How many forms of dark matter are there? And why?

Catastrophe

"Science begets knowledge, opinion ignorance.
Some may like to comment on the origial assumption that dark matter exists? Was it a fudge factor to explain away extra mass which should not be there? Opinions will probably differ.

However, even the Encyclopaedia Britannica is now describing two kinds of dark matter. Other sources are suggesting more than two. Anyone like to comment on why one assumption is now requiring to be split by more assumptions?

Can anyone define "dark matter" without resorting to hyperbole. We can't account for this "missing mass" (as it was formerly called) so let's say that it is "dark matter". Perhaaps it might have been more honest to continue calling it "missing mass"?

Here are the relevant starters from Encyclopaedia Britannica:

Dark matter | Definition, Discovery, Distribution, & Facts | Britannica

dark matter, a component of the universe whose presence is discerned from its gravitational attraction rather than its luminosity. Dark matter makes up 30.
Matter is 30.6 percent of the universe’s matter-energy composition. Only 0.5 percent is in the mass of stars and 0.03 percent of that matter is in the form of elements heavier than hydrogen. The rest is dark matter. Two varieties of dark matter have been found to exist. The first variety is about 4.5 percent of the universe and is made of the familiar baryons (i.e., protons, neutrons, and atomic nuclei), which also make up the luminous stars and galaxies. [My emphasis]

********************************************************

1 percent of the matter-energy composition of the universe; the rest is dark energy (69.4 percent) and “ordinary” visible matter (0.5 percent).

The dark matter that comprises the other 26.1 percent of the universe’s matter is in an unfamiliar, nonbaryonic form.

The dark matter that comprises the other 26.1 percent of the universe’s matter is in an unfamiliar, nonbaryonic form. The dark matter that comprises the other 26.1 percent of the universe’s matter is in an unfamiliar, nonbaryonic form.

************************************************************

Cat :)
 
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Catastrophe

"Science begets knowledge, opinion ignorance.
You might like to read all the Wiki section to get some balance, but it does start:

Dark matter is a hypothetical form of matter thought to account for approximately 85% of the matter in the universe.[1] Dark matter is called "dark" because it does not appear to interact with the electromagnetic field, which means it does not absorb, reflect, or emit electromagnetic radiation and is, therefore, difficult to detect. Various astrophysical observations – including gravitational effects which cannot be explained by currently accepted theories of gravity unless more matter is present than can be seen – imply dark matter's presence. For this reason, most experts think that dark matter is abundant in the universe and has had a strong influence on its structure and evolution.[2]

Cat :)

Also from Encyclopaedia Britannica:

Originally known as the “missing mass,” dark matter’s existence was first inferred by Swiss American astronomer Fritz Zwicky, who in 1933 discovered that the mass of all the stars in the Coma cluster of galaxies provided only about 1 percent of the mass needed to keep the galaxies from escaping the cluster’s gravitational pull.
 
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Benjamin Franklin Quotes):

“Tell me and I forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn.”
"We must, indeed, all hang together or, most assuredly, we shall all hang separately."
"Guests, like fish, begin to smell after three days."
"By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail."

Dark Matter Can Never Be Explained By The Three Million Physicists Of Today Because The Physicists Do Not Know How Gravitational Force Is Generated By Matter And That Gravitational Force Is The Direct Function Of Mass And The Rate At Which The Matter Particles Of The Mass Heat Up As Evidenced By The History Of Our Sun And Its Projected Future!!
1): Take Our Own Sun As An Example Of Gravity Generation As Our Sun’s Matter Heats Up!!):
A): We Are Given That Our Sun Formed From The Collapse Of A Molecular Hydrogen-Helium Cloud At 10 Degrees Kelvin!!
B): We Are Given That For The Past 5 Billion Years That Our Sun Has Been Heating Up And Generating Gravity!!
C): We Are Given That Our Sun Will Heat Up By 6% Per Billion Years For The Next 5 Billion Years While Generating Gravity!!
D): In 5 Billion Years); We Are Given That Our Sun Will Start Cooling From 7777 Kelvin To 3000 Kelvin While Net Emitting The Stored Anti-Gravity/Dark Energy Stored Inside The Nucleon, Electron And Neutrino Indestructible Mass-Energy Vessel Permeable Hovering Sacs In The Form Of Compressed GP1 Aether Particles That Were Stored During The 10 Billion Years That Our Sun Heated Up And Generated Gravity Blowing Off Half Its Mass Leaving A White Dwarf Remnant About The Size Of Earth At 200,000 Times Earth Density!!
E): One Proof That As Matter Cools And Net Expels GP1 Aether Particles); Dark Energy Is Released Is The Red Giant Phase Of Our Sun’s Life Cycle And All Red Giant Stars!!
2): From Observations Of Bullet Clusters We Know That Gravity And Dark Matter Gravity Stays With The Star Matter And Dark Neutrino Matter Heating Up From The Radiant Energy Of Stars And Not With An Equal Amount Of Cooling Hot Gaseous Matter Left Behind As The Two Galactic Clusters Separate!!
 
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So, it sounds like a small portion of dark matter is comprised of individual protons and electrons with a smattering of temporary neutrons and other particles. We can see the effects of dust and gas, but not these particles.
The real dark matter seems to be kinda like neutrinos, they’re all over the place, but, doesn’t bother with anyone else.
I wonder if there are dark protons, electrons, neutrons, neutrinos, and all that; and even anti-dark matter.
 
Some may like to comment on the origial assumption that dark matter exists? Was it a fudge factor to explain away extra mass which should not be there? Opinions will probably differ.
Yes, it was a "fudge factor", but perhaps dark fudge. ;)

As usual, the history that has led us to this point is very interesting.

Serendipity struck in 1933 when Fritz Zwicky published his work on the extra orbital speed he found, unexpectantly, for galaxies in a cluster (Coma cluster) as these stars traveled around their common center of gravity. When all the matter was estimated for what was visible, he easily calculated that there was many times more matter necessary to explain their movements. Since he couldn't see this matter, he coined the term "dark matter".

Notice that not much happened for about three decades. This was because there was little to no additional lines of evidence to address dark matter.

Along came Vera Rubin and Ford(?). She got access to a high quality spectrometer and used it on the motions of the stars orbiting the c.g. of the Andromeda galaxy. She was able to demonstrate that these stars were moving at about the same velocity regardless of their distance from the center, completely opposite of what was expected using Kepler's laws. Dark matter was the best explanation.

A great deal of studies, apparently, have shown that no wavelength of EM radiation reacts with it. Astronomers can determine, somewhat, its distribution around galaxies, thanks to things like lensing, so they know it's there, but it, so far, is only found to behave like invisible matter.

I would bet there are many dozens of papers offering hypotheses on what it might be, and many have failed, or discredited, when tests became available.

I think the definitions you gave are pretty good.

Though an amateur, I think this is one time GR can be used to help explain something even though GR is quite complex (in math) , and it's uncommon to use it. We know from GR that matter alters spacetime, bending it more and more for greater and greater mass concentrations. This is our best description for gravity. DM is something that does this. Thus, we have physicality, if you like attempts at using a modern phrase. :) But we can't grab it, much less put it in a test tube....yet.
 
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Jun 11, 2023
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So, it sounds like a small portion of dark matter is comprised of individual protons and electrons with a smattering of temporary neutrons and other particles. We can see the effects of dust and gas, but not these particles.
The real dark matter seems to be kinda like neutrinos, they’re all over the place, but, doesn’t bother with anyone else.
I wonder if there are dark protons, electrons, neutrons, neutrinos, and all that; and even anti-dark matter.
No!! Neutrons, Protons And Electrons Are Covered Under Matter Gravity!!

I Suggest That Gravity Is The Direct Function Of Matter Heating Up And Dark Neutrino Matter Heating Up!!

Sooooo): In My Novel Concept The Dark Matter Causing The Observed Lack Of Decline In The Steller Velocity With Increases In Galactic Radius Is Dark Neutrino Matter That Is Heating Up From The Stellar Radiant Heat!!

Astrophysicists Confuse Themselves And You By Thinking That Each And Every Particle Of Mass Is A Perpetual Energy Machine!!

When In Fact Matter And Dark Neutrino Matter Can Only Generate Gravity As The Matter Particles Heat Up!!

Adoni Believes His Postulate To Be Correct Because Only Adoni Evolves Neutron Indestructible Permeable Sacs From God Particle 1s (GP1s) Defined As The Tiniest Compressible-Decompressible Gaseous Particle Of Mass In The Universe About A Quintillionth The Mass Of The Electron Over Infinite Time In A Finite Ageless Universe With Actual Physical Matter And Energy Reflective Edges More Than 28 Billion Light Years Across!!
 
Jun 11, 2023
181
9
85
Visit site
Yes, it was a "fudge factor", but perhaps dark fudge. ;)

As usual, the history that has led us to this point is very interesting.

Serendipity struck in 1933 when Fritz Zwicky published his work on the extra orbital speed he found, unexpectantly, for galaxies in a cluster (Coma cluster) as these stars traveled around their common center of gravity. When all the matter was estimated for what was visible, he easily calculated that there was many times more matter necessary to explain their movements. Since he couldn't see this matter, he coined the term "dark matter".

Notice that not much happened for about three decades. This was because there was little to no additional lines of evidence to address dark matter.

Along came Vera Rubin and Ford(?). She got access to a high quality spectrometer and used it on the motions of the stars orbiting the c.g. of the Andromeda galaxy. She was able to demonstrate that these stars were moving at about the same velocity regardless of their distance from the center, completely opposite of what was expected using Kepler's laws. Dark matter was the best explanation.

A great deal of studies, apparently, have shown that no wavelength of EM radiation reacts with it. Astronomers can determine, somewhat, its distribution around galaxies, thanks to things like lensing, so they know it's there, but it, so far, is only found to behave like invisible matter.

I would bet there are many dozens of papers offering hypotheses on what it might be, and many have failed, or discredited, when tests became available.

I think the definitions you gave are pretty good.

Though an amateur, I think this is one time GR can be used to help explain something even though GR is quite complex (in math) , and it's uncommon to use it. We know from GR that matter alters spacetime, bending it more and more for greater and greater mass concentrations. This is our best description for gravity. DM is something that does this. Thus, we have physicality, if you like attempts at using a modern phrase. :) But we can't grab it, much less put it in a test tube....yet.
Once You Guys Begin To View): Neutrons, Protons, Electrons And Neutrinos As Indestructible Permeable Mass-Energy Vessel Sacs That Physically Store Both Matter And Energy In The Form Of Compressed GP1 Real Gaseous Particles Of Mass About A Quintillionth The Mass Of The Electron All The Mysteries Of Modern Physics Will Be Reveiled To You Or Figured Out By You!!
The Fact Of The Matter Is That You Guys And The 3 Million Expert Physicists Of The World Can Never Understand Matter Gravity And Dark Matter Gravity Generation Until You Understand That Gravitational Force Is The Direct Function Of Mass And The Rate At Which The Matter Particles Of Mass Heat Up And The Dark Matter Neutrino Particles Heat Up As Evidenced By The History Of Our Sun And Its Projected Future!!):
1): Take Our Own Sun As An Example Of Gravity Generation As Our Sun’s Matter Heats Up!!):
A): We Are Given That Our Sun Formed From The Collapse Of A Molecular Hydrogen-Helium Cloud At 10 Degrees Kelvin!!
B): We Are Given That For The Past 5 Billion Years That Our Sun Has Been Heating Up And Generating Gravity!!
C): We Are Given That Our Sun Will Heat Up By 6% Per Billion Years For The Next 5 Billion Years While Generating Gravity!!
D): In 5 Billion Years); We Are Given That Our Sun Will Start Cooling From 7777 Kelvin To 3000 Kelvin While Net Emitting The Stored Anti-Gravity/Dark Energy Stored Inside The Nucleon, Electron And Neutrino Indestructible Mass-Energy Vessel Permeable Hovering Sacs In The Form Of Compressed GP1 Aether Particles That Were Stored During The 10 Billion Years That Our Sun Heated Up And Generated Gravity Blowing Off Half Its Mass Leaving A White Dwarf Remnant About The Size Of Earth At 200,000 Times Earth Density!!
E): One Proof That As Matter Cools And Net Expels GP1 Aether Particles); Dark Energy Is Released Is The Red Giant Phase Of Our Sun’s Life Cycle And All Red Giant Stars!!
2): From Observations Of Bullet Clusters We Know That Gravity And Dark Matter Gravity Stays With The Star Matter And Dark Neutrino Matter Heating Up From The Radiant Energy Of Stars And Not With An Equal Amount Of Cooling Hot Gaseous Matter Left Behind As The Two Galactic Clusters Separate!!
You Guys Have Nothing To Lose From Viewing Neutrons, Protons, Electrons And Neutrinos As Indestructible Permeable Mass-Energy Vessel Sacs That Store Both Matter And Energy In The Form Of Compressed GP1 Physically Real Gaseous Particles Of Mass About A Quintillionth The Mass Of The Electron Inside The Matter Sacs!!