Why the current model of the universe breaks a fundamental law, that energy cannot be created nor destroyed.

Jan 28, 2023
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Why the current model of the universe breaks a fundamental law, that energy cannot be created nor destroyed.​


The arrow of time is often defined in the universe as the ever-increasing entropy. The reason for this is that an hour earlier, there was even lower entropy, and the day before yesterday, there was even less entropy. Going back over 13 billion years, the universe was in an even lower entropy state at the singularity. At the singularity, the universe was in the lowest entropy state. Some physicists stop there and say that this is the beginning of the universe, but others like to go even further back in time, before the big bang and even before the singularity. After all, energy cannot be created or destroyed. So the current cosmology of the universe, the big bang theory, which physicists say is the beginning, breaks a fundamental law of the universe, the law of conservation of energy, which states that energy cannot be created or destroyed.

The universe that doesn’t break this law is called a Cyclic Universe.

This strange theory is by physicist Sir Roger Penrose and entails that the universe has went through many big bangs, not just one, from the infinite past. Though, Penrose is not the father of a Cyclic Universe. Such a universe is also called an Ekpytotic universe. The original ekpyrotic model was introduced by Justin Khoury, Burt Ovrut, Paul Steinhardt and Neil Turok in 2001.

Steinhardt created the name based on the Ancient Greek word ekpyrosis (ἐκπύρωσις, “conflagration”), which refers to a Stoic cosmological model in which the universe is caught in an eternal cycle of fiery birth, cooling and rebirth. This reminds me of the Chinese philosophy Yin and Yang.

One of these Ekpytoic universes is called CCC theory. The three key things of Conformal Cyclic Cosmology are conformal geometry, Hawking Radiation, and Hawking Points.

Hawking Points are evidence of a previous universe located in the Cosmic Microwave Background, which could be remnant signals from Supermassive Black holes from a previous aeon.

Hawking Radiation is the radiation from those supermassive black holes that evaporated.

Conformal geometry is well… strange.


According to Penrose, as the universe increases in size, it enters a conformal phase where its size becomes irrelevant. Essentially, big and small lose their meaning. This allows the radiation from black holes that evaporated in the previous aeon to interact, forming quantum fluctuations that lead to a new “beginning” and a big bang. This is the same universe, and according to Roger, this process will repeat itself infinitely in the future. Penrose provides evidence of prior aeons, which he calls Hawking Points, so this theory is not just derived from his arse.

Penrose enjoys to use this painting by Escher to try and convey what conformal geometry would look like. As you can see in this painting, the top bats may appear big but as you peer down, they are the same size or shape for the matter, meaning the energy that evaporated from the black holes can now interact as they’re close enough to do so rather than being dissipated opposed to being far out like in the Heat Death hypothesis. As in Heat Death, the energy would be so far out due to the ever increasing expansion of the universe but in the conformal phase, the universe is small again because the universe has expanded so ridiculously large that it ‘’forgets’’ its size, therefore we’re back at the singularity.

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In this strange bubbly animation, this is quantum foam, the very things that started the big bang. The current model of the big bang contradicts the fundamental law of the conservation of energy by stating that there was a beginning. This outright breaks this fundamental law. You cannot have a beginning because energy cannot be created nor destroyed. A beginning means that energy was created. In fact, a catholic priest founded the big bang to support Creationism, hence there is an beginning.

There was no beginning as this breaks the law of conservation of energy, energy merely changes from one form to another. The universe has no beginning or death and this saves the the law of conservation of energy from being broken. Some rules are meant to be broken but not the law of conservation of energy.

So the universe is not 13.8 billion years old. It is more than trillions of years old. It’s infinite.​

Hawking Points in the Cosmic Microwave Background. This is the evidence that Penrose provides. These are remnant signals from supermassive blackholes from a previous aeon. He calls previous universes aeons because it is the same universe.

0*OpGW42r2h_m_jQE-.png


Here’s a wee diagram here showing how the conformal rescaling would occur. As you can see the crossover into the new aeon is not a different universe at all but rather the exactly same universe. And due to the conformal phase, the universe doesn’t understand what size is therefore all the energy is able to interact.

If we look at this epic diagram of a black hole, Hawking Radiation is emitted. This won’t occur until the dark ages of the universe which will be in an extremely long time from now.


Essentially, the universe will be very dark hence the dark era of the universe which will be in “n > 101 . The current model of the universe will state that this is the end of the universe. But Penrose’s conformal phase allows the left over radiation that evaporated from those black holes & can now interact once more and eventually over time, quantum fluctuation will arise again.



So, now that the “squashing down” the future conformal boundary to a conformally regular hypersurface.

The result is a new solution to Einstein’s equations, which Penrose takes to represent the entire universe, and which is composed of a sequence of sectors that Penrose calls “aeons”. So we’re now at the singularity. This is not to say that the big bang never occurred, it certainly did, but it is a event in the history and in the future just like any other event in the universe.

In the aeon we’re in now, when the universe cools down in the dark era, the same will occur again. Penrose states that this has occurred into the infinite past and will continue into the infinite future. Why? Because Cosmic Cyclic Cosmology does not break the law of conservation of energy since the universe is not having a creation. A creation would ultimately and utterly break this law. I’m confident that Penrose’s cosmology will replace the current model and there’s nothing wrong with that, that’s what science is all about, evidence replaces the old obsolete big bang theory and then we move on.

So the universe is not only 13.8 billion years old, it is trillions upon trillions of years old; even surpassing sextillion years old.

A universe without a beginning or ending.​

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This may be difficult to grasp but it could be entirely nature. After all, in quantum physics, weird stuff occur all the time, stuff that’s beyond common sense; there’s a thing called retrocausality where effect precedes cause.


Time runs left to right in this Feynman diagram of electron–positron annihilation. When interpreted to include retrocausality, the electron (marked e−) was not destroyed, instead becoming the positron (e+) and moving backward in time.

So, it should not be surprising that the universe did not have a beginning and has always existed forever. The Principle of Plenitude could be used to further grasp this notion. The principle asserts that the universe contains all possible forms of existence.

Due to this weirdness in QM, a non-causal universe may just be natural after all, beginnings and endings are concepts and somewhat illusions. If we die, we will certainly lose our minds, but our bodies go back where it came from. A star dies but then if it goes supernova, it’s not dead, it transforms into something else; elements, elements that eventually made us. So, it seems that this ongoing of transformation, birth, death, is a fundamental feature of the universe. A cyclic universe is a universe which follows an infinite self-sustaining cycle. In the 1930s, even Einstein came up with the idea that the universe could go through an infinite cycle of Big Bangs and Big Crunches way before the likes of Penrose and others did. The expansion of our universe could have been caused by the collapse of a previous universe — it sort of bounced back from the contraction of the universe before it. You could say our universe was reborn from the death of the universe before it. If this is true, then our Big Bang was not a unique event; it was one insignificant bang among an infinite number of other bangs.


So we have a different form of a cyclic universe which is the big bounce. The big bounce universe is a bit different to Penrose’s Cosmic Cyclic Cosmology because the universe doesn’t collapse onto itself, rather it evades Heat Death through conformal geometry and the energy left over from the supermassive black holes gives rise to it. Apart from that, the big bounce is similar.


In Penrose’s unique cosmology, the universe is a great cycler, constantly recycling the universe’s content for ever and ever and ever.

CCC and the Fermi paradox​

In 2015, Gurzadyan and Penrose also discussed the Fermi paradox, the apparent contradiction between the lack of evidence but high probability estimates for the existence of extra-terrestrial civilizations. Within conformal cyclic cosmology, the cosmic microwave background provides the possibility of information transfer from one aeon to another, including of intelligent signals within the information panspermia concept.

Cycles in nature: Did you notice?​

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From hurricanes, tornadoes, bicycles, circadian rhythms, galaxies, literal rubbish recycling, wheels, seasons; the carbon cycle, rain; and many other cycles in nature!

So the universe does indeed like to cycle! The universe is a cyclic universe even down here on Earth. Isn’t this amazing?​

At the beginning of this article, we pondered about elements recycling from that fundamental law we talked about, elements that enjoy to transfer their energies; cycle their energies. With all of these things as aforementioned, you can now see that Sir Roger Penrose could be on to something with his CCC theory. I’m confident that one day Roger’s cyclic cosmology could replace the current cosmology, but in the meantime, Heat Death still is in the game and may be the ultimate fate of the universe.

I hope you enjoyed this article as much as I did. This article is for a script that will be used for an upcoming video on this particular subject.

let’s recap.​

  1. The Universe goes through cycles of Big Bangs.
  2. Radiation from Supermassive Black Holes is used as evidence of a previous aeon , so called Hawking Points.
  3. The Universe forgets its size -changes to conformal geometry.
  4. Due to the conformal phase, the Hawking Radiation is able to interact as essentially the Universe is very small in this unique phase, so will not die of heat death.
This suggests that the universe had no beginning. And instead, always has existed without cause. it’s very hard to grasp but it could be entirely possible that this is just how the universe works. It also says that the universe is eternal. Maybe you’ve already read this article. Maybe that’s why dejavu occurs?

Even modern physicists and philosophers believe that the idea of an endless universe predates them, believing that the universe is undergoing a cycle of birth, death, and rebirth (Big Bang, Big Crunch, Big Bang) which is more or less similar to some religious ideas as well. In Hinduism and Buddhism, the term “wheel of time” is a term that refers to the notion that time is cyclical, consisting of repeating ages that are considered to be cyclical over time. As with the idea of a cyclical universe, there is also something similar to the idea of a samsara in Hindu, Buddhist and Jain philosophy. The word “Samsara” is translated from Sanskrit as “continuous flow” and it refers to the cycle of birth, death and rebirth (rebirth is also called reincarnation in Buddhism).

As per Hindu philosophy, the universe was created by Brahman (the Big Bang), the life of the universe is maintained by Vishnu, and the universe will at some point be destroyed by Shiva (the Big Crunch). There is no end to this process as it continues for eternity. The continuous creation and destruction of the universe as represented by the outward and inward breath of the cosmic giant Maha Vishnu, a supreme god beyond the comprehension of a human, is depicted in a number of stories found in the Puranas, an ancient collection of Hindu texts. In Hindu cosmology, each universe exists for over 4 trillion years.

And interestingly enough, Chinese philosophical concept that describes opposite but interconnected forces. In Chinese cosmology, the universe creates itself out of a primary chaos of material energy, organized into the cycles of yin and yang and formed into objects and lives.

So there you have it, the universe may very well be forever.

Check out my YouTube channel at

youtube.com/spaceponder for more interesting ponderings.

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This cycle of universe won't continue past about 14 billion years. It's horizon-flat in that cyclic dimensionality of spacetime. But the infinity of universes, the infinity of universe horizons, have the infinity of life, the immortality, you speak to.
 
Jan 28, 2023
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This cycle of universe won't continue past about 14 billion years. It's horizon-flat in that cyclic dimensionality of spacetime. But the infinity of universes, the infinity of universe horizons, have the infinity of life, the immortality, you speak to.
I see. Like the block universe?
 
Nov 19, 2021
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In reference to the original post:

The Big Bang Theory does not address what started things. It has nothing to say about anything prior to 10^-43 seconds.

There was no energy created or destroyed by the Big Bang. The positive energy of all the mass and energy in the universe is exactly offset by the negative gravitational potential energy of receding galaxies.
 
Jan 28, 2023
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In reference to the original post:

The Big Bang Theory does not address what started things. It has nothing to say about anything prior to 10^-43 seconds.

There was no energy created or destroyed by the Big Bang. The positive energy of all the mass and energy in the universe is exactly offset by the negative gravitational potential energy of receding galaxies.
This is not what physicists say, often they say that the universe arose from nothingness/quantum fluctuations.
 
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Going back in time, the Big Bang Theory ends at 10^-43 seconds. That is as early as our physics will allow. At that time, the temperature was so high, that each particle had so much energy that it was like a tiny black hole, unable to communicate with its neighbor, thus no way to transfer more heat.

Another way of saying it, the wavelength of each particle was less than the mean free path. Again no way to transfer heat and get any hotter, allowing us to see back further.

Starting at that time and integrating the amount of positive energy plus the gravitational potential energy always equals zero. Thus no violation of the conservation laws.

As for what caused the Big Bang, no one knows. The Big Bang Theory does not address the instant it began. our physics has "no opinion" since there is "no data".

And it would be accurate to say that the Big Bang came from nothingness due to a quantum fluctuation. But again, note that "nothingness" has the same amount of mass/energy as the Universe - none.

And what is a quantum fluctuation? It is a postulated event in quantum mechanics that creates universes. No one understands any details. To us mortal humans, it is indistinguishable from magic.
 
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Make up your own opinion.
Expressing my opinion may influence yours.


[Submitted on 8 May 2023]

Possible hints of decreasing dark energy from supernova data​

Mark Van Raamsdonk, Chris Waddell
The potential energy from a time-dependent scalar field provides a possible explanation for the observed cosmic acceleration. In this paper, we investigate how the redshift vs brightness data from the recent Pantheon+ survey of type Ia supernovae constrain the possible evolution of a single scalar field for the period of time (roughly half the age of the universe) over which supernova data are available. Taking a linear approximation to the potential, we find that models providing a good fit to the data typically have a decreasing potential energy at present (accounting for over 99% of the allowed parameter space) with a significant variation in scalar potential (⟨Range(V)/V0⟩≈0.97) over the period of time corresponding to the available data (z<2.3). Including quadratic terms in the potential, the data can be fit well for a wide range of possible potentials including those with positive or negative V2 of large magnitude, and models where the universe has already stopped accelerating. We describe a few degeneracies and approximate degeneracies in the model that help explain the somewhat surprising range of allowed potentials.
 
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OK
What is my opinion?
The universe is infinite.
Matter cannot be created or destroyed.
Whatever is, for ever and ever.
We can observe beyond images that allows us to think how things work.
We observe supernovas as part of a cyclic process.
We observe clustering of our Milkyway
We observe our MW galaxy as part of a local group of galaxies, this group clusters with other similar groups forming a super cluster of galaxies.
These super clusters cluster together and so on.

The trap that most fell into throughout history is that our earth is not the center of the universe.
Earth position is not important.
 
"In this strange bubbly animation, this is quantum foam, the very things that started the big bang. The current model of the big bang contradicts the fundamental law of the conservation of energy by stating that there was a beginning. This outright breaks this fundamental law. You cannot have a beginning because energy cannot be created nor destroyed. A beginning means that energy was created. In fact, a catholic priest founded the big bang to support Creationism, hence there is an beginning."

This appears correct here. I note these two discussions on the forums recently.

Total energy of the system, https://forums.space.com/threads/total-energy-of-the-system.61662/

Lawrence Krauss in his book in 2012 clearly knew the BB violated conservation of energy, so do others.

Brightest gamma-ray burst ever seen, the largest known explosion since Big Bang, has a unique jet structure unlike any other, https://forums.space.com/threads/br...-unique-jet-structure-unlike-any-other.61703/

That GRB released some 10^55 erg, compare to energy of BB moment and the time of the quark-gluon plasma phase said to be recreated by CERN experiments.
 
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Space Ponder: "The current model of the big bang contradicts the fundamental law of the conservation of energy by stating that there was a beginning.
As has been stated, BBT does not go to t=0 because it can only get as close as science dictates. BBT is not a metaphysical or a pseudo theory, but a hard and highly tested scientific theory. We have only suppositions and speculations, perhaps some interesting conjectures, that attempt to go sooner than science can be tested. Currently this is t=1E-12 sec., thanks to CERN's work.

You cannot have a beginning because energy cannot be created nor destroyed. A beginning means that energy was created.
We can be comfortable in making suppositions that energy was created in some fashion before science has been able to address. We are here in space and time, hence there had to be a beginning especially given the simple extrapolation to t=0, though we can't say what that looks like.

In fact, a catholic priest founded the big bang to support Creationism, hence there is an beginning..
That is false and not factual. He simply was doing science better than any other. He took the redshift data ( Slipher's ), suggesting expansion, then used his knowledge of GR to reveal that the universe is expanding. If he was pushing Creationism he would not have written a letter to the Pope to advise him to not take BBT and apply it to Genesis.

That doesn't mean he wasn't influenced by religion, just as some say Faraday was with his view of Christianity.
 
"In this strange bubbly animation, this is quantum foam, the very things that started the big bang. The current model of the big bang contradicts the fundamental law of the conservation of energy by stating that there was a beginning. This outright breaks this fundamental law. You cannot have a beginning because energy cannot be created nor destroyed. A beginning means that energy was created. In fact, a catholic priest founded the big bang to support Creationism, hence there is an beginning."

This appears correct here. I note these two discussions on the forums recently.

Total energy of the system, https://forums.space.com/threads/total-energy-of-the-system.61662/

Lawrence Krauss in his book in 2012 clearly knew the BB violated conservation of energy, so do others.

Brightest gamma-ray burst ever seen, the largest known explosion since Big Bang, has a unique jet structure unlike any other, https://forums.space.com/threads/br...-unique-jet-structure-unlike-any-other.61703/

That GRB released some 10^55 erg, compare to energy of BB moment and the time of the quark-gluon plasma phase said to be recreated by CERN experiments.
Rod, as you know I've settled for the Big Bang theory with a dimensional Big Twist on it. An Infinite MULTIVERSE Atlantoverse (Atlan-theory-of-verse) closed up to and into a ponderous (my ponderous) Planck Big Bang (Black) Hole (collapsed constant (cosmological constant (/\)) ([future (past) | past (future)]) Horizon (whew)! Part infinity of universe horizons. Part infinity of universes. Part Planck Horizon toward the infinitesimal (infinite). Part Big Bang Horizon toward the infinite (infinitesimal)....

.... And part Biggest Black Hole Horizon of them all for being THE closed up and wide open -- two way -- 'Horizon' of them all.

But, as Bill put it in another context, "Schrodinger" through and through, "It is, and it isn't," the very best definition of "horizon." The great ocean of universes go on to infinity . . . in the horizontal flat . . . and in the zoom level vertical+, but they close up into the theorized non-local infinite / local-finite Horizon, a single sided 2-dimensional (frame) Horizon (microcosmic Planck / macrocosmic Big Bang / multi-faceted Black) that creatively, usefully, deals in the resource of the source horizon / universe infinities. As I put it, it's everywhere and nowhere at all. It's "spooky action at distance". It's gigantic to us up and out, and at the same time Lilliputian to us down and in. It's absolutely massive and energetic, and no mass and energy at all, thus more or less massive and energetic.

To be cont....
 
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When the dust settles.

The Big Bang cannot explain Trillions of galaxies 13.4 billion years in whatever direction you choose.
In an area of a rice seed observing over 5000 galaxies at 13.3 billion yrs. in whatever direction.
Also, the observation of deep field show galaxies in various stages of evolution from young to old.

13.9 billion years for the BBT to work itself is not probable.
 
Jun 11, 2023
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This cycle of universe won't continue past about 14 billion years. It's horizon-flat in that cyclic dimensionality of spacetime. But the infinity of universes, the infinity of universe horizons, have the infinity of life, the immortality, you speak to.
Thankfully!! You Guys Understand That The Big Bang Singularity Given As The Maker Of Heaven And Earth And Of Everything Visible And Invisible In The Universe Is An Absurd Impossible Magical Perpetual Energy Machine That Did Not Magically Pull One Extra Proton Out Of A Billion Proton-Antiproton Pairs Exactly 13.77 Billion Years Ago To Create Matter!!

Sooooo): You Guys Might Be Receptive To My Suggestion That Neutrons Evolved From God Particle 1s (GP1s) Defined As The Tiniest Compressible-Decompressible Gaseous Particle Of Mass In The Universe); The Medium Of Electromagnetic Waves And Gravitational Waves); And The Physical Actual Building Block Of All Matter And Energy!!

Adoni Compares His Neutron, Proton, Electron And Neutrino Evolution Theory To Modern Physicists Big Bang Singularity Creationism Theory For The Very Small Neutron, Proton, Electron And Neutrino!!

Adoni Evolves Neutrons, Protons, Electrons And Neutrinos From God Particle 1s (GP1s) Defined As The Tiniest Gaseous Particles Of Mass In Our Ageless Universe Of Finite Volume About 28 Plus Billion Light Years In Diameter!!

Adoni Postulates That Over Infinite Time); Gaseous GP1s Estimated To Have A Quintillionth The Mass Of The Electron Hooked Up Together At Highest GP1 Aether Particle Pressure In The Center Of Our Universe To Form Strings Of GP1s That Eventually Got Woven Into Sterile Neutrino Permeable Sacs With Rest Mass That Got Pumped Up With GP1s As Entropy Increased And As GP1 Aether Gaseous Particle Pressure Increased In The Center Of The Universe!!

As The Sterile Permeable Neutrino Sacs With Rest Mass Eventually Evolved To Indestructible Neutrino Permeable Sacs That Store Permanently Both Mass And Energy In The Form Of Gaseous Compressed GP1 Aether Particles); The Universe's CMBR Grew In Frequency From 1 KiloHertz To 1 MegaHertz!!

This Increase In Vacuum Energy, Pressure And Entropy Caused Some Neutrino Permeable Indestructible Sacs To Evolve To More Massive Electron Permeable Sacs In The Center Of Our Vast Universe Over Infinite Time!!

Further Increases In Vacuum Energy, Pressure And Entropy Caused Some Electron Permeable Indestructible Sacs To Evolve To More Massive Up Valence Quark Permeable Sacs In The Center Of Our Vast Universe Over Infinite Time!!

Adoni Postulates That The Down Nucleon Valence Quark Must Be An Orbiting Combo With An Electron Indestructible Permeable Sac And An Up Valence Quark Sac Because The Electron Permeable Sac Is Given As Indestructible Except By Its Antiparticle The Positron Once It Is Spit Out Of The Neutron Permeable Indestructible Sacs!!

Hence): Since The Electron Permeable Sac Is Given As Indestructible Outside The Neutron Envelope/Permeable Sac); The Electron Permeable Sac Must Have Been Indestructible Inside The Neutron Envelope/Permeable Sac!!

You Ask Adoni): Why Must Neutrons, Protons, Electrons And Neutrinos Be Minted As Indestructible Permeable Embryonic Neutron Sacs Inside The Center Of Stars And Black Holes??

Well!! Glad You Asked!! Indestructible Embryonic Neutrons That Decay To Indestructible Proton And Electron Permeable Mass-Energy-Vessel Sacs Cannot Be Haphazardly, Magically And Identically Be Pulled Out Of Vacuum In Pairs Because “As Given” The Protons And Antiproton Pairs Would Immediately Annihilate Each Other And Matter Masses Would Never Evolve!!

On The Other Hand): If We Mint And Evolve Embryonic Neutrons In The Center Of Stars From Reverse Beta Decay Of Protons And Electrons And Mint New Embryonic Neutrons From Neutrino Sacs, We Can Compensate For Matter Destroyed In Matter-Antimatter Interactions To Continue Our Universe In Perpetuity!!

Neutrons Must Be Minted Into Indestructible Permeable Sacs Inside The Highest Pressure Of Stars As Embryonic Neutrons Because These Particle Sacs Permanently Store Both Mass And Energy In The Physical Form Of Compressed GP1 Aether Gaseous Particles!!

The Discovery Of The CMBR Indicates That The Universe Is Finite In Volume Because Otherwise The Bounce (Vacuum Energy) Between GP1 Aether Particles Would Decrease As The GP1 Aether Particles Separated Farther And Farther Apart Until There Was No More CMBR And No More Sustainable GP1 Particle Pressurized Medium For Electromagnetic Waves As Is Found At The Event Horizon Of Black Holes!!

Just As Sound Waves Cannot Propagate In Air Particles With Too Little Air Pressure); Light Waves Cannot Propagate In GP1 Aether Particles With Too Little GP1 Aether Particle Pressure Like At The Event Horizon Of Black Holes With Three Or More Solar Masses Of Neutronium At 300 Trillion Adoni-Kelvin Degrees Below Absolute Zero): Absorbing And Compressing GP1 Aether Particles So Very Very Fast That GP1 Aether Particle Pressure Drops Too Low At The Event Horizon For Electromagnetic Waves To Propagate!!

More Likely Than Not The CMBR Is The Harmonized End Product Of All Electromagnetic Waves Emitted By All The Stars Of All Time Propagating In The Universe’s Gaseous GP1 Gaseous Aether Particle Medium Over Infinite Time In A Finite In Volume Universe Of Finite GP1 Aether Particle Mass!!

And Energy Is Permanently Stored Inside The Neutron, Proton, Electron And Neutrino Mass-Energy Permeable Hovering Indestructible Vessel Sacs In The Form Of Compressed GP1s (God Particle 1s) Defined As The Tiniest Compressible-Decompressible Gaseous Particle Of Mass In The Universe); The Medium Of Electromagnetic Waves And Gravitational Waves); And The Physical Actual Building Block Of All Matter And Energy!!

Adoni's Miraculous Theoretical God Particle 1s (GP1s) Of Mass About 1 Quintillionth The Mass Of The Electron Permeable Indestructible Sac Are The Medium Of Electromagnetic Waves, The Structure Of Space, The Mass Aether Particle That Once Imploded Into A Proton Permeable Sac Under Pressure Gives The Proton More Rest Mass And More Potential Energy Than The Electron Permeable Sacs!!

In Other Words, I Postulate The Physical Form Of The Given Potential Energy And Mass In The Four Particles): The Neutron, The Proton, The Electron And The Neutrino Given To Permanently Hold Rest Mass And Potential Energy In The FORM Of COMPRESSED GP1 AETHER PARTICLES!!

Note): The Potential Energy Inside A Matter Particle Is Released When A Spinning Proton Indestructible Permeable Sac Is Touched By A Spinning Antiproton Permeable Sac Ripping Both Indestructible Permeable Sacs Resulting In Two X-ray Streams From Rapidly Pulsating GP1 Aether Particle Pulses In Opposite Directions As GP1 Aether Pressure Drops To Near Zero Inside The Torn Permeable Sacs!!

Protons@938 MeV Store More Potential Energy And Physical Mass In The Form Of More Compressed GP1 Aether Particles Under Higher GP1 Aether Particle Pressure Than Electrons@511 KeV!!

Indestructible Neutron Permeable Sacs Cannot Be Pulled Haphazardly Out Vacuum In Pairs!! Neutron Permeable Sacs Must Be Minted Inside The Center Of Stars As The Stars Form Compact Objects!!

The Neutronium Of Neutron Stars Is Minted Inside Stars Under Extreme Pulsating Pressure In Reverse Beta Decay By Imploding Electron Indestructible Permeable Sacs Back Into Proton Permeable Sacs Creating Embryonic Neutrons @300 Trillion Adoni Kelvin Degrees Below Absolute Zero That When Warmed Up To Absolute Zero From The CMBR Yield 18 Or More Solar Masses Of Pristine New Hydrogen Per Solar Mass Of Neutronium!!

The "Singularity" Inside A Black Hole Or A SMBH Is Made Of Neutronium With Only A Slightly Greater Density Than The Neutronium Of Neutron Stars!!

You Ask Adoni): How Do We Know That The Neutronium Inside A Neutron Star Is At 300 Trillion Adoni-Kelvin Degrees Below Absolute Zero??

Soooooo Glad!! You Asked!!): Well!!): It Has To Do With The Given Relationship Between Entropy, Density And Temperature!!

We Are Given): The Siemens Cycle Refrigeration Process Where Compression Of Gas); Heats Up The Gas); A Heat Exchanger Removes Heat); And Decompression Cools The Gas And Reduces Pressures!!

Repeated Compression, Heat Exchanger Heat Removal, Decompression Cooling Cycles Can Turn Hydrogen To Liquid Hydrogen!!

The Earth, All Planets, Our Sun And All Stars Are Huge Giant Pulsating Compression-Decompression Mechanisms That Squeeze Heat Out Of Their Cores Making Their Cores Colder And Denser With Lower Entropy Over The Life Of A Star!!

Compact Objects): Neutron Stars And White Dwarfs Do Not Just Magically Collapse During An Alleged “Core Collapse” Supernova Or In A Red Giant Star!!

Compact Objects Are Formed Over The Life Of The Progenitor Star Not Magically Through An Alleged Miraculaous Gravitational Collapse!!

And Supernova Explosions Are Powered By The Conversion Of Matter To Antimatter During A Stars Compression-Decompression Cycle Until 125 Earth Masses Of Matter Are Converted To Antimatter To Yield A Type 1a Supernova At 1.5e44 Joules!!

Take A Chance!! Have Some Fun!! Review My Postulates And Proofs On AdoniPhysics411 YouTube Channel And Discover For Yourself): The Exact Mechanics That Generate Gravity And Dark Matter Gravity!!); How Embryonic Neutrons Are Minted In Compact Objects Compressed To Densities Over 100 Trillion Times Earth Density That Warm Up From The CMBR To Pristine New Neutrons That Decay To Pristine New Hydrogen!!

Note): I Postulate That One Solar Mass Of Embryonic Neutrons In The Neutronium Of Neutron Stars And Black Holes Will Yield At Least 8 To 88 Solar Masses Of Pristine Hydrogen, Once, The Embryonic Neutrons Warm Up To Absolute Zero!! Embryonic Neutrons Are Minted Inside Stars!! Not Pulled Out Of Vacuum Magically!!

Sincerely,
Adoni Yannop
 
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Hello Andoni

You write well.

I come from a different approach.

Compact objects, condensates and their Transients.
From atomic matter compaction 10^5
Neutron Matter 10^17
Composite Quark matter estimate 10^18 to 10^25
Partonic matter est 10^26 plus
Axion Gluon Matter (God particle) ext 10^33

Every single condensate a a property, dipolar electromagnetic vector fields.
Event Horizons are made by critical mass condensates, that have vector fields larger to prevent EMR from escaping.

From these properties we can explain Hourglass images, Spiral Galaxies. Elliptical galaxies and various forms of supernova.
 
When the dust settles.

The Big Bang cannot explain Trillions of galaxies 13.4 billion years in whatever direction you choose.
In an area of a rice seed observing over 5000 galaxies at 13.3 billion yrs. in whatever direction.
Also, the observation of deep field show galaxies in various stages of evolution from young to old.

13.9 billion years for the BBT to work itself is not probable.
Don't be absurd, Harry. You are talking past to future 0-point, not future to past 0-point.

You are talking a negative energy state, which, damnit, is the mass state (I just got it, it just came to me, the mass state is negative energy state / negative energy state is the mass state of the universe . . . it is all energy)!

Never mind that, yet! 14 billion to 0-point is +14 billion years to the eternal moment of the universe, 0-point, a distance in time of -14 billion years, not +14 billion years.

No human will come to here, now from the future. But all positive energy does, because that is where it is, in the future state. We mine it for work from the future state, not the past state.

Think about quantum mechanics and that a quantum mechanic will tell you a high energy state in quantum mechanics does not exist until it is "observed." And that that "observation" is influential upon the state. Well, we mine energy, positive energy, from the future universe, the high to highest, energy state, not the past universe, the low to lowest, energy state. The highest, wildest, frontier state of the universe (oddly enough also, inexorably, the most entropic) is the highest energy state of the universe. Always plus 14 billion years max (a conservation of mass and energy (of negative (-) and positive (+) energies)), "back! to the future" . . . the future! into the past (0-point, now (the monopole singularity moment . . . or eternal moment in 0-point (portal))).

Overall, no information, no mass, no energy, is ever created or destroyed!

All time, [past (into the future) || future (into the past)] exists in the monopole singularity (eternal) moment.

There is an infinity of universe horizons out there, thus, an infinity of universes . . . to include every future paralleling universe existing in that infinity, now, as well as every past paralleling universe, existing now. All closed up into that one single Horizon of an infinity of horizons . . . an infinity of universes . . . you ready for it?! The Infinite MULTIVERSE 'Atlanoverse' (I dropped the weak 't'). Absolutely closed open (wide open) system || Wide open closed (absolutely closed) system.

That superposition Horizon at 14 billion (+/-) (-/+) years, 14 billion light years, could contain 40 billion years in zip file compaction, or 40 trillion years, or 40.... to infinity and eternity. "13.9 billion years for the BBT to work is probable if it is infinity of space and eternity of time well zippered, zipped, in compact Horizon.

Chaos Theory has vertically alternating zoom universes, soupy, cloudy, blurred 'field' frame and fractal fine 4-dimensionally detailed frame, vertically alternating levels of zoom to infinity (infinite (infinitesimal) and infinitesimal (infinite)) . . . thus to sheer boredom because they always, will always, reduce to just the two, wave function blurred smooth (unity) and fractal 4-dimensionally fine coarse detailed (null unity).
 
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Hello Andoni

You write well.

I come from a different approach.

Compact objects, condensates and their Transients.
From atomic matter compaction 10^5
Neutron Matter 10^17
Composite Quark matter estimate 10^18 to 10^25
Partonic matter est 10^26 plus
Axion Gluon Matter (God particle) ext 10^33

Every single condensate a a property, dipolar electromagnetic vector fields.
Event Horizons are made by critical mass condensates, that have vector fields larger to prevent EMR from escaping.

From these properties we can explain Hourglass images, Spiral Galaxies. Elliptical galaxies and various forms of supernova.
Harry, Interesting Take On Compact Objects As Condensates And Magical Field Theory!!

My Theorectical Particle The God Particle 1 (GP1) {Defined As The Tiniest Compressible-Decompressible Gaseous Particle Of Mass In The Universe); The Medium Of Electromagnetic Waves And Gravitational Waves); And The Physical Actual Building Block Of All Matter And Energy} Starts The Neutron Evolution Process From Something Real And Evolves To The Neutron Indestructible Permeable Mass-Energy Vessel Sacs In The Center Of Our Universe Which Are Also Real And Physical And Not Fields Of Unknown Magic!!

Also, I Suggest That Electromagnetic Waves Propagate In A Physical Actual GP1 Pressurized Aether Particle Medium As Alternating Beads Of Highly Compressed GP1 Aether Particle Plus Bead And A Highly Decompressed Vacuum GP1 Aether Particle Minus Bead And That Since The Photon Is Given As Massless, Then The Given Momentum Of Electromagnetic Waves Can Only Be Carried By The Physical Actual GP1 Aether Particle Medium Of Mass Of About A Quintillionth The Mass Of The Electron!!

The Main Agreeable Point Here Is That Once The Universe Evolves Neutrons From GP1s At Highest GP1 Aether Particle Pressure In The Center Of Our Universe Then, The Neutrons Will Decay To Hydrogen That Will Make Stars That Will Make More Indestructible Embryonic Neutrons Than Would Be Lost Through Matter-Antimatter Interactions!!

Hence): How Our Universe Evolved All Its Matter Over Infinite Time In A Finite In Volume Universe As Proven By The CMBR That Is Omnidirectional Reflections Of Energy From All The Physical Actual Edges Of Our Finite In Volume Universe IE The Homongenized Reflected Energy Produced By All The Stars That Have Existed In Our Ageless Finite Universe With Matter And Energy Reflective Edges Over All Time!!

We Are Given That The Indestructible Electron Mass-Energy Vessel Sac Can Be Shot Though Neutrons And Protons Without Damaging The Neutron, Proton Or Electron Indestructible Mass-Energy Vessel Sac And That The Neutron, Proton, Electron And Perhaps Even The Neutrino Have Measurable Cross-sectional Area!!

And That The Proton Has Never Been Observed To Decay With A Given Half-Life Of More Than 1.67 X 10e34 Years!!

Since There Is No Way To Distinguish An Embryonic Neutron Of The Neutronium Of A Neutron Star That Warmed Up To Absolute Zero In 2023 To A Full-Fledged Neutron That Decayed To A Proton And Electron In 2023 From Neutron Decay 10e100 Years Ago); Then, Some Of The Neutrons And Protons In Our Body Could Have Been Around From 10e100 Years Ago!!

And Since Some Of The Nucleons In Our Body Are Given To Be Around In 10e1000 Years, Then, My Suggestion That Some Of Nucleons In Our Bodies Were Minted 10e1000 Years Ago Should Be Taken As A Reasonable Postulate!!

Now, The Interesting Thing About The Valence Quarks Inside The Nucleon Indestructible Permeable Sac/Envelope Is That Valence Up Quarks And Down Quarks Cannot Survive Outside Of The Nucleon Indestructible Permeable Sac/Envelope BUTTE The Electron Indestructible Permeable Sac Can Survive Outside Of The Neutron Indestructible Permeable Sac/Envelope After Neutron Beta Decay That Changes A Down Quark To An Up Quark As An Electron Sac Is Spit Out!!

In Reverse Beta Decay An Inner Electron Sac Is Absorbed By A Proton Sac To Create A Down Quark!! Since The Electron Sac Was Indestructible Outside The Nucleon Envelope, It Must Still Be Indestructible Inside The Nucleon Envelope Which Means That Valence Down Quarks Are Orbiting Combos Of An Electron Permeable Particle Sac And An Up Quark Particle Permeable Sac!!

Now To Axion Gluon Matter (God Particle Matter) ext 10^33): I Prefer To Work In Terms Of Multiples Of Average Earth Density Given At 5.5 Grams/Cubic Centimeter!!):

1): White Dwarfs Are Given At Between 200,000 To 20,000,000 Million Times Average Earth Density Per Recent Discovery Of The Densest Smallest White Dwarf About The Size Of The Moon With About 1.35 Solar Masses!!

2): Neutron Stars Are Given At Between 200 Trillion Times Earth Density And 1 Quintillion Times Earth Density!!

3): I Suggest That The Alleged "Singularity" Inside A Black Hole Is Just 3 Or More Solar Masses Of The Neutronium Of A Neutron Star With Only Slightly Higher Density Than The Neutronium Of A Neutron Star And That The Event Horizon Of A Black Hole Is The Result Of Low GP1 Aether Particle Pressure Because The Embryonic Neutronium Ball In The Center Of Event Horizon Of A Black Hole Absorbs GP1 Aether Particles Sooooo Very Very Very Fast That EM Waves Cannot Propagate!!

Just As Sound Waves Cannot Propagate When Air Pressure Is Too Low!!

EM Waves Cannot Propagate Inside The Event Horizon Of A Black Hole Because GP1 Aether Particle Pressure Is To Low To Allow EM Waves To Propagate!!

Now Back To Axion Gluon Matter (God Particle Matter) ext 10^33):

In The Standard Model Of Particle Physics Nucleons Are Not Given A Physical Envelope To Contain The Explosive/Expansion Energy Attributed To Gluons!!

Instead Gluons Are Given As Explosive Energy That Magically Holds The Energy Of The Nucleon And The Three Valence Quarks Together Without A Physical Actual Permeable Envelope!!

Now, If You Go Along With My Suggestion That Nucleons, Electrons And Neutrinos Given To Permanently Hold Both Mass And Energy Have Physical Actual Pliable And Stretchable Indestructible Permeable Sacs/Envelopes, Then, We Can Store Potential Energy And Mass In The Form Of Compressed GP1 Aether Particles Inside The Nucleon, Electron And Neutrino Sacs!!

We Know The Above To Be True Because When A Spinning Indestructible Electron Sac Touches A Positron Spinning Indestructible Sac, The Two Sacs Rip Each Other Apart Resulting In The Rapid Pulsating Release Of Compressed GP1 Aether Particles In The Form Of Two X-ray Jets From The Ripped Sacs Pushing The Electron Sac And The Positron Sac In Opposite Directions!!

Enough For Today!! Talk More Tomorrow!!
Adoni
 
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Magical Field theory
Means you do not understand quantum mechanics.
And that's OK,

Throughout history when people do not agree with something, they give it a name, so it can be filed away.
Science cannot be filed away.

I would advise you to research Condensates and Transients so that you can get some form of understanding.

As for Black holes
A singularity cannot form.
Due to Chiral Super-Symmetry creating a Dipolar Electromagnetic Vector field that expel matter away from the core. We see this in dipolar jet in images. Hourglass images and M87
But!
The forces created, mimic Black Hole forces that attract matter to the core.
 
I've stated my backgrounds and interests, who and what I am, more than once!

Since you research Condensates and Transients, I see you don't have much of an understanding of the larger picture of the universe, including quantum mechanics, or the people who have studied it, been recognized as professional in theoretical physics, and written volumes on it, several famously so.

Maybe I should apologize for having missed them, but I haven't seen any of your books on the best seller lists for theoretical physics in general, quantum mechanics in particular, string theory, cosmology in general, complexity and chaos most particularly.

List some of your writings on the universe that have been on the best seller lists and I will buy them to read and add to my library alongside Einstein, Hawking, Carroll, Becker, Smolin, Steinhardt, Turok, Gleick, and Waldrop, just the ones I have and have kept. I've read two of Greene's books, one of Kaku's, one of Penrose's . . . shall I go on? That is not to mention the articles in magazines I've read or the articles from well-known sites on the internet I've read, several of which I've not only read but put pointers to right here in posts on the forum either to back up something of my own or to dispute.

Before I leave off, I will admit I haven't finished Carroll's 'Something Deeply Hidden' yet or got to the second book of Carroll's I've got, 'The Biggest Ideas In The Universe: Space, Time, and Motion', nor have I got around yet to Smolin's 'Einstein's Unfinished Revolution: The Search for What Lies Beyond the Quantum', and Becker's 'What is Real?' But I will, shortly. I've got three of Hawking's in my library and gave a fourth to one of my grandsons because he took an interest in reading it during one of his visits.

You say "Magical Field theory"! According to all of the authors I've read, all of them so far without exception! including Einstein and Hawking, magical field theory is just what "quantum mechanics" is! It means you do not understand quantum field theories (plural)! But that is ok, you have your condensates and transients you do appear to have some knowledge of that I never disputed and would never dispute. The biggest thing I've disputed with you, until now, has been infinity.

And furthermore, in my picturing, my modeling, I took "singularity" away from gravity realizing it to probably be one with the quantum 'monopole', and that also the quantum 'moment', the unity of three of the four fundamental forces at the "tripartite quantum point" within the toroidal string ring of gravity's graviton, altogether, all four together in one unit, one unity, something on the order of a telescoping gyroscopic on a scale [infinite (infinitesimal) || infinitesimal (infinite)]. Absolute . . . primal / fundamental . . . basic, forces. Again the three, the tripartite quantum point, monopole moment singularity.
 
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Hello Andoni

You write well.

I come from a different approach.

Compact objects, condensates and their Transients.
From atomic matter compaction 10^5
Neutron Matter 10^17
Composite Quark matter estimate 10^18 to 10^25
Partonic matter est 10^26 plus
Axion Gluon Matter (God particle) ext 10^33

Every single condensate a a property, dipolar electromagnetic vector fields.
Event Horizons are made by critical mass condensates, that have vector fields larger to prevent EMR from escaping.

From these properties we can explain Hourglass images, Spiral Galaxies. Elliptical galaxies and various forms of supernova.

Don't be absurd, Harry. You are talking past to future 0-point, not future to past 0-point.

You are talking a negative energy state, which, damnit, is the mass state (I just got it, it just came to me, the mass state is negative energy state / negative energy state is the mass state of the universe . . . it is all energy)!

Never mind that, yet! 14 billion to 0-point is +14 billion years to the eternal moment of the universe, 0-point, a distance in time of -14 billion years, not +14 billion years.

No human will come to here, now from the future. But all positive energy does, because that is where it is, in the future state. We mine it for work from the future state, not the past state.

Think about quantum mechanics and that a quantum mechanic will tell you a high energy state in quantum mechanics does not exist until it is "observed." And that that "observation" is influential upon the state. Well, we mine energy, positive energy, from the future universe, the high to highest, energy state, not the past universe, the low to lowest, energy state. The highest, wildest, frontier state of the universe (oddly enough also, inexorably, the most entropic) is the highest energy state of the universe. Always plus 14 billion years max (a conservation of mass and energy (of negative (-) and positive (+) energies)), "back! to the future" . . . the future! into the past (0-point, now (the monopole singularity moment . . . or eternal moment in 0-point (portal))).

Overall, no information, no mass, no energy, is ever created or destroyed!

All time, [past (into the future) || future (into the past)] exists in the monopole singularity (eternal) moment.

There is an infinity of universe horizons out there, thus, an infinity of universes . . . to include every future paralleling universe existing in that infinity, now, as well as every past paralleling universe, existing now. All closed up into that one single Horizon of an infinity of horizons . . . an infinity of universes . . . you ready for it?! The Infinite MULTIVERSE 'Atlanoverse' (I dropped the weak 't'). Absolutely closed open (wide open) system || Wide open closed (absolutely closed) system.

That superposition Horizon at 14 billion (+/-) (-/+) years, 14 billion light years, could contain 40 billion years in zip file compaction, or 40 trillion years, or 40.... to infinity and eternity. "13.9 billion years for the BBT to work is probable if it is infinity of space and eternity of time well zippered, zipped, in compact Horizon.

Chaos Theory has vertically alternating zoom universes, soupy, cloudy, blurred 'field' frame and fractal fine 4-dimensionally detailed frame, vertically alternating levels of zoom to infinity (infinite (infinitesimal) and infinitesimal (infinite)) . . . thus to sheer boredom because they always, will always, reduce to just the two, wave function blurred smooth (unity) and fractal 4-dimensionally fine coarse detailed (null unity).
Harry Is Correct!! The Universe Must Be Infinitely Old!! The Universe Cannot Be Younger Than Its Longest Future Surviving Object Which Is Given As Black Holes At 10e100 Years To Evaporate!!

Also, I Have A Novel Concept As To How The Embyonic Neutronium "Singularity" Ball At The Center Of A Black Hole Evaporates, I Suggest That Embryonic Neutrons In The "Singularity" Ball Warm Up To Absolute Zero From The CMBR And Produce 10 Solar Masses Of Hydrogen Per Solar Mass Of Embryonic Neutrons Warmed Up To Absolute Zero By The CMBR!!
 
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My advice, keep doing what you are doing.
Who knows at the end of the day, we will find.

It's always up for discussion.

I have been on this subject for the last 50 odd years.

Have fun with it
 
Harry Is Correct!! The Universe Must Be Infinitely Old!! The Universe Cannot Be Younger Than Its Longest Future Surviving Object Which Is Given As Black Holes At 10e100 Years To Evaporate!!

Also, I Have A Novel Concept As To How The Embyonic Neutronium "Singularity" Ball At The Center Of A Black Hole Evaporates, I Suggest That Embryonic Neutrons In The "Singularity" Ball Warm Up To Absolute From The CMBR And Produce 10 Solar Masses Of Hydrogen Per Solar Mass Of Embryonic Neutrons Warmed Up To Absolute Zero By The CMBR!!
You assign "singularity" to gravity. I do not. I make it the monopole moment singularity of quantum mechanics. It evaporates and all four forces, all quantum mechanics, the entire quantum field, in the universe evaporates -- the entirety of universe and universes evaporates -- and that isn't going to happen.

There was an article recently that said something to that effect already, all the universe simply evaporating. The possibility existing of the universe instantaneously disappearing if I remember correctly. It made me start thinking about energy and realizing that the future state already existed and housed all of the positive energy of all of the infinities of universes. Future state always being in being as to energy, and past state always being in being as to energy, the universe isn't going to evaporate . . . isn't going to disappear. It becomes impossible.
 
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In reference to the original post:

The Big Bang Theory does not address what started things. It has nothing to say about anything prior to 10^-43 seconds.

There was no energy created or destroyed by the Big Bang. The positive energy of all the mass and energy in the universe is exactly offset by the negative gravitational potential energy of receding galaxies.
im so confused by negative energy statement. energy, in physics, "the capacity for doing work" . Is there a negative amount of work being measured? Sounds lazy
 
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"The possibility of the universe instantaneously disappearing," equaling the theory of its instantaneously appearing.

And it's not the first time for the above. Hawking brings it up in his famous book, 'A Brief History of Time' about physicists having zeroed the universe and becoming bonkers over what they calculated. His response to them was not to worry about it, the universe is already there, will always be there, and has always been there.

My 'Big' problem with the absolute zero of the universes, in all its (Z = 0) absolute '0's glory (including Einstein's visitation to it in his mind's eye trip and Hawking rendition of it in his "Grand Central Station" with its frozen clock in the dead center of it), is that it keeps going 'Bang' (W(+1) || W(-1)) on me (going "null unity") to infinities and eternities . . . in my mind's eye view of it! As someone, next post below, said to me once, "It is, and it isn't."

It's kind of hard to pin down something that "is"! and "isn't"! all at once (at the same time , "[dual out of time]")!
 
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I don't understand it either. They say that the positive energy in the vacuum, created by expansion, is exactly balanced by the negative gravitational potential as the galaxies distance themselves. Negative enrgy is due to "a sign convention", which implies it could also be the opposite. Go figure.
 

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