What makes Newton's laws work? Here's the simple trick.

"Lagrange discovered what today we call the principle of least action. All physical laws, including Newton's laws, flow from this single unifying principle."

Nothing in this report explains how the BB created any laws like this from an area smaller than the Planck length and back to Planck time or even earlier. I do not think Newton or Lagrange thought physical laws arose by nothing, i.e., laws just popped up out of nothing. There is no reason for the Universe to operate in a physical law manner or use various mathematical constants like G for gravity. No laws of motion, no gravity, no planet Earth or solar system.
 
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Apr 18, 2020
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What is "potential energy"? The article seems to treat it as some sort of fundamental property of an object. But how do we determine an object's potential energy? Is it not derived from kinetic energy? In other words, the potential energy is just the kinetic energy that something would have if a certain thing happened to it. The kinetic energy a suspended ball would have if it were dropped. The kinetic energy that would be released if if certain chemical elements were brought together, with a spark. Is there any way to determine something's potential energy without reference to kinetic energy?
 

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