Protons: The essential building blocks of atoms

"Protons, Neutrons and Electrons"

My observation, a useful table here showing the particle, mass in kg, radius in meters, and charge in coulombs. The radius of the proton is 0.83 x 10^–15 m, the radius of the electron is 10^–18-10^–22 m. An interesting report but how does the BB cosmology explain the origin of the proton, neutron, and electron in the table, consider dark matter, dark energy, and the quark-gluon plasma phase. The exotic physics of inflation and BB cosmology is now working at or near the Planck time and Planck length, 10^20 magnitude smaller than the size of a proton. Consider the period in the BB model from Planck time and Planck length of universe size at the beginning and when the CMBR appears as light, the universe radius is perhaps 40-41 million light years.

Who, what, when, where, how, and why investigative reporting is needed in the BB model.

Here are some recent reports asking these same questions about the BB cosmology.

The thing that seems to be missing in all of these (highly repetitive) simplified descriptions of "fundamental particles" is that the protons and neutrons are supposed to be made of "fundamental" particles called quarks, but, somehow, a neutron can convert to a proton plus a lepton (electron), and leptons are not made of quarks. See .

So, if an "up quark" can become a "down quark" by emitting an electron and an antineutrino, thereby changing its charge and mass, it sure looks like there is something more "fundamental" than quarks, which would also includes the makings of the leptons. See . Preons, also called "partons" do not seem to currently be in-favor with theorists. The Higgs boson seems to be their answer to why partons are unnecessary. But, the models are still "incomplete" (as in don't explain everything).

Whatever, these "explanations" about "quarks" seem to leave a gaping hole in the understanding they seem to want to convey.

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