Indians predated Newton

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alokmohan

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A little known school of scholars in southwest India discovered one of the founding principles of modern mathematics hundreds of years before Newton according to new research. <br />Dr George Gheverghese Joseph from The University of Manchester says the 'Kerala School' identified the 'infinite series'- one of the basic components of calculus - in about 1350. <br /><br />The discovery is currently - and wrongly - attributed in books to Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibnitz at the end of the seventeenth centuries. <br /><br />The team from the Universities of Manchester and Exeter reveal the Kerala School also discovered what amounted to the Pi series and used it to calculate Pi correct to 9, 10 and later 17 decimal places. <br /><br />And there is strong circumstantial evidence that the Indians passed on their discoveries to mathematically knowledgeable Jesuit missionaries who visited India during the fifteenth century. <br /><br />That knowledge, they argue, may have eventually been passed on to Newton himself. <br /><br />Dr Joseph made the revelations while trawling through obscure Indian papers for a yet to be published third edition of his best selling book 'The Crest of the Peacock: the Non-European Roots of Mathematics' by Princeton University Press. <br /><br />He said: "The beginnings of modern maths is usually seen as a European achievement but the discoveries in medieval India between the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries have been ignored or forgotten. <br /><br />"The brilliance of Newton's work at the end of the seventeenth century stands undiminished - especially when it came to the algorithms of calculus. <br /><br />"But other names from the Kerala School, notably Madhava and Nilakantha, should stand shoulder to shoulder with him as they discovered the other great component of calculus- infinite series. <br /><br />"There were many reasons why the contribution of the Kerala school has not been acknowledged - a prime reason is neglect of scientific ideas emanating fr
 
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nexium

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We frequently find that the person credited with each advancement stood on the shoulders of great ones that came before. Likely the antients were smarter than we give them credit. Even today some brilliant ideas are being discredited instead of tested. Of course most of the stuff that is being discredited is of little or no value, but we are missing out on an occasional gem. Neil
 
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3488

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The ancients were far smarter than we give them credit for.<br /><br />So this comes as no surprise to me at all.<br /><br />Thank you for starting this thread.<br /><br />Andrew Brown.<br /> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font color="#000080">"I suddenly noticed an anomaly to the left of Io, just off the rim of that world. It was extremely large with respect to the overall size of Io and crescent shaped. It seemed unbelievable that something that big had not been visible before".</font> <em><strong><font color="#000000">Linda Morabito </font></strong><font color="#800000">on discovering that the Jupiter moon Io was volcanically active. Friday 9th March 1979.</font></em></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://www.launchphotography.com/</font><br /><br /><font size="1" color="#000080">http://anthmartian.googlepages.com/thisislandearth</font></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://web.me.com/meridianijournal</font></p> </div>
 
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fatal291

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History makes it sound like one man, and one man alone discovered such things. We can do even better if we stopped killing each other.
 
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mithridates

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I've always wondered how many other Tolkiens, Lewises (C.S. Lewis that is) and countless others we lost during WWI and II, as well as the number of Srinivasa Ramanujans in the world right this instant that remain undiscovered due to poverty and a lack of opportunity. Things really seem to be improving recently though (by which I mean the past three years). <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p>----- </p><p>http://mithridates.blogspot.com</p> </div>
 
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alokmohan

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Indian scientists did not keep records properly.This hampers working of Historians of science.
 
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3488

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Hi alokmohan,<br /><br />That may be so, but still does not detract from the fact, that they were amazingly clever <br />people MANY Centuries ahead of their time.<br /><br />The Indian people are not stupid today either. You yourself are ample proof of that.<br /><br />Your country & your people are on the rise & that is because your people are well educated,<br />work hard & are naturally very clever.<br /><br />As I said before, I would not rule out the first human being on Mars being someone from India or<br />China.<br /><br />So no worries alokmohan.<br /><br />Andrew Brown. <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font color="#000080">"I suddenly noticed an anomaly to the left of Io, just off the rim of that world. It was extremely large with respect to the overall size of Io and crescent shaped. It seemed unbelievable that something that big had not been visible before".</font> <em><strong><font color="#000000">Linda Morabito </font></strong><font color="#800000">on discovering that the Jupiter moon Io was volcanically active. Friday 9th March 1979.</font></em></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://www.launchphotography.com/</font><br /><br /><font size="1" color="#000080">http://anthmartian.googlepages.com/thisislandearth</font></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://web.me.com/meridianijournal</font></p> </div>
 
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weeman

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I agree with 3488. The ancients achieved a ton in science and astronomy. For example, in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico there's a large spiral carved in stone, with large stones stacked on end to one side, which sits on top of a large butte. The spiral is an ancient calender, marking exactly the time of each solar and lunar solstice.<br /><br />http://garygordonproductions.com/chaco2.html<br /><br /><font color="yellow"> On the lighter, and much more interesting side, recent discoveries strongly indicate that not only was the dagger a calendar, but the whole place may be a calendar. On a recently aired documentary, several archaeologists and other scientists pointed out many, many examples of how the ruins themselves were aligned in a specific way, so as to line of with the arc of the sun and moon on key dates, at important times of year. </font><br /><br />It goes to show that ancient tribes, even several thousand years ago could have easily had advancements in astronomy and science that would rival modern day theories.<br /><br /> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p> </p><p><strong><font color="#ff0000">Techies: We do it in the dark. </font></strong></p><p><font color="#0000ff"><strong>"Put your hand on a stove for a minute and it seems like an hour. Sit with that special girl for an hour and it seems like a minute. That's relativity.</strong><strong>" -Albert Einstein </strong></font></p> </div>
 
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3488

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I really do not doubt you at all alokmohan.<br /><br />I wonder if India & China could pool their resources?<br /><br />The thing is, I have never been to India, but have to China twice, but do know Indian people.<br /><br />The thing that struck me is how clever they are without exception. You are proof of that<br />alokmohan, English is not your first language, yet there are no problems reading your posts.<br /><br />In fact your English is a lot better than many British peoples IMO.<br /><br />I am not surprised you started this thread, because I know it to be true.<br /><br />Andrew Brown. <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font color="#000080">"I suddenly noticed an anomaly to the left of Io, just off the rim of that world. It was extremely large with respect to the overall size of Io and crescent shaped. It seemed unbelievable that something that big had not been visible before".</font> <em><strong><font color="#000000">Linda Morabito </font></strong><font color="#800000">on discovering that the Jupiter moon Io was volcanically active. Friday 9th March 1979.</font></em></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://www.launchphotography.com/</font><br /><br /><font size="1" color="#000080">http://anthmartian.googlepages.com/thisislandearth</font></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://web.me.com/meridianijournal</font></p> </div>
 
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