Dipolar Electromagetic Condensate

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Apr 13, 2021
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What is causing the Expansion?
What is causing the Cntraction?

Why has the Sun long Life?
How do spiral galaxies form?
How does an hour glass nebulae form?
 
Aug 23, 2021
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Where is the expansion?
Where is the contraction?
IMHO the Universe is expanding outwards at an increasing rate as evidenced by galaxies moving away from each other. Some researchers suggest this expansion may end in just 100 million years and a big crunch will take place where the universe will start contracting on itself. I keep an open mind.
T.A.
 
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What evidence is there that proves the universe is expanding?

All evidence shows that the parts in the universe are clustering.

We do see parts of the universe expanding caused by dipole vector fields from extreme condensates.
We also see perpendicular to these vector fields contraction to the core of the condensates.
 

Catastrophe

"There never was a good war, or a bad peace."
nature abhors a vacuum
Is this simply a matter of any volatile substances present moving, providing they are above absolute zero?

I have in mind 4 helium atoms stationary on an inner surface of an otherwise empty box. Providing the temperature is above 0K they will move and, hey presto, you have a gas at very low pressure. What if the atoms had been attracted to the surface?

Then, even if the 4 helium atoms remained stationary, would you have had a vacuum? And, what if you had 4 non volatile atoms, say gold, in the box - would you have had a vacuum? Would it depend on the temperature?

Cat :)
 
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What is the force that creates expansion and contraction

We notice these forces in images such as
Hour glass from stars
Galaxy dipolar jets such as M87

The power that can generate such dipolar jets can be explained by Transients of Condensates that have core s such as Neutron, Quark, Partonic matter and so on

Expansion along the jet stream
Compaction of incoming matter to the core
These are supported by images
 
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Dipolar jets are common in the cases of neutron stars and black holes that have abundant infalling material to feed off of. Their high level of gravity draws in material from all directions and as it infalls it gets crowded and very high pressures are generated. Conservation of angular momentum creates rapid rotation of the infalling material. Being heated to high temperatures, lots of the gas is ionized thus is electrically conductive. Very high magnetic fields are generated. The fields are generally bipolar and aligned with the spin axis. It is difficult for a charged particle to cross a magnetic field line, thus the only exit from the pressure cooker is via both poles. Thus bipolar jets.
 
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Scientists around the world are trying to explain how expansion maybe driven

Cosmic acceleration driven by dark matter self-interactions
A. Kazım Çamlıbel
We explore a Gedanken-model for cosmic evolution, where dark matter is strongly self-interacting and stays in a plasma state until late stages. After decoupling, it condensates to super-structures with cosmic voids similar to the current picture of the universe. With the help of the equation of state of dry foam (equivalently a fluid with voids in it) from fluid mechanics, it is possible to show that tension within these cosmic walls due to their binding interaction may cause an accelerated expansion in the absence of dark energy. Furthermore, we give a cosmological analysis of this scenario with a semi-phenomenological ansatz, where we use recent Type Ia supernova compilation.
 
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[Submitted on 18 Aug 2022]
The Photon Ring in M87*
Avery E. Broderick, Dominic W. Pesce, Paul Tiede, Hung-Yi Pu, Roman Gold, Richard Anantua, Silke Britzen, Chiara Ceccobello, Koushik Chatterjee, Yongjun Chen, Nicholas S. Conroy, Geoffrey B. Crew, Alejandro Cruz-Osorio, Yuzhu Cui, Sheperd S. Doeleman, Razieh Emami, Joseph Farah, Christian M. Fromm, Peter Galison, Boris Georgiev, Luis C. Ho, David J. James, Britton Jeter, Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales, Jun Yi Koay, Carsten Kramer, Thomas P. Krichbaum, Sang-Sung Lee, Michael Lindqvist, Ivan Martí-Vidal, Karl M. Menten, Yosuke Mizuno, James M. Moran, Monika Moscibrodzka, Antonios Nathanail, Joey Neilsen, Chunchong Ni, Jongho Park, Vincent Pietu, Luciano Rezzolla, Angelo Ricarte, Bart Ripperda, Lijing Shao, Fumie Tazaki, Kenji Toma, Pablo Torne, Jonathan Weintroub, Maciek Wielgus, Feng Yuan, Shan-Shan Zhao, Shuo Zhang
We report measurements of the gravitationally lensed secondary image -- the first in an infinite series of so-called "photon rings" -- around the supermassive black hole M87* via simultaneous modeling and imaging of the 2017 Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations. The inferred ring size remains constant across the seven days of the 2017 EHT observing campaign and is consistent with theoretical expectations, providing clear evidence that such measurements probe spacetime and a striking confirmation of the models underlying the first set of EHT results. The residual diffuse emission evolves on timescales comparable to one week. We are able to detect with high significance a southwestern extension consistent with that expected from the base of a jet that is rapidly rotating in the clockwise direction. This result adds further support to the identification of the jet in M87* with a black hole spin-driven outflow, launched via the Blandford-Znajek process. We present three revised estimates for the mass of M87* based on identifying the modeled thin ring component with the bright ringlike features seen in simulated images, one of which is only weakly sensitive to the astrophysics of the emission region. All three estimates agree with each other and previously reported values. Our strongest mass constraint combines information from both the ring and the diffuse emission region, which together imply a mass-to-distance ratio of 4.20+0.12−0.06 μas and a corresponding black hole mass of(7.13±0.39)×109M⊙, where the error on the latter is now dominated by the systematic uncertainty arising from the uncertain distance to M87*.
Imagine the core of M87 being 0ver 7 billion solar masses and trillions of stars in the galactic envelope
Within the dipolar jets there exists billions of stars
Years gone by
Scientists thought that the spinning of the disc created the jets
No longer is the answer
The core that cannot not be seen regardless of images thought to be an image of the Black Hole
Is responsible for the dipolar jets ejecting matter into the envelope.
Black Holes without a singularity are condensates that mimic black hole properties and can be explained by quantum physics.
 

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