Theory of Four Dimensional Electromagnetic Universe.

Jun 1, 2024
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Here is a summary of a theory published in 2 parts on the origin and expansion of the universe.

This theory (First part [1] and Second part [2]), drastically simplifies the existing universe and explains its origin without resorting to a singularity.

In summary, the universe originated from a quantum vacuum that has always existed, through the spontaneous generation of four initial TWs (Temporal electomagnetic Waves), which, by exerting radiation pressure, caused the creation of 4D space and its continuous expansion. This radiation pressure represents the dark energy (Λ) of the ΛCDM model.

The overall energy balance of the universe always remains zero, as was zero at its origin (Big Bang).

The figure below shows why, in a 4D universe, 4 tws are needed for a homogeneous expansion.

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Figure 1) In Figure A, the 2D surface of the sphere represents the two spatial dimensions and is analogous to the 3D portion of the 4D Universe. To achieve homogeneous negative radiation pressure (thick arrows) on the 2D spatial part (spherical surface), three TWs along three perpendicular temporal trajectories are required. Similarly, to achieve homogeneous pressure on the 1D part (circumference) of a hypothetical 2D universe (Figure B), two perpendicular TWs are required. By extrapolation, it can be inferred that in the 4D universe, four initial TWs perpendicular to each other are necessary.

The universe of which we are part, consists of four-dimensional space (4D universe) and stationary electromagnetic waves oscillating at the lowest possible frequency along one of the four spatial dimensions that we perceive as time (TW). According to the restricted holographic principle (see Maglione D. [1]), in the 3D portion of the universe where we reside, we have that:

  • The energy of TWs corresponds to mass, and thus each TW corresponds to a quantum of matter.
  • There are only two types of TWs with phases of −90° and +90° corresponding to negative and positive charge, respectively.
In second part of this theory [2], are also developed thermodynamic equations, including those to determine the temperatures of the 4D universe at various redshifts (Z). These calculated temperatures all agree with those published for Z of 0.89, 3.025 and 6.34.

main-qimg-286362e8056c1a8cbed02344fc120ab5


To know the references mentioned in the table above, see [2] Maglione D. Theory of the four-dimensional electromagnetic universe, part II: Temporal waves as the foundation of the creation and expansion of the universe. J Mod Appl Phys. 2024; 7(1):1-17.

In this theory, the quanta of matter corresponding to TWs as they appear to us in the 3D portion of the 4D universe, represents to the so-called dark matter. These quanta, which form around already formed and rotating cosmic masses, would constitute the so-called halos of dark matter present around galaxies. They follow the rotation of the galactic mass itself, thus without "falling" towards its centre and without the possibility of aggregating to the mass around which they rotate.

On the other hand, since these quanta are very small (with a diameter equal to the Planck length), they can only be observed and interact with electromagnetic waves having wavelengths equal to, or shorter than the Planck length, the only ones with such resolving power. Radiation of such high energy essentially does not exist in nature, which would explain why these quanta of matter (That is, dark matter) would not be observable, despite maintaining gravitational action. In fact, the most energetic gamma-ray emission ever detected is reported from the Vela pulsar [Collaboration TH et.al]. It reaches at least 20 teraelectronvolts, corresponding to a wavelength of approximately 10^{-20}m much higher than the Planck length that is 10^{-35}m.

The TWs act simultaneously in two opposite zones of the 4D universe (see for Example Figure below).

main-qimg-160a93dd9496a4bef7b61fa087423b7b


Figure 2) Schematic representation of two TWs with opposite phases (± 𝜋/2) appearing at the antipodes in the 3D portion of the 4D universe as quanta of matter with opposite electric charges (circles with inside + or −). The two TWs are positioned at a constant distance r from each other. The magnitude of the electric field (symbols + or −) is maximum at the centre of the 4D universe and decreases gradually as one approaches the 3D portion of the 4D universe. Yellow arrows represent the magnetic attraction force between the 2 TWs along the space dimension. The blue arrows represent the electric attraction force between the two quanta of matter corresponding to the 2 TWs. The summation of all magnetic forces (Yellow arrows) is equal to twice the electric force acting between the oppositely charged matters quanta placed at the antipodes of the 4D universe. The magnetic field of the TWs is not depicted.

From this it follows that the 4D universe is specular, meaning that at the antipodes there could exist another Earth, another solar system, identical to ours. This is because, in this theory, time is simply the radius of the 4D universe, so the evolutionary process that led to the aforementioned formations must be identical on both antipodes. In other words, to the antipodes to this earth, there could be another me writing this paper.

4D multiverse​

In the chapter titled "Uncertainty Principle and Stability of TWs,", Maglione D. we has shown that all the TWs are stable. Through the Bohr-Wigner Uncertainty Principle relation and using the energy of the first 4 TWs (see Eq.10 in [1] ),
main-qimg-efa366ca65460c470d86178aec524cac

we can determine the average statistical frequency f with which the 4 TWs can be generated, the creation of a 4D universe from the quantum vacuum. Since in this case the uncertainty on time indicates the average frequency at which the event occurs, we have:

main-qimg-cf60154d9045781f1e92675dea86c4f0

1. https://www.tsijournals.com/article...ical-fourdimensional-universe-can-explain.pdf
2. https://www.pulsus.com/scholarly-ar...as-the-foundation-of-the-creation-and-exp.pdf
3. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-023-02052-3
 
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Jan 2, 2024
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I do not quite understand why you do not propose a hypersphere. You already have time as a radius and a sphere to boot. A hypersphere has a 3D surface.
 
Jan 2, 2024
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Yes, I understand that (see my post suggesting a hypersphere as the shape of our universe). In that post, I provide some evidence that this is the case by calculating the increase in circumference (the expansion of 3D space) for say, a 1-second increase in radius. The result is a good representation of the Hubble Constant.
But, more important I point out that the surface of a hypersphere is 3 dimensional. That is our space would be the surface of a Hypersphere.
In your diagram, you indicated the surface as 2D. For a hypersphere, you should label it 3D. It's not conjecture; it's a fact :)
I hope this helps but for the rest you operate beyond my education I think
 
Jun 1, 2024
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Ok. That diagram I wants to explain through an extrapolation starting from a hypothetical two-dimensional universe
therefore three-dimensional, that to have a homogeneous expansion in a 4D universe, not 2 (2D universe), not 3 (3D universe), but 4 TWs are necessary. See the legend to the figure. On the other hand, I couldn't draw a hypersphere on a sheet of paper😁
 
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ok, but if you read my publications you will see that I am talking exactly about a 4D hyperspherical universe, where we live in the 3D part whose volume is 2(pi^2)(R^3) (3D hypersurface) and not 4 /3 pi R^3.
 
Tangentially veering the picture and model a little bit:

LSI and NASA are seriously looking into "warp drive" capabilities:

View: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RiJFo-kaJBQ


Mostly, I think, having to do with constant acceleration fission or fusion power drive, an electric drive . . . a gravity-SPACE drive.

Think of the universe as a bubble with geometric curvature to the spherical outer shell rim of it, like the rim of a expanding rounding wheel. Stephen Hawking placed a point-portal central 'travel hub' down the spokes within the curvature of the spherical wheel-rim and called it, "The 'Grand Central Station' of the Universe" through which all will travel (all spokes, all lanes, will meet in the pass of passing (of passage)), including the traveler Albert Einstein when he took his "mind's eye" trip to the speed of light.

Most astrophysicists today would have us travel the curvatures of the wheel rim (the curvatures of the observable universe (u) around to our various destination-world-points in the universe. But NOT the so many visionaries who would have us travel the spokes through the 'travel hub', "The Grand Central Station of the Universe," to our various destinations in the universe. That wormhole is (those wormholes are) ultimately inertia-less "bridging" (quantum entangled "spooky action at a distance").... To be cont'd, maybe.
 
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