The Hubble Tension implies that our current models of the universe might be incomplete. It could indicate new physics beyond the standard model of cosmology, necessitate a reevaluation of dark energy or dark matter, or require adjustments to our understanding of the early universe’s physics. Resolving this tension is crucial for a more accurate model of the universe’s expansion and history.

The two values are approximate:

- From Cosmic Background Data: about 67 km/second/megaparsec
- From 1a Supernova data: around 73 km/second/megaparsec

**of our observable universe (or possibly the whole universe, or both). In my most favoured model, the Big Bang lies at the centre of a Hyperball and not on the Hypersphere of our universe.**

__increasing the radius__The Hubble Constant is defined by how much the universe expands - in kilometres - for each passing second, for each megaparsec of distance.

An important factor is to decide how big the universe is. In determining the total expansion of the universe in one second we have to compare that with the size of the universe. A variation in size will vary the Hubble Constant value.

My calculations suggest a value for size approaching 87 billion light years. The standard theory calculated is 93 billion light years. This is a clue to consider.

I will take you through the arithmetic below to enable you to check my assertion. Appreciate that 1 second and 299792.5 kilometres are interchangeable units of measure on a cosmic scale. The meter is defined as the distance light in a vacuum will travel in one second. This is solid physics.

The arithmetic:

The assumption is that the universe is an n-sphere. The distance of the circumference of the n-sphere is the usual C= 2 (Pi)r.

- 1 second = 299792.5km = the increase of the radius (time) of the universe in one second= 1884409.736km/second
- Age of the universe, say, 13.8 billion years. Using Light years for distance the radius is 13.8 billion light years
- The circumference was then calculated at 86,742,857,142 lightyears.
- A megaparsec is 3,261,563.8 light-years
- The Circumference is 26595.5 megaparsecs (86742857142 / 326563.8)
- The universe then, expands by1884409.736km per second distributed over 26595.5 megaparsecs
- The Hubble Constant then, is1884409.736km per second divided by 26595 megaparsecs
- 70.854 km per second per mega parsec
- Hubble Constant 71

It is asserted that the diameter of the universe is 93 billion light-years. This is if you can see across the universe. However, this is the 'killer remark', if the universe is a hypersphere rather than a Euclidian space then to be able to see as far as possible you would look around the circumference. It would not be possible to look across the hypersphere diameter as that is outside our universe.

So to decide the Hubble Constant if our universe was a hypersphere with a circumference of 93 billion light years we derive a Hubble Constant of 66.09 which is close to the Hubble for data from the Cmb (67). Data from 1a supernova gives the HC at 73 ish (Close to our 71).

The crucial difference is that the intervening data from 1a supernova is stars have a speed in space. The CMB is free of any dilation effects consistent with Special Relativity. I rely here on the notion that there can be considered an "Absolute Stationary" simply by averaging the movement of all stars/mass. Or perhaps in a thought experiment that since the Big Bang a star marker never experienced any for acting to produce a speed through space.

I

__t would appear then that the correct Hubble Constant is 67.__