Here is a summary of a theory published in 2 parts on the origin and expansion of the universe.

This theory (First part [1] and Second part [2]), drastically simplifies the existing universe and explains its origin without resorting to a singularity.

In summary, the universe originated from a quantum vacuum that has always existed, through the spontaneous generation of four initial TWs (Temporal electomagnetic Waves), which, by exerting radiation pressure, caused the creation of 4D space and its continuous expansion. This radiation pressure represents the dark energy (Λ) of the ΛCDM model.

The overall energy balance of the universe always remains zero, as was zero at its origin (Big Bang).

The figure below shows why, in a 4D universe, 4 tws are needed for a homogeneous expansion.

The universe of which we are part, consists of four-dimensional space (4D universe) and stationary electromagnetic waves oscillating at the lowest possible frequency along one of the four spatial dimensions that we perceive as time (TW). According to the

To know the references mentioned in the table above, see [2] Maglione D. Theory of the four-dimensional electromagnetic universe, part II: Temporal waves as the foundation of the creation and expansion of the universe. J Mod Appl Phys. 2024; 7(1):1-17.

In this theory,

On the other hand, since

The TWs act simultaneously in two opposite zones of the 4D universe (see for Example Figure below).

From this it follows that the

we can determine the average statistical frequency

1. https://www.tsijournals.com/article...ical-fourdimensional-universe-can-explain.pdf

2. https://www.pulsus.com/scholarly-ar...as-the-foundation-of-the-creation-and-exp.pdf

3. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-023-02052-3

This theory (First part [1] and Second part [2]), drastically simplifies the existing universe and explains its origin without resorting to a singularity.

In summary, the universe originated from a quantum vacuum that has always existed, through the spontaneous generation of four initial TWs (Temporal electomagnetic Waves), which, by exerting radiation pressure, caused the creation of 4D space and its continuous expansion. This radiation pressure represents the dark energy (Λ) of the ΛCDM model.

The overall energy balance of the universe always remains zero, as was zero at its origin (Big Bang).

The figure below shows why, in a 4D universe, 4 tws are needed for a homogeneous expansion.

*Figure 1)**In Figure A, the 2D surface of the sphere represents the two spatial dimensions and is analogous to the 3D portion of the 4D Universe. To achieve homogeneous negative radiation pressure (thick arrows) on the 2D spatial part (spherical surface), three TWs along three perpendicular temporal trajectories are required. Similarly, to achieve homogeneous pressure on the 1D part (circumference) of a hypothetical 2D universe (Figure B), two perpendicular TWs are required. By extrapolation, it can be inferred that in the 4D universe, four initial TWs perpendicular to each other are necessary*.The universe of which we are part, consists of four-dimensional space (4D universe) and stationary electromagnetic waves oscillating at the lowest possible frequency along one of the four spatial dimensions that we perceive as time (TW). According to the

**(see Maglione D. [1]), in the 3D portion of the universe where we reside, we have that:***restricted holographic principle***The energy of TWs corresponds to mass**, and thus each TW corresponds to a**quantum of matter**.- There are only t
**wo types of TWs**with phases of −90° and +90° corresponding to**negative and positive charge,**respectively.

**thermodynamic equations**, including those**to determine the temperatures of the 4D universe at various redshifts (Z)**. These calculated temperatures**all agree**with those published for Z of 0.89, 3.025 and 6.34.To know the references mentioned in the table above, see [2] Maglione D. Theory of the four-dimensional electromagnetic universe, part II: Temporal waves as the foundation of the creation and expansion of the universe. J Mod Appl Phys. 2024; 7(1):1-17.

In this theory,

**the**. These quanta, which form around already formed and rotating cosmic masses, would constitute the so-called halos of dark matter present around galaxies. They follow the rotation of the galactic mass itself, thus without "falling" towards its centre and without the possibility of aggregating to the mass around which they rotate.*quanta of matter*corresponding to TWs as they appear to us in the 3D portion of the 4D universe, represents to the so-called*dark matter*On the other hand, since

**these quanta are very small**(with a**diameter equal to the Planck length**), they can only be observed and interact with electromagnetic waves having wavelengths equal to, or shorter than the Planck length, the only ones with such resolving power. Radiation of such high energy essentially does not exist in nature, which would explain why these quanta of matter (That is, dark matter) would not be observable, despite maintaining gravitational action. In fact, the most energetic gamma-ray emission ever detected is reported from the Vela pulsar [Collaboration TH et.al]. It reaches at least 20 teraelectronvolts, corresponding to a wavelength of approximately 10^{-20}m much higher than the Planck length that is 10^{-35}m.The TWs act simultaneously in two opposite zones of the 4D universe (see for Example Figure below).

*Figure 2)**Schematic representation of two TWs with opposite phases (± 𝜋/2) appearing at the antipodes in the 3D portion of the 4D universe as quanta of matter with opposite electric charges (circles with inside + or −). The two TWs are positioned at a constant distance r from each other. The magnitude of the electric field (symbols + or −) is maximum at the centre of the 4D universe and decreases gradually as one approaches the 3D portion of the 4D universe. Yellow arrows represent the magnetic attraction force between the 2 TWs along the space dimension. The blue arrows represent the electric attraction force between the two quanta of matter corresponding to the 2 TWs. The summation of all magnetic forces (Yellow arrows) is equal to twice the electric force acting between the oppositely charged matters quanta placed at the antipodes of the 4D universe. The magnetic field of the TWs is not depicted.*From this it follows that the

**4D universe is specular**,**meaning that at the antipodes there could exist another Earth, another solar system, identical to ours**. This is because, in this theory, time is simply the radius of the 4D universe, so the evolutionary process that led to the aforementioned formations must be identical on both antipodes. In other words, to the antipodes to this earth, there could be another me writing this paper.### 4D multiverse

In the chapter titled "Uncertainty Principle and Stability of TWs,", Maglione D. we has shown that all the TWs are stable. Through the Bohr-Wigner Uncertainty Principle relation and using the energy of the first 4 TWs (see Eq.10 in [1] ),we can determine the average statistical frequency

*f*with which the 4 TWs can be generated, the creation of a 4D universe from the quantum vacuum. Since in this case the uncertainty on time indicates the average frequency at which the event occurs, we have:1. https://www.tsijournals.com/article...ical-fourdimensional-universe-can-explain.pdf

2. https://www.pulsus.com/scholarly-ar...as-the-foundation-of-the-creation-and-exp.pdf

3. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-023-02052-3

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