No One Can Agree How Fast Universe Is Expanding. New Measure Makes Things Worse.

Jan 10, 2020
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Just two questions: (1) Would we measure the same Hubble Constant for a light beam passing near our Sol as we would measure for a light beam approaching the Sun? In other words, light arriving from Galaxies near the North Star (90 degree declination) may have a "constant" Hubble Constant because it is always 90 degrees to the Sun, but light arriving from Galaxies near Betelgeuse (0 degree declination) may vary over the year based on the angle of arriving light relative to our Sun.
 
Jan 10, 2020
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Second Question: Has anyone considered that light may travel at a constant speed, but that the light may simply "lose energy" or slowly decay to a lower frequency as it passes multiple galactic gravity wells? Perhaps like a car driving down a hill, it doesn't increase in frequency as it draws closer to a gravity well, but it ever-so-slightly decreases in frequency as it passes through each gravity well. How slightly? The Hubble Constant makes an assumption that neither the speed of light nor the frequency of a light photon changes. That may be a fallacious assumption. How could we measure this? Look at the two quasars: one originating near Sagittarius (near the center of Milky Way) and another quasar diametrically opposed in March (when the sun is nearly aligned with the Milky Way center), and compare this with the same two quasars in September (when the sun is diametrically opposed to the Milky Way center. I suspect we will find four different Hubble Constants. You have my permission to call this new quantity the "Braswell Variable".
 
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rod

Oct 22, 2019
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For those interested, here are some cosmology calculators where you can plug in different parameters and see the answers, https://ned.ipac.caltech.edu/help/cosmology_calc.html

Measuring the redshifts and spectra for remote objects is critical measurements. Some amateurs today can measure the redshifts of some quasars in their backyards :). Special Relativity and General Relativity equations used.

"Using the Hubble Space Telescope, the H0LiCOW team studied the light from six quasars between 3 billion and 6.5 billion light-years away from Earth. As the quasars' black holes gobbled material, their light would flicker.

The intervening gravitationally lensing galaxy bent each quasar's light, and so the quasar's flickering arrived at Earth at different times depending on what path it took around the foreground galaxy, Chen said. The length of the time delay provided a way to probe the expansion rate of the universe, he added.

H0LiCOW was able to derive a value of the Hubble constant of 50,331 mph per million light-years (73.3 km/s/Mpc), extremely close to that provided by Cepheid variables but quite far from the CMB measurement. "
 

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