Robert Senger, you are to be commended for your tenacity, but I think you need to check some of the practicality. You talk about the great mass of the iss - then how easy it would be to move it.
Much of what you say might work well, but you seem to assume that the impactor and ISS would be within easy reach. What if the impactor is coming from a polar direction? This would be quite possible for a large comet.
The main issue is the amount of fuel/energy versus the mass of the impactor, and the time available. On the one hand, there is talk about seeing it months, or even years, ahead. Then we hear about potential impactors whizzing by, unseen until after they have gone. OK, I accept that if it can be seen way ahead, it would be very large. But if too large, we would probably be powerless to stop it. And those whizzing by unseen would be relatively small - but in between these extremes there is a wide spectrum.
There is a great deal of misunderstanding, imho, in this area. You have a few options, which may be double-edged. Painting one side black and one side white would use up a lot of energy getting there and back (assuming the object is seen well ahead). What if uneven shape causes tumbling
when it might be driven nearer? Physically attaching chains and towing away assumes the process is easy. Of course, it all depends on the size of the impactor. Calculate the mass of the chains et cetera and the energy to get them out there. Then attacking with nuclear bombs is double-edged. You might create a dozen fragments which cause more damage than one. Maybe create impactors out of an object which might have just skimmed by. Also many potential impactors consist of loose bound aggregations. Bombing might have very little effect. This is particularly the case if the bombing is intended to change direction of the impactor - it won't.
It all comes down to how much energy is available (in terms of fuel, bombs, et cetera) and the time available. I laugh when I hear about plodding off to paint asteroids approaching at a zillion miles a second (OK, you get the point).