I have a few questions, and if you could take the time, a response would be greatly appreciated. I am a high school stundent and I have studied basic physics, but never any astronomy or cosmology. Independently I have read some Hawking, Greene, and Dyson and a few others.<br /><br />So please forgive me if my questions are bogus, I have not been formally educated in the subject.<br /> <br />My first question is, are stats and galaxies being formed continually by the universe? Is any matter being created? Can matter be created on its own? I have read somewhere that occasionally traces of particles and antiparticles are discovered by physicists on occasion. Is this true? And would this be evidence of an open system universe?<br /> <br />Secondly, I have read that the universe is expanding at a speed greater than light. Even if it is not expanding at light speed, isn't expansion a kind or work? What I am asking is that would it be possible in the distant future for an advanced people to harness this power in some way, this creating more work from nothing (or something), thus delaying heat deat?<br /> <br />Thank you for taking the time to answer these questions.