Question what happens if a star spins it self faster than light?

Jun 1, 2020
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Does a star disappears from space time, if it spins faster than light?
No because they can't exist. Imagine trying to hang on at the edge of a merry-go-round (dia. = 10 ft.) spinning at 1 revolution per sec. Now increase that rotation to 31 million revs per sec.

Stars too would fly apart before they could even form if spin were just a fraction of light speed.

Oddly enough, in the past, it was deemed impossible for stars to form from clouds because all clouds have some rotation. Though these rotations are small, the cloud collapse is by 20 orders of magnitude, which means a star, when collapsed to a normal size, would have rotation speeds exceeding the speed of light. This greatly delayed the cloud collapse model for decades until it was determined that other events did allow the clouds to collapse.
 
Aug 15, 2020
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The star will collapse because the speed of the star's rotation will start to influence the star's core, maybe leading to a nova
 
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Sep 13, 2020
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A star will centrifugally fragment long before reaching light speed rotation, which would be true even for compact stars like white dwarfs or neutron stars.

Here's what happens when a hydrostatic object spins up to the point of centrifugal fragmentation, which I suggest has actually happened in our solar system:

Multiple star systems evolve by means of 'orbital interplay', wherein the least massive components are 'evaporated', outward, while the more massive stars sink inward to form a core (or binary pair in the case of two massive stars). The principle is that of 'equipartition of kinetic energy', which tends to transfer kinetic energy from more-massive objects to less-massive objects in orbital close encounters.

Here's the kicker--not only do less massive objects acquire kinetic energy and angular momentum from more massive objects, but they are also induced to 'spin up', increasing their rotation rate. In a globular cluster with no net angular momentum, the angular momentum vectors are misaligned, causing no progressive spin up, but in a planar system, like a protoplanetary disk (where angular momentum vectors are aligned), I suggest that something very unusual can occur.

Imagine a high angular momentum protoplanetary disk where the central diminutive (brown-dwarf-mass) protostar is much, much less massive than the the surrounding disk, where an m=2 mode disk instability forms a twin-binary pair of disk-instability objects in orbit around the brown-dwarf central core.

Orbital interplay causes the twin protostars to evaporate the brown dwarf into a circumbinary orbit, as the twin protostars sink inward (conserving angular momentum) to form a stellar close binary pair, but if the commensurate spin up causes the brown dwarf to centrifugally fragment, I suggest that the fragmentation occurs in a very particular manor.

Spin up first causes the object to distort into an oblate sphere, but then something unusual happens. Self gravity takes over, and the oblate sphere distorts into a Jacobi ellipsoid, which progresses (with additional spin up) into a bar-mode instability, which centrifugally fails when the self gravity of the arms cause them to pinch off into a massive twin-binary pair orbiting a diminutive residual core, in a process I call, 'trifurcation'.

And 1st-generation trifurcation promotes 2nd-generation trifurcation, by the same equipartition principle, creating a set of twin-binary pairs in decreasing sizes, like Russian nesting dolls.

With multiple generations of trifurcation, I suggest a former binary-Sun (twin-binary disk instability objects) caused our former brown dwarf to undergo 4 generations of trifurcation, forming: (former)
- 1st-gen. -- former binary-Companion + SUPER-Jupiter residual core,
- 2nd gen. -- Jupiter-Saturn + SUPER-Neptune residual core
- 3rd gen. -- Uranus-Neptune + SUPER-Earth residual core
- 4th gen. -- Venus-Earth + Mercury residual core

Then binary-binary resonances resolved the system, causing eccentricity pumping that caused binary-Sun to capture the three sets of twin planets from binary-Companion forming this intermediate configuration, listed in increasing radial distance from the solar system barycenter :
Binary-Sun, Venus-Earth-Mercury, Jupiter-Saturn, binary-Companion, Uranus-Neptune, trifurcation debris disk. (Forget about Mars for now.) And hot classical Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) 'condensed' by streaming instability from the trifurcation debris disk.

Additional eccentricity pumping caused all binary pairs to separate, except for binary-Companion because the binary-Sun components spiraled in to merge in a luminous red nova at 4,567 Ma, forming a solar-merger debris disk which 'condensed' by streaming instability the asteroids, with live solar-merger-nucleosynthesis short-lived radionuclides (SLRs). And chondrites condensed later after the SLRs had largely died away.

Binary-Companion, with super-Jupiter-mass binary components, orbited the sun for almost 4 billion years between the orbits of Saturn and Uranus, but perturbation by the Sun caused the binary components to spiral inward over time, where the close-binary potential energy transferred to the heliocentric Sun-Companion orbit, causing the binary-Companion orbit to become increasingly eccentric over time, which also increased binary-Companion's heliocentric period.

The progressively-increasing heliocentric period caused its 1:4 mean-motion resonance to spiral out through the Kuiper belt, perturbing KBOs from about 4.1-3.8 Ga, causing the late heavy bombardment of the inner solar system.

And binary-Companion overran Uranus', orbit causing Uranus' severe axial tilt.

Finally, the super-Jupiter-mass binary components spiraled in to merge at 650 Ma in an asymmetrical merger explosion that gave newly-merged Companion escape velocity from the Sun, and the Companion-merger debris disk fogged the solar system, causing the Marinoan glaciation of Snowball Earth. And the earlier Sturtian glaciation of the Cryogenian Period was caused by the binary components progressively accreting their moons as they spiraled inward.

The 650 Ma Companion-merger debris disk condensed the cold classical KBOs, in quiescent low-eccentricity, low-inclination orbits, and possibly Ceres (with its low large-crater count and internal ocean, despite experiencing NO tidal heating), and possibly even Pluto (with its geologically-active surface despite its synchronous orbit with Charon, resulting in NO tidal heating).

By comparison, Grand Tack requires more variables to explain many-fewer solar system phenomena, and it's far less falsifiable. Grand Tack requires Jupiter to migrate in (to explain the configuration of the inner solar system) then migrate out (to explain the configuration of the outer solar system), with each maneuver requiring its own set of variables (depending on the fine tuning of the conveniently-disappeared protoplanetary disk), and it doesn't predict and can't explain our 3 sets of twin planets (Jupiter-Saturn, Uranus-Neptune, Venus-Earth); it can't explain the bimodal late heavy bombardment (where the 1:4 resonance first perturbed the Plutinos followed by the cubewanos); it can't explain the bimodal Snowball Earth episodes; and it can't explain Uranus' severe axial tilt. (There's more, but that would just be piling on.)
 
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Maybe not impossible for a star to spin at near C.
Enough odd encounters might do the trick but it would have to be pretty unlikely number of happenings.
Trouble is as the star spin increases so does the escape speed decrease.
Constant mass loss from faster and faster spin would decrease it's spin rate.
Self regulated to spin at the min escape speed.

Maybe only a black hole could spin faster than C and remain intact without regulated spin decrease since it's escape is beyond C.
 
Mar 5, 2020
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Based on a raster image by User:Worldtraveller on English Wikipedia, this vector image was created by Gregory Maxwell, and then subsequently re-created/modified by Georg-Johann and Cherkash.


The rotational velocity issue is solved in protostars by transferring/translating the kinetic energy of the rotating disk to the jets exiting from the poles. The infalling matter transfers its kinetic energy to the material which will then exit the polar region of the protostar as partially collimated jets. The protostar does not spin up since the matter that falls into it has already lost most of its velocity. Matter could never fall onto a protostar if it did not lose its velocity first (it would orbit eternally).

This is an inertial field (a subset of gravitational theory) conversion process. It is partially analogous to the gravitational version of the D.C. electric motor.

It should appear in the 2021-2022 editions of your physics textbooks.

As a collapsing mass rotationally speeds up it sheds a lot of that rotational energy through its polar jets.
 

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