Boltzmann brains

Jul 24, 2020
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Boltzmann brains
----
Boltzmann brains is a theoretical prediction of random
fluctuations to understand the universe as a whole.
A century ago Boltzmann considered a “cosmology”
where the observed universe should be regarded
as a rare fluctuation out of some equilibrium state
(the entropy of a closed system always increases)
----
The Universe (as whole) is a flat, smooth, homogenous
isotropic and cold.
After every cosmic event horizon there is another similar
cosmic event horizon and so and so . . . to infinity.
There is a fundamental fact in the Nature that the ordinary
matter in the Universe (as whole) is very few, and its critical
density is about 9.9 x 10^-30 g/sm^3. That masses of density
cannot ''close'' the Universe into a sphere and therefore the
Universe as a whole is an infinitely flat continuum.
#
Space is ''pretty flat'' to within 0,5%, according to the
WMAP 2013 measurement.
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In this infinite, zero cold (T=0K) equilibrium ''closed''
continuum the quantum fluctuations take place as
Quantum physics says to us today
and Boltzmann said to us a long time ago.
''Boltzmann Brain'' saves the universe from heat death.
----
What is the conclusion?
1 - Quantum physics is about quantum energy (E=h*f)
2 - Boltzmann thermodynamics is about heat (E=kTlogW)
3 - The unity between Quantum energy and Boltzmann
micro-thermodynamics saves the universe from heat death.
This unity is the basis for Quantum gravity.
This unity is the basis for Star formation.
====
Best wishes.
Israel Sadovnik Sadovnik
========
 

IG2007

"Don't criticize what you can't understand..."
Apr 5, 2020
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Well, I thought we already ruled out the Heat Death theory. Whatever, this gives us more evidence that the heat death theory is false and the universe will be there forever.
 
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Mar 19, 2020
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Well, I thought we already ruled out the Heat Death theory. Whatever, this gives us more evidence that the heat death theory is false and the universe will be there forever.

The heat death can never be reached since energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be "diluted" by expansion.

An infinitesimal trace of heat will always persists.
 
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Jul 24, 2020
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Since the process of heat dilution to reach absolute zero is infinite, that "destination" can never be reached.

By definition, infinity is never attainable, and by logical extension, neither can "zero heat".
''entropy'' destroys the infinite cold zero
 
Jul 24, 2020
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515
Entropy is the process by which energy is "degraded", but not nullified.

Some would infer from this that entropy cannot "destroy" anything.

It is a process of modification, not nullification.
'' . . . the entropy is the natural logarithm of the number
of microstates, multiplied by the Boltzmann constant kB.
Formally (assuming equiprobable microstates),
S = k B ln Ω ''
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy
1 - there is an equiprobable cold microstates
2 - entropy ''destroy'' this equiprobable cold microstates
3 - quantum physics explains this situation as ''fluctuations''
(Casimir effect, Lamb shift . . . )
 
Mar 19, 2020
433
482
560
'' . . . the entropy is the natural logarithm of the number
of microstates, multiplied by the Boltzmann constant kB.
Formally (assuming equiprobable microstates),
S = k B ln Ω ''
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropy
1 - there is an equiprobable cold microstates
2 - entropy ''destroy'' this equiprobable cold microstates
3 - quantum physics explains this situation as ''fluctuations''
(Casimir effect, Lamb shift . . . )
The above might be considered an unqualified comparison :

Also from wiki:

On a cosmic scale: Entropy defined -

"Assuming that a finite universe is an isolated system, the second law of thermodynamics states that its total entropy is continually increasing. It has been speculated, since the 19th century, that the universe is fated to a heat death in which all the energy ends up as a homogeneous distribution of thermal energy so that no more work can be extracted from any source. "

end quote.

So cosmic entropy is defined as "a homogeneous distribution of thermal energy so that no more work can be extracted from any source."

Applications of quantum aspects of entropy are not qualified on a cosmic scale, as often cosmic scale aspects are not qualified in the quantum realm.
 

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