Question CYCLIC UNIVERSE

Apr 13, 2021
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Cyclic Universe
A comprehensive analysis of the compact phase space for Hu-Sawicki f(R) dark energy models including spatial curvature
Kelly MacDevette, Peter Dunsby, Saikat Chakraborty
We present a comprehensive dynamical systems analysis of homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Laîmatre-Robertson-Walker cosmologies in the Hu-Sawicki f(R) dark energy model for the parameter choice {n,C1}={1,1}. For a generic f(R) theory, we outline the procedures of compactification of the phase space, which in general is 4-dimensional. We also outline how, given an f(R) model, one can determine the coordinate of the phase space point that corresponds to the present day universe and the equation of a surface in the phase space that represents the ΛCDM evolution history. Next, we apply these procedures to the Hu-Sawicki model under consideration. We identify some novel features of the phase space of the model such as the existence of invariant submanifolds and 2-dimensional sheets of fixed points. We determine the physically viable region of the phase space, the fixed point corresponding to possible matter dominated epochs and discuss the possibility of a non-singular bounce, re-collapse and cyclic evolution. We also provide a numerical analysis comparing the ΛCDM evolution and the Hu-Sawicki evolution.
Although we look at the Cyclic universe as one theory to explain the working of the universe, one should not discard the Big Bang Theory.
Keep on looking for theories
Advance yourself
Don’t be convinced by my threads and the papers i post
Work through what ever theories with an open mind.
 
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Apr 13, 2021
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They’re many scientists who are looking at the possibility that the parts within the universe recycle from small to mega large

This is one explanation that explains how our SUN has long Jeopardy

[Submitted on 25 Apr 2022]
A non-singular closed bouncing universe without violation of null energy condition
Nasr Ahmed, Tarek M. Kamel, Mohamed I Nouh
A matter bouncing entropy-corrected cosmological model has been suggested. The model allows only positive curvature with negative pressure and no violation of the null energy condition. The result obtained in this paper is supported by some recent theoretical works where the combination of positive spatial curvature and vacuum energy leads to non-singular bounces with no violation of the null energy condition. An important feature of the current model is that evolutions of the cosmic pressure, energy density and equation of state parameter are independent of the values of the prefactors α and β in the corrected entropy-area relation. The validity of the classical and the new nonlinear energy conditions has been discussed. The cosmographic parameters have been analyzed
 
Apr 13, 2021
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[Submitted on 3 Aug 2022]
Regular black holes, universes without singularities, and phantom-scalar field transitions
Leonardo Chataignier, Alexander Yu. Kamenshchik, Alessandro Tronconi, Giovanni Venturi
We consider a procedure of elimination of cosmological singularities similar to that suggested in the recent paper by Simpson and Visser for the construction of regular black holes. It is shown that by imposing a non-singular cosmological evolution with a bounce in a flat Friedmann universe filled with a minimally coupled scalar field, we obtain a transition between the standard scalar field and its phantom counterpart. The potential of the scalar field has in this case a non-analyticity of the cusp type. This result is readily reproduced also in the case of an anisotropic Bianchi I universe.
In search of how the universe function in a never ending cycle.
Since we cannot destroy Matter or Energy
We look at how matter and energy transform from one phase or state to another.
We look a Neutron Stars with Quark matter cores and expand our thinking of the possibilities of denser matter, Transients of Condensates and their properties.
Imagine a core that is able to attract with extreme vector fields preventing EM wave from escaping mimicking a black hole.
We also note a property that we can observe, a dipolar electromagnetic vortex that expels matter.

Put these together and you have a system that is able to recycle matter.
 
Apr 13, 2021
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Quantum Effects in Cosmology
Emmanuel Frion
“Quantum effects play an essential role in modern cosmology. Perhaps the most striking example comes from large-scale structures, generally assumed to originate from vacuum quantum fluctuations and stretched by an expansion phase. Inflation is the leading paradigm in explaining this process. The various observational successes of inflationary models drive the scientific community into elaborating more and more stringent tests, which can simultaneously be used to probe beyond the simple slow-roll, single field inflation. However, inflation is not a theory, and going beyond inflation is a necessity. Various alternatives and/or complementary mechanisms to inflation have been invoked in the literature. The best-known cosmological models endowed with the capacity of explaining large-scale observations while avoiding the singularity form a class called non-singular bouncing models. The main features of these models are the presence of a contraction phase before expansion, and a never-vanishing scale factor. A non-singular bounce generally appears when quantum effects are part of the model, playing the role of a regulator leading to the avoidance of singularities. This thesis focuses on a Hamiltonian formulation of quantum effects in cosmology. We first explore stochastic perturbations in a collapsing universe. Then, we show that quantum cosmology with Bohmian mechanics resolves the initial singularity. Adding a non-minimal coupling of gravity with electromagnetism, we show that the generation of magnetic fields is possible. Finally, we apply the affine quantisation on the Brans-Dicke Theory, the prototype of modified gravity theories, and we discuss the quantum equivalence of the Jordan and Einstein frames within this framework. We show that in both frames a smooth bounce is expected, and that equivalence between frames holds at the quantum level.”
OK
Quantum mechanics to explain the properties of condensed matter.

Condensates may have particles condensed relented to the mass.
Neutron Stars have Neutron matter
Within Neutron stars, the core maybe Quark matter.
Quark Stars may have Partonic and so on.

The properties of such condensed matter being Dipolar Electromagnetic is very important to explaining many images that we can observe ot there.
 
Apr 13, 2021
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We think of the universe evolving from the Big Bang Theory and the nucleosynthesis as a resultant.
I say that the universe is in a constant state of recycling in a never ending time.

So how does it recycle, what states of matter undergo to make the cycle.

Do we have all the answers?

Not yet, although we can discuss some processes.


[Submitted on 1 Sep 2022]
Free Fermion Cyclic/Symmetric Orbifold CFTs and Entanglement Entropy
Tadashi Takayanagi, Takashi Tsuda
In this paper we study the properties of two-dimensional CFTs defined by cyclic and symmetric orbifolds of free Dirac fermions, especially by focusing on the partition function and entanglement entropy. Via the bosonization, we construct the twist operators which glue two complex planes to calculate the partition function of Z_2 orbifold CFT on a torus. We also find an expression of Z_N cyclic orbifold in terms of Hecke operators, which provides an explicit relation between the partition functions of cyclic orbifolds and those of symmetric ones. We compute the entanglement entropy and Renyi entropy in cyclic orbifolds on a circle both for finite temperature states and for time-dependent states under quantum quenches. We find that the replica method calculation is highly non-trivial and new because of the contributions from replicas with different boundary conditions. We find the full expression for the Z_2 orbifold and show that the periodicity gets doubled. Finally, we discuss extensions of our results on entanglement entropy to symmetric orbifold CFTs and make a heuristic argument towards holographic CFTs.
 

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