Juno Mission to Jupiter

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MeteorWayne

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<p>I know it's early, but...</p><p><span class="bold">NASA Prepares for New Juno Mission to Jupiter</span></p><p>WASHINGTON -- <strong>NASA is officially moving forward on a mission to conduct an unprecedented, in-depth study of Jupiter. <br /></strong><br />Called Juno, the mission will be the first in which a spacecraft is placed in a highly elliptical polar orbit around the giant planet to understand its formation, evolution and structure. Underneath its dense cloud cover, Jupiter safeguards secrets to the fundamental processes and conditions that governed our early solar system. <br /><br />"Jupiter is the archetype of giant planets in our solar system and formed very early, capturing most of the material left after the sun formed," said Scott Bolton, Juno principal investigator from the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. "Unlike Earth, Jupiter's giant mass allowed it to hold onto its original composition, providing us with a way of tracing our solar system's history." <br /><br />The spacecraft is scheduled to launch aboard an Atlas rocket from Cape Canaveral, Fla., in August 2011, reaching Jupiter in 2016. The spacecraft will orbit Jupiter 32 times, skimming about 3,000 miles over the planet's cloud tops for approximately one year. The mission will be the first solar powered spacecraft designed to operate despite the great distance from the sun. <br /><br />"Jupiter is more than 400 million miles from the sun or five times further than Earth," Bolton said. "Juno is engineered to be extremely energy efficient." <br /><br />The spacecraft will use a camera and nine science instruments to study the hidden world beneath Jupiter's colorful clouds. The suite of science instruments will investigate the existence of an ice-rock core, Jupiter's intense magnetic field, water and ammonia clouds in the deep atmosphere, and explore the planet's aurora borealis. <br /><br />"In Greek and Roman mythology, Jupiter's wife Juno peered through Jupiter's veil of clouds to watch over her husband's mischief," said Professor Toby Owen, co-investigator at the University of Hawaii in Honolulu. "Our Juno looks through Jupiter's clouds to see what the planet is up to, not seeking signs of misbehavior, but searching for whispers of water, the ultimate essence of life." <br /><br />Understanding the formation of Jupiter is essential to understanding the processes that led to the development of the rest of our solar system and what the conditions were that led to Earth and humankind. Similar to the sun, Jupiter is composed mostly of hydrogen and helium. A small percentage of the planet is composed of heavier elements. However, Jupiter has a larger percentage of these heavier elements than the sun. <br /><br />"Juno's extraordinarily accurate determination of the gravity and magnetic fields of Jupiter will enable us to understand what is going on deep down in the planet," said Professor Dave Stevenson, co-investigator at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. "These and other measurements will inform us about how Jupiter's constituents are distributed, how Jupiter formed and how it evolved, which is a central part of our growing understanding of the nature of our solar system." <br /><br />Deep in Jupiter's atmosphere, under great pressure, hydrogen gas is squeezed into a fluid known as metallic hydrogen. At these great depths, the hydrogen acts like an electrically conducting metal which is believed to be the source of the planet's intense magnetic field. Jupiter also may have a rocky solid core at the center. <br /><br />"Juno gives us a fantastic opportunity to get a picture of the structure of Jupiter in a way never before possible," said James Green, director of NASA's Planetary Division at NASA Headquarters in Washington. "It will allow us to take a giant step forward in our understanding on how giant planets form and the role that plays in putting the rest of the solar system together. " <br /><br />The Juno mission is the second spacecraft designed under NASA's New Frontiers Program. The first was the Pluto New Horizons mission, launched in January 2006 and scheduled to reach Pluto's moon Charon in 2015. The program provides opportunities to carry out several medium-class missions identified as top priority objectives in the Decadal Solar System Exploration Survey, conducted by the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council in Washington. <br /><br />NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Juno mission. Lockheed Martin of Denver is building the spacecraft. The Italian Space Agency is contributing an infrared spectrometer instrument and a portion of the radio science experiment. <br /><br />For more information about the Juno mission, visit: <br /></p><p align="center">http://juno.nasa.gov </p><p><br /></p> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font color="#000080"><em><font color="#000000">But the Krell forgot one thing John. Monsters. Monsters from the Id.</font></em> </font></p><p><font color="#000080">I really, really, really, really miss the "first unread post" function</font><font color="#000080"> </font></p> </div>
 
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3488

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<p><font size="2"><strong>Thanks Wayne,</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Perijove, not far above Jupiter's Ionosphere, will reveal so much about the internal mass concentration of Jupiter & will certainly help in determining whether or not Jupiter has a 'core' or not.</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>JUNO CAM should image the thunderstorms to great effect & the high resolution magnetic data will also help in understanding how the conductive Metallic Hydrogen reacts with any 'core' or if the Metallic Hydrogen IS the core. </strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>This will really tell if Jupiter indeed formed as a giant planet or was on the way to becoming an embryonic star, but stopped at 318 Earth masses, keeping Jove within planethood.&nbsp;</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Solar Power at this distance is a challenge. Sunlight at Jupiter is approx 1/25th as strong as from Earth or 52.8 Watts per square metre.&nbsp; </strong></font></p><p><strong><font size="2">Rather than Jupiter atmospheric entry at end of mission, I wonder if an impact on Io is possible, with the JUNO CAM streaming back images & other instruments on live during approach, as NEAR SHOEMAKER did with asteroid 433 Eros or Deep Impact with Comet 9P/ Tempel 1?&nbsp;</font></strong></p><p><font size="2"><strong>A couple of videos here.</strong></font></p><p><font size="4">JUNO Cruise 4' 47".</font>&nbsp;</p><p><font size="4">JUNO simulation of Launch & Jupiter arrival 3' 32". </font>&nbsp;</p><p><strong><font size="2">I will try & go to the launch, but see how money & time goes first.&nbsp;</font></strong></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Andrew Brown.&nbsp;</strong></font></p> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font color="#000080">"I suddenly noticed an anomaly to the left of Io, just off the rim of that world. It was extremely large with respect to the overall size of Io and crescent shaped. It seemed unbelievable that something that big had not been visible before".</font> <em><strong><font color="#000000">Linda Morabito </font></strong><font color="#800000">on discovering that the Jupiter moon Io was volcanically active. Friday 9th March 1979.</font></em></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://www.launchphotography.com/</font><br /><br /><font size="1" color="#000080">http://anthmartian.googlepages.com/thisislandearth</font></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://web.me.com/meridianijournal</font></p> </div>
 
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Boris_Badenov

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<font size="2">Trade offs suck. This mission could be so much more informative if it were to utilize a JIMO type power system. I have the highest of hopes for the VSE, but to get it started we have given up even more.</font> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <font color="#993300"><span class="body"><font size="2" color="#3366ff"><div align="center">. </div><div align="center">Never roll in the mud with a pig. You'll both get dirty & the pig likes it.</div></font></span></font> </div>
 
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JonClarke

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<p><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>Trade offs suck. This mission could be so much more informative if it were to utilize a JIMO type power system. I have the highest of hopes for the VSE, but to get it started we have given up even more. <br />Posted by boris1961</DIV></p><p>Juno is not JIMO, it is an entirely different mission with respect to objectives and technology.&nbsp; You can't compare the two.</p><p>Jon<br /></p> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><em>Whether we become a multi-planet species with unlimited horizons, or are forever confined to Earth will be decided in the twenty-first century amid the vast plains, rugged canyons and lofty mountains of Mars</em>  Arthur Clarke</p> </div>
 
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MeteorWayne

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Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>Trade offs suck. This mission could be so much more informative if it were to utilize a JIMO type power system. I have the highest of hopes for the VSE, but to get it started we have given up even more. <br />Posted by boris1961</DIV><br /><br />Trade offs are however reality. There are always hundreds of them in any mission. If you had unlimited money, then they wouldn't be needed. But there is only a very small budget being stretched as far as it can to accomplish many missions. <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font color="#000080"><em><font color="#000000">But the Krell forgot one thing John. Monsters. Monsters from the Id.</font></em> </font></p><p><font color="#000080">I really, really, really, really miss the "first unread post" function</font><font color="#000080"> </font></p> </div>
 
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JonClarke

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I am not sure what trade off's Boris is complaining about. <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><em>Whether we become a multi-planet species with unlimited horizons, or are forever confined to Earth will be decided in the twenty-first century amid the vast plains, rugged canyons and lofty mountains of Mars</em>  Arthur Clarke</p> </div>
 
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efron_24

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<p>It is about time the Arabic countries stop&nbsp; builing bizar high rise buildings and donate 1.000.000.000's of euro's to ESA or NASA.</p><p>&nbsp;2016 I would be 50 !!! that is insane. </p><p>We need to speed things up</p> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> </div>
 
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rybanis

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I am excited by this mission, and I think its never too early to start a thread... <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> </div>
 
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brandbll

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Whatever happened to a mission to Europa? <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font size="3">You wanna talk some jive? I'll talk some jive. I'll talk some jive like you've never heard!</font></p> </div>
 
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centsworth_II

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<font color="#333399"><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>Whatever happened to a mission to Europa? <br /> Posted by brandbll</DIV><br /></font>Europa will be a very expensive mission (Juno is a relatively inexpensive mission), and since the time that Europa was assumed to be the next big mission to the outer planets, Titan has wowed us with its rich mysteries.&nbsp; I think a decision amongst the scientific community on whether to make the next big mission one to Europa, or to Titan is coming up in the next couple months. <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> </div>
 
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nimbus

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So Enceladus and its possible liquid water volume isn't considered? <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> </div>
 
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centsworth_II

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<font color="#333399"><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>So Enceladus and its possible liquid water volume isn't considered? <br /> Posted by nimbus</DIV></font><br />It's possible that a Titan mission would also include study of Enceladus. <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> </div>
 
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3488

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<p><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'><font color="#ff0000">It's possible that a Titan mission would also include study of Enceladus. <br /> Posted by centsworth_II</font></DIV></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Hi centsworth_II.</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Yes I understand that to be a possibilty. It would make sense. Also perhaps Dione & Iapetus could also be encountered, although Titan & Enceladus would be primary.&nbsp;</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Back on topic with JUNO, I would fnd it absolutely ridiculous & scandalous if Io & Europa observations were not roped in, when well placed. JUNO will be in a polar Jovecentric, highly eccentric orbit & certainly due to their short orbital periods, Io & Europa should both be in JUNO's vicinity at times. </strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>They would make for a fascinating secondary mission.<br /></strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Andrew Brown.&nbsp;</strong></font></p> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font color="#000080">"I suddenly noticed an anomaly to the left of Io, just off the rim of that world. It was extremely large with respect to the overall size of Io and crescent shaped. It seemed unbelievable that something that big had not been visible before".</font> <em><strong><font color="#000000">Linda Morabito </font></strong><font color="#800000">on discovering that the Jupiter moon Io was volcanically active. Friday 9th March 1979.</font></em></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://www.launchphotography.com/</font><br /><br /><font size="1" color="#000080">http://anthmartian.googlepages.com/thisislandearth</font></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://web.me.com/meridianijournal</font></p> </div>
 
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phaze

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Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>It is about time the Arabic countries stop&nbsp; builing bizar high rise buildings and donate 1.000.000.000's of euro's to ESA or NASA.&nbsp;2016 I would be 50 !!! that is insane. We need to speed things up <br />Posted by efron_24</DIV><br /><br />Seriously.&nbsp; Can't we work out some deal to include a Saudi astronaut or something for a Mars mission?&nbsp;
 
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MeteorWayne

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This launch does have a firm launch date:

Date: Aug. 5
Mission: Juno
Launch Vehicle: United Launch Alliance Atlas V
Launch Site: Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla.
Description: The solar-powered Juno spacecraft is to orbit Jupiter's poles 33 times to find out more about the gas giant's origins, structure, atmosphere and magnetosphere
 
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3488

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Thanks Wayne,

Will be one hell of a mission. JUNO will precess around Jupiter, sampling the magnetosphere, taking gravity measurements & imaging Jupiter from almost every possible angle.

[youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z-7tCaR4u2k[/youtube]

[youtube]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L6Eoxn-1Pf8[/youtube]

Andrew Brown.
 
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EarthlingX

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http://www.jpl.nasa.gov : NASA Goddard Delivers Magnetometers for Juno Mission
October 27, 2010


NASA's Juno spacecraft passes in front of Jupiter in this artist's depiction. Juno, the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program, will improve our understanding of the solar system by advancing studies of the origin and evolution of Jupiter. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Magnetometers developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., for the Juno mission to Jupiter were delivered recently to Lockheed Martin in Denver. Designed and built by an in-house team of Goddard scientists, engineers and technicians, these instruments will map the planet's magnetic field with great accuracy and observe its variations over time. Each of the two vector magnetometers carries with it a pair of non-magnetic star cameras to determine its orientation in space with commensurate accuracy. These were designed and built by a team led by John Jorgensen at the Danish Technical University in Copenhagen, Denmark.

"Juno's magnetometers will measure Jupiter's magnetic field with extraordinary precision and give us a detailed picture of what the field looks like, both around the planet and deep within," says Goddard's Jack Connerney, the mission's deputy principal investigator and head of the magnetometer team. "This will be the first time we've mapped the magnetic field all around Jupiter-it will be the most complete map of its kind ever obtained about any planet with an active dynamo, except, of course, our Earth."

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Juno mission for NASA. Scheduled for launch in 2011, Juno is the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. The mission will improve our understanding of the solar system by advancing studies of the origin and evolution of Jupiter. The spacecraft will carry nine instruments to investigate the existence of a solid planetary core, map Jupiter's intense magnetic field, measure the amount of water and ammonia in the deep atmosphere, and observe the planet's auroras.

"The magnetometers play a unique and important role in Juno's investigation of the formation and evolution of Jupiter," says Juno's principal investigator, Scott Bolton of Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. "They provide one of the ways that Juno will see deep inside the giant planet, and this will help us understand how and where Jupiter's powerful magnetic field is generated."

The Juno magnetometers will study Jupiter's powerful magnetic field, which is nearly 20,000 times as strong as Earth's. The field is generated deep within the planet's atmosphere, where the intense pressure compresses hydrogen gas into an electrically conductive fluid. Fluid motion within the planet drives electric currents in this liquid hydrogen, and these currents generate the magnetic field. If a map were drawn of the magnetic field lines running between Jupiter's north and south poles, the region of space filled by the lines (called the magnetosphere) would be enormous. Jupiter's magnetosphere extends up to 3 million kilometers (nearly 2 million miles) toward the sun and as far as Saturn's orbit in the other direction.

"From a distance, Jupiter's magnetic field has two poles, north and south, like Earth's. But looking closer, below Jupiter's surface, the magnetic field is thought to be quite complex and tangled," says Connerney. "Juno will give us a detailed picture of the magnetic field extending down to the surface of the dynamo, or engine, that generates it."

Jupiter's powerful magnetic environment also creates the brightest auroras in the solar system, as charged particles get trapped by the field and rain down into the atmosphere. Juno will directly sample the charged particles and magnetic fields near Jupiter's poles for the first time, while simultaneously observing the auroras at ultraviolet wavelengths of light. These investigations will greatly improve the understanding of this remarkable phenomenon and of similar magnetic objects, such as young stars that have their own planetary systems.

"With Juno, we will learn much more about the structure and evolution of Jupiter, and this will help us understand our own solar system," says Connerney. "But astronomers have now found many other giant planets outside our solar system. What we learn about Jupiter also will help us understand the planets orbiting other stars."

Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, Colo., is building the spacecraft. The Italian Space Agency in Rome is contributing an infrared spectrometer instrument and a portion of the radio science experiment.

For more information about Juno, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/juno .
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aaron38

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Re:

3488":21rsgg5f said:
Back on topic with JUNO, I would find it absolutely ridiculous & scandalous if Io & Europa observations were not roped in, when well placed. JUNO will be in a polar Jovecentric, highly eccentric orbit & certainly due to their short orbital periods, Io & Europa should both be in JUNO's vicinity at times. They would make for a fascinating secondary mission.
Yes they would. Unfortunately due to the solar power architecture there won't be enough juice to run the instruments for extra measurements. Machine Design this month has an article on the JUNO probe. In it, the total available power is listed at only 486W, falling to 420W. The probe's orbits had to be carefully chosen to keep it in sunlight as much as possible, so a follow on advantageous science orbit may well be impossible.

And then there's the note that I found to be almost unbelievable. Out of each 11 day orbit, there's only enough energy to give full power to each instrument for 6 hours. Good luck getting extra science out of that.
 
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