with both ISCOs (innermost stable circular orbits) and OSCOs (outermost stable circular orbits). This provides an extremely rich phenomenology of potential astrophysical interest.

Comments: | V1: 24 pages. 6 figures. V2: Two references added; one reference updated; no physics changes |

Subjects: | General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc) |

Cite as: | arXiv:2008.13308 [gr-qc] |

| (or arXiv:2008.13308v2 [gr-qc] for this version) |

The more research is done the closer we get to explaining the functioning of the Condensate that many Call Black Holes as Classical Black Holes with a singularity term that has been very difficult to explain.

Mimic Black Hole has no singularity, but a Trensient Condensate Core that is able to generate a Dipolar Electromagnetic Vector Force Fields that produce dipolar vortices expelling matter at close to the speed of light and perpendicular to it attract all matter and prevent EMR from escaping, thus mimic a Black Hole without a Singularity.