James Webb Space Telescope spies most ancient galaxies ever observed

Dec 27, 2022
"light that has been traveling for so long that the expansion of the universe has stretched its wavelength. This stretching of light is called redshift"

There is no stretching - the wavelength of light is invariable. Frequency and speed vary proportionally, in accordance with the formula

(frequency) = (speed of light)/(wavelength)

If light can slow down in vacuum, then we have a static-universe explanation of both the cosmological (Hubble) redshift and Halton Arp's intrinsic redshift. The idea of slow speed of light in vacuum is not too preposterous:

"Some physicists, however, suggest that there might be one other cosmic factor that could influence the speed of light: quantum vacuum fluctuation. This theory holds that so-called empty spaces in the Universe aren't actually empty - they're teeming with particles that are just constantly changing from existent to non-existent states. Quantum fluctuations, therefore, could slow down the speed of light." https://www.sciencealert.com/how-much-do-we-really-know-about-the-speed-of-light

Can light slow down in vacuum? Yes:

"The speed of light is a limit, not a constant - that's what researchers in Glasgow, Scotland, say. A group of them just proved that light can be slowed down, permanently..."But once that pattern has been imposed - even now the light is no longer in the mask, it's just propagating in free space - the speed is still slow," Padgett added." http://www.upi.com/Science_News/2015/01/23/Scientists-slow-down-light-particles/1191422035480

"Glasgow researchers slow the speed of light"
View: https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x2ffsym

"Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein’s theory of relativity...If it’s possible to slow the speed of light by altering its structure, it may also be possible to speed up light. The researchers are now planning to use FROG to measure other types of structured light that their calculations have predicted may travel around 1 femtosecond faster than the speed of light in a vacuum." https://www.optica.org/en-us/about/newsroom/news_releases/2016/slowing_down_light_with_a_twist/
"The researchers' analysis of data collected from JWST's near-infrared camera (NIRCam) and Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) instrument allowed them to determine that the four galaxies designated JADES-GS-z10–0, JADES-GS-z11–0, JADES-GS-z12–0, and JADES-GS-z13–0 do indeed have extreme redshifts, of 10.3 to 13.2. (JADES, by the way, stands for "JWST Advanced Deep Extragalactic Survey.") They came to this conclusion because the spectra from these galaxies lack the telltale signature of heavy elements like carbon, meaning JWST is seeing them as they were when the universe was just 300 to 500 million years old. (The universe is currently about 13.8 billion years old.)"

My observation. The report does not show they found gas that is zero-metals. Did JWST see pristine gas clouds from BBN then? I did not see this in the report. I note from the paper cited: "In the Methods, the stellar and gas-phase metallicities are shown to be poorly constrained but consistent with being under a tenth of the solar value, and the visual dust attenuation in these galaxies is AV ≲ 0.3 mag, with large uncertainty. The integrated yield of a previous Type II supernovae is enough to enrich these galaxies with metals provided at least roughly 10% of ejected metals remain and that the SFH has been sustained longer than 10 Myr (ref. 46)."

My observation, apparently no zero-metal gas clouds are seen here by JWST. The abstract states: "Surveys with the James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST) have discovered candidate galaxies in the first 400 Myr of cosmic time. Preliminary indications have suggested these candidate galaxies may be more massive and abundant than previously thought. However, without confirmed distances, their inferred properties remain uncertain. Here we identify four galaxies located in the JWST Advanced Deep Extragalactic Survey Near-Infrared Camera imaging with photometric redshifts z of roughly 10–13. These galaxies include the first redshift z > 12 systems discovered with distances spectroscopically confirmed by JWST in a companion paper. Using stellar population modelling, we find the galaxies typically contain 100 million solar masses in stars, in stellar populations that are less than 100 million years old. The moderate star-formation rates and compact sizes suggest elevated star-formation rate surface densities, a key indicator of their formation pathways. Taken together, these measurements show that the first galaxies contributing to cosmic reionization formed rapidly and with intense internal radiation fields."

There are words of caution like *poorly constrained* and *their inferred properties remain uncertain*.

Using cosmology calculators, z=13.2, the comoving radial distance = 33.386 Gly away from Earth today. There is no way to know if this galaxy continued to evolve as BB cosmology interprets based upon using look back time distances for others. At the comoving radial distance, space is expanding ~ 2.36 c velocity. There seems to be a very number of parameters/assumptions used to explain what is seen by JWST with redshifts in the range of 10-13 or so.
  • Like
Reactions: billslugg

Latest posts