MOND and some interesting history.

Jzz

May 10, 2021
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Recently MOND has made something of a comeback and has been proposed as an alternative explanation to Dark Matter to explain the behaviour of the movement and speeds of Galaxies. Originally more widely referred to as Modified Newtonian Dynamics, the current usage is Milgromian Dynamics, after the original proposer of the theory. Modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) is a theory that proposes a modification of Newton's second law, namely (F = ma) to account for the observed properties of galaxies. Its primary motivation is to explain galactic rotational curves without invoking dark matter. However, recent findings seem to discredit the MOND theory. For instance, MOND predicts noticeable gravitational effects at small scales, but tests involving Saturn's orbit during the Cassini mission showed no such anomalies, these findings support Newtonian gravity over MOND in the solar system.

But leaving aside the discussion of MOND for the moment. It is found that corroboration for the Newtonian concept of gravity might be found in an unusual source. In 1947, at a time when science was still shrouded in the exceptional security entailed by a World War, Willis E Lamb had discovered empirical evidence for the existence of ‘virtual’ photons. This discovery was corroborated by Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga who clarified Bethe's explanation of the Lamb shift: namely that it occurs when an atom emits and absorbs virtual, unobservable photons. It was found that virtual photons are not only emitted from the same atom and captured again, but can also be exchanged between different atoms. Willis E Lamb was of the firm opinion that ALL electrons experience the Lamb shift but that these interactions were masked, in multiple electron atoms, by the presence of other electrons and hence difficult if not impossible to distinguish in multiple electron atoms. The Lamb shift can either be a self-interaction by the electron emitting and re-absorbing photons either with itself or an interaction with nearby electrons.

A major consideration that has been overlooked with regard to the Lamb shift is that by means of emitting and absorbing ‘virtual’ photons, the electron is self-regulating its energy and therefore the possibility of its losing energy and spiralling into the atomic nucleus does not exist. This point, namely that electrons, as clearly shown by numerous experiments, should radiate away their energy and fall into the nucleus, was the main foundation for the introduction of wave-particle duality. If the electron were represented as a wave within the atom, the possibility of the electron falling into the nucleus did not arise, since a wave is diffuse in nature and cannot radiate.

The existence of ‘virtual’ particles has been proved and is extensively acknowledged in the explanation of the nucleus. Willis Lamb had discovered and proven the existence of ‘virtual’ particles through reproducible, empirical experiments. Yet because of the tight security under which scientific discoveries were kept in this era, the discovery of the existence of virtual particles never made it to the public forum. Think of what this means: the fact that electrons within the atom were constantly emitting and absorbing virtual particles meant that they were in effect self-regulating their own energy and the chances of an electron falling into the nucleus did not arise. The fact that electrons self-regulate their energy negates the need for wave-particle duality. It should be remembered the main reason for introducing wave-particle duality was based on the facts that accelerated electrons would radiate away all of their energy, in a matter of pico-seconds and fall into the nucleus. The mystery that engaged scientists in the early days of quantum mechanics was how could atoms and matter exist, if electrons radiated away their energy. The explanation they came up with for the existence of atoms, matter, the earth, the solar system and the Universe was wave particle duality. BUT, the Lamb shift proved conclusively that atoms self-regulated their energy and therefore precluded the possibility of electrons spiralling into the nucleus in a matter of pico-seconds. Yet because of the lack of a public forum for discussion this possibility was never considered.

But what if, bear with me for a second, the entire Universe was permeated at every point by almost stationary infinitesimal electric dipoles? (As to how the Universe can be completely permeated with such electric dipoles an intriguing possibility exists, look at the two links provided. ) In fact, the possibility exists that Dark Matter is just such a substance. Dark Matter is a perfect analog for the erstwhile much denigrated concept of an aether, and since it occupies 85% of all the mass in the Universe, there is a high probability that what we took to be the aether was in fact Dark Matter. But what is Dark Matter? An answer can be found in the matter to photon ratio. It is found that photons are produced at the rate of hundreds of trillions of photons per second for every excited atom. What if the Big Bang was accompanied by the creation of photons in that ratio, where did they go? Obviously, they could not cross over the edge of the Universe, instead they stayed within the Universe permeating the whole of the Universe, filling every part of it. As the Universe expanded these photons lost energy until finally they had a very low energy of about 10^-40 J. These photons represented tiny, infinitesimal electric dipoles.

What if every time an electron orbiting the nucleus emitted a virtual photon, it resulted in the alignment of the electric dipoles into a line whose ends rested on infinity for an infinitesimal amount of time. This exchange of virtual photons by the electron would be often and continuous. The alignment of the dipoles when a virtual photon was emitted would be very brief, lasting no more than 10^-16 s. However, when this aligned line of electric dipoles landed on another object it represented the shortest distance between the two objects, having the effect of drawing them closer together. Think about it this is gravity as an emergent property of matter that Newton was so passionate about. It is very, very weak at 10^40 times less powerful than the electromagnetic force, it is unremitting, it varies with the density (number of electrons), it is relentless it is an over-arching force that acts ceaselessly. It emerges from the centre of objects. To read more about this new theory read my paper on : “The Electromagnetic Universe” on Academia, a link to which is given below: https://www.academia.edu/37258409/The_Electromagnetic_Universe_docx

and also my paper on “Redefining Electrons”. : https://tinyurl.com/4pfnjv43

References

  1. Milgrom, M. (1983). "A modification of the Newtonian dynamics as a possible alternative to the hidden mass hypothesis." The Astrophysical Journal, 270, 365-370.
  2. Iorio, L. (2012). "Solar system constraints on a Rindler-type extra-acceleration from modified Newtonian dynamics." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 419(1), 222-228.
  3. Lamb, W. E., & Retherford, R. C. (1947). "Fine Structure of the Hydrogen Atom by a Microwave Method." Physical Review, 72(3), 241-243.
  4. Bethe, H. A. (1947). "The Electromagnetic Shift of Energy Levels." Physical Review, 72(4), 339-341.
  5. Feynman, R. P., & Gell-Mann, M. (1958). "Theory of the Fermi Interaction." Physical Review, 109(1), 193-198.
  6. Lamb, W. E. (1952). "Nobel Lecture: Fine Structure of the Hydrogen Atom." Nobel Prize in Physics.
 

Jzz

May 10, 2021
198
61
4,660
Visit site
The most salient part of this post is the passage: Think about it this is gravity as an emergent property of matter that Newton was so passionate about. It is very, very weak at 10^40 times less powerful than the electromagnetic force, it is unremitting, it varies with the density (number of electrons present in an atom), it is relentless it is an over-arching force that acts ceaselessly. It emerges from the centre of objects.
 

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