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Entropy

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hiredgun1946

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<p><em>Here is a response to one aspect of Entropy from the "Ask The Astronomer" forum from 2001. I was so fascinated that I have kept this response on my hard drive all this time.</em></p><p><font size="2">"The universe IS getting colder. It's overall temperature is just a couple of degrees above absolute zero (the temp of the cosmic microwave background). Fortunately, we have the sun to keep us warm. </font></p><p><font size="2">As for stars, the raw material necessary for stellar reproduction will eventually be too reprocessed to create new stars (stellar incest?). As it is now, older stars have more primitive elements in them, while the later generations contain more metals. To get a sun going, you need hydrogen, and as plentiful as this is in the current universe, it is not an inexhaustible supply. </font></p><p><font size="2">Here's a quick synopsis of the future of the universe. If expansion continues, and there's every indication that it will, then the fate of the universe is sealed. Ten trillion years from now, long after the sun and solar type stars have burned out, many of the red dwarf stars will still be shining, but their population will be in decline. </font></p><p><font size="2">Star formation will cease and the universe will move into a "degenerate era" 1,000 trillion years from now when the only remaining stellar objects will be black hole remnants, neutron stars, and white and brown dwarfs. Concurrently, low levels of energy may be generated when WIMPs or particles of dark matter are captured by white dwarfs and annihilated in their cores. As the WIMPs are swept out of galactic halos, the energy in the universe will continue to fall. The mass of the white dwarfs and neutron stars will begin to dissipate through "proton decay," whereby ordinary mass is created into radiation. These remnants will eventually evaporate. </font></p><p><font size="2">Outliving them all (for awhile) will be black holes, however even these objects won't endure. By 10^38 years, their enormous masses will begin diffusing into space as thermal radiation and photons via quantum mechanical processes. By 10^98 years, they will have all vanished. </font></p><p><font size="2">Following this, 10^100 years from now and beyond, the cosmological "dark era" ensues. The universe will consist of a thinning sea of electrons, positrons, neutrinos, and radiation. Besides this tenuous diffusion, all that will remain will be dark, empty space."</font><font size="3"> </font></p> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <font size="1">Not rich enough for a tax break.</font> </div>
 
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weeman

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Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>Here is a response to one aspect of Entropy from the "Ask The Astronomer" forum from 2001. I was so fascinated that I have kept this response on my hard drive all this time."The universe IS getting colder. It's overall temperature is just a couple of degrees above absolute zero (the temp of the cosmic microwave background). Fortunately, we have the sun to keep us warm. As for stars, the raw material necessary for stellar reproduction will eventually be too reprocessed to create new stars (stellar incest?). As it is now, older stars have more primitive elements in them, while the later generations contain more metals. To get a sun going, you need hydrogen, and as plentiful as this is in the current universe, it is not an inexhaustible supply. Here's a quick synopsis of the future of the universe. If expansion continues, and there's every indication that it will, then the fate of the universe is sealed. Ten trillion years from now, long after the sun and solar type stars have burned out, many of the red dwarf stars will still be shining, but their population will be in decline. Star formation will cease and the universe will move into a "degenerate era" 1,000 trillion years from now when the only remaining stellar objects will be black hole remnants, neutron stars, and white and brown dwarfs. Concurrently, low levels of energy may be generated when WIMPs or particles of dark matter are captured by white dwarfs and annihilated in their cores. As the WIMPs are swept out of galactic halos, the energy in the universe will continue to fall. The mass of the white dwarfs and neutron stars will begin to dissipate through "proton decay," whereby ordinary mass is created into radiation. These remnants will eventually evaporate. Outliving them all (for awhile) will be black holes, however even these objects won't endure. By 10^38 years, their enormous masses will begin diffusing into space as thermal radiation and photons via quantum mechanical processes. By 10^98 years, they will have all vanished. Following this, 10^100 years from now and beyond, the cosmological "dark era" ensues. The universe will consist of a thinning sea of electrons, positrons, neutrinos, and radiation. Besides this tenuous diffusion, all that will remain will be dark, empty space." <br />Posted by hiredgun1946</DIV><br /><br />...And at 10^150 years, the last remaining form of matter in the universe will be Chuck Norris <img src="http://sitelife.space.com/ver1.0/content/scripts/tinymce/plugins/emotions/images/smiley-wink.gif" border="0" alt="Wink" title="Wink" /> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p> </p><p><strong><font color="#ff0000">Techies: We do it in the dark. </font></strong></p><p><font color="#0000ff"><strong>"Put your hand on a stove for a minute and it seems like an hour. Sit with that special girl for an hour and it seems like a minute. That's relativity.</strong><strong>" -Albert Einstein </strong></font></p> </div>
 
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weeman

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<p>But no seriously, it is amazing to think how far into the future the universe might go! I can't even wrap my mind around a billion years, much less a trillion years! What is a trillion? Too much to think about, it makes my head hurt! </p><p>So my question is what will happen to the universe after 10^100 years? Will the expansion of space go on until 10^200 years? Or will expanding space cease to be once all of the last traces of matter finally evaporate into nothing?</p> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p> </p><p><strong><font color="#ff0000">Techies: We do it in the dark. </font></strong></p><p><font color="#0000ff"><strong>"Put your hand on a stove for a minute and it seems like an hour. Sit with that special girl for an hour and it seems like a minute. That's relativity.</strong><strong>" -Albert Einstein </strong></font></p> </div>
 
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WandererFelix

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After looking at yesterdays image of the day, I have been amazed at how long the universe has actually grown. there are so many interesting things out there that are incredible to see, and to wonder what it would be like to be out there and explore new worlds etc.
 
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baulten

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<p>It's very depressing to think that no matter how hard we try, it's virtually guaranteed that we will never save the universe or ourselves.&nbsp; At some point, entropy will always win.&nbsp;</p>
 
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MeteorWayne

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<p><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>It's very depressing to think that no matter how hard we try, it's virtually guaranteed that we will never save the universe or ourselves.&nbsp; At some point, entropy will always win.&nbsp; <br />Posted by baulten</DIV></p><p>Not that depressing, since it's billions of years down the road,,,</p> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font color="#000080"><em><font color="#000000">But the Krell forgot one thing John. Monsters. Monsters from the Id.</font></em> </font></p><p><font color="#000080">I really, really, really, really miss the "first unread post" function</font><font color="#000080"> </font></p> </div>
 
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doubletruncation

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<p><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>Here is a response to one aspect of Entropy from the "Ask The Astronomer" forum from 2001. I was so fascinated that I have kept this response on my hard drive all this time."The universe IS getting colder. It's overall temperature is just a couple of degrees above absolute zero (the temp of the cosmic microwave background). Fortunately, we have the sun to keep us warm. As for stars, the raw material necessary for stellar reproduction will eventually be too reprocessed to create new stars (stellar incest?). As it is now, older stars have more primitive elements in them, while the later generations contain more metals. To get a sun going, you need hydrogen, and as plentiful as this is in the current universe, it is not an inexhaustible supply. Here's a quick synopsis of the future of the universe. If expansion continues, and there's every indication that it will, then the fate of the universe is sealed. Ten trillion years from now, long after the sun and solar type stars have burned out, many of the red dwarf stars will still be shining, but their population will be in decline. Star formation will cease and the universe will move into a "degenerate era" 1,000 trillion years from now when the only remaining stellar objects will be black hole remnants, neutron stars, and white and brown dwarfs. Concurrently, low levels of energy may be generated when WIMPs or particles of dark matter are captured by white dwarfs and annihilated in their cores. As the WIMPs are swept out of galactic halos, the energy in the universe will continue to fall. The mass of the white dwarfs and neutron stars will begin to dissipate through "proton decay," whereby ordinary mass is created into radiation. These remnants will eventually evaporate. Outliving them all (for awhile) will be black holes, however even these objects won't endure. By 10^38 years, their enormous masses will begin diffusing into space as thermal radiation and photons via quantum mechanical processes. By 10^98 years, they will have all vanished. Following this, 10^100 years from now and beyond, the cosmological "dark era" ensues. The universe will consist of a thinning sea of electrons, positrons, neutrinos, and radiation. Besides this tenuous diffusion, all that will remain will be dark, empty space." <br /> Posted by hiredgun1946</DIV></p><p>This is a very moving post to read!&nbsp; Thanks for bringing it back!&nbsp;</p> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> </div>
 
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neilsox

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<p><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>Here is a response to one aspect of Entropy from the "Ask The Astronomer" forum from 2001. I was so fascinated that I have kept this response on my hard drive all this time."The universe IS getting colder. It's overall temperature is just a couple of degrees above absolute zero (the temp of the cosmic microwave background). Fortunately, we have the sun to keep us warm. As for stars, the raw material necessary for stellar reproduction will eventually be too reprocessed to create new stars (stellar incest?). As it is now, older stars have more primitive elements in them, while the later generations contain more metals. To get a sun going, you need hydrogen, and as plentiful as this is in the current universe, it is not an inexhaustible supply. Here's a quick synopsis of the future of the universe. If expansion continues, and there's every indication that it will, then the fate of the universe is sealed. Ten trillion years from now, long after the sun and solar type stars have burned out, many of the red dwarf stars will still be shining, but their population will be in decline. Star formation will cease and the universe will move into a "degenerate era" 1,000 trillion years from now when the only remaining stellar objects will be black hole remnants, neutron stars, and white and brown dwarfs. Concurrently, low levels of energy may be generated when WIMPs or particles of dark matter are captured by white dwarfs and annihilated in their cores. As the WIMPs are swept out of galactic halos, the energy in the universe will continue to fall. The mass of the white dwarfs and neutron stars will begin to dissipate through "proton decay," whereby ordinary mass is created into radiation. These remnants will eventually evaporate. Outliving them all (for awhile) will be black holes, however even these objects won't endure. By 10^38 years, their enormous masses will begin diffusing into space as thermal radiation and photons via quantum mechanical processes. By 10^98 years, they will have all vanished. Following this, 10^100 years from now and beyond, the cosmological "dark era" ensues. The universe will consist of a thinning sea of electrons, positrons, neutrinos, and radiation. Besides this tenuous diffusion, all that will remain will be dark, empty space." <br />Posted by hiredgun1946</DIV><br />A few decades ago, many people thought expansion of the universe ment local expansion proportional to the expanion occuring over 13 billion lightyears. The consensis now seems to be, that neither the galaxy nor the local group of galaxies will participate in the expansion. The spacing of the local&nbsp;stars will be about the same a trillion years from now. Except for the dimmest M class stars, all the present stars will be compact stars, most of which will have cooled to a few hundred degrees c&nbsp;. The formation of new gas clouds and thus star birth has perhaps halved in mass,&nbsp;the past two billion years, and new stars will likely be rare a trillion years from now. Naked eye objects will likely be few to none in most parts of our galaxy in a trillion years.</p><p>The therories regarding proton decay, are fading, so that part, and the&nbsp;even farther in the future events may be quite different than this accounts suggests.&nbsp;&nbsp; Neil&nbsp;</p>
 
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weeman

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Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>Not that depressing, since it's billions of years down the road,,, <br />Posted by MeteorWayne</DIV><br /><br />Yes, but if reincarnation is true, in 12 billion lifetimes from now you <em>will </em>have to worry about it! <img src="http://sitelife.space.com/ver1.0/content/scripts/tinymce/plugins/emotions/images/smiley-laughing.gif" border="0" alt="Laughing" title="Laughing" />&nbsp; <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p> </p><p><strong><font color="#ff0000">Techies: We do it in the dark. </font></strong></p><p><font color="#0000ff"><strong>"Put your hand on a stove for a minute and it seems like an hour. Sit with that special girl for an hour and it seems like a minute. That's relativity.</strong><strong>" -Albert Einstein </strong></font></p> </div>
 
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