# Water in an Electric Field

#### Pentcho Valev

"A plane capacitor with rectangular plates is fixed in a vertical position...The capacitor is charged and disconnected from the battery...The lower part of the capacitor is now brought into contact with a dielectric liquid [e.g. deionized water]...When the plates contact the liquid's surface, a force in the upward direction is exerted on the dielectric liquid. The total charge on each plate remains constant." http://electron6.phys.utk.edu/PhysicsProblems/E&M/2-Dielectrics/capacitors_with_dielectrics.html

In an electric field, water develops a specific bulk pressure that pushes in all directions and can, as in the above case, lift the water against the gravitational force:

"However, in experiments in which a capacitor is submerged in a dielectric liquid the force per unit area exerted by one plate on another is observed to decrease...This apparent paradox can be explained by taking into account the DIFFERENCE IN LIQUID PRESSURE in the field filled space between the plates and the field free region outside the capacitor." http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/jk1/lectures/node46.html

The pressure is NON-CONSERVATIVE. This means that, if suitably harnessed, it will do work AT THE EXPENSE OF AMBIENT HEAT and in violation of the second law of thermodynamics. Here is the molecular mechanism:

If it were not for the indicated (with an arrow) dipole, other dipoles in the picture are perfectly polarized as if there were no thermal motion. Of course, this is an oversimplification – thermal motion is a factor which constantly disturbs the polarization order. The crucial point is that, as can be inferred from the picture, any thermal disturbance contributes to the creation of a local microscopic pressure. Consider the indicated dipole. It has just received a thermal stroke and has undergone rotation as a result. Now it pushes adjacent dipoles electrostatically. One can say, somewhat figuratively, that the indicated dipole has absorbed heat and now, by pushing adjacent dipoles, is trying to convert the absorbed heat into work.

The sum of all such microscopic disturbances is macroscopically expressed as bulk pressure. Systems of this kind can convert ambient heat into work, in violation of the second law of thermodynamics.

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#### Pentcho Valev

In an electric field, the pressure in the bulk of water increases (becomes greater than the pressure in field-free regions):

Tai Chow, Introduction to Electromagnetic Theory: A Modern Perspective, p. 267: "The strictly electric forces between charges on the conductors are not influenced by the presence of the dielectric medium. The medium is polarized, however, and the interaction of the electric field with the polarized medium results in an INCREASED FLUID PRESSURE ON THE CONDUCTORS that reduces the net forces acting on them." http://www.amazon.com/Introduction-To-Electromagnetic-Theory-Perspective/dp/0763738271

Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky, Melba Phillips, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, pp.115-116: "Thus the decrease in force that is experienced between two charges when they are immersed in a dielectric liquid can be understood only by considering the effect of the PRESSURE OF THE LIQUID ON THE CHARGES themselves." http://www.amazon.com/Classical-Electricity-Magnetism-Second-Physics/dp/0486439240?tag=viglink21401-20

"However, in experiments in which a capacitor is submerged in a dielectric liquid the force per unit area exerted by one plate on another is observed to decrease...This apparent paradox can be explained by taking into account the DIFFERENCE IN LIQUID PRESSURE in the field filled space between the plates and the field free region outside the capacitor." http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/jk1/lectures/node46.html

This additional (non-conservative) pressure can produce cyclical flows that can be harnessed to do work. If, for instance, a small hole is punched in one of the plates of the submerged capacitor, the high interplate pressure will push water through the hole and so a permanent flow will form.

Water in an electric field automatically becomes a perpetual-motion machine of the second kind. Vigorous motion is generated that can do work (e.g. by rotating waterwheels) at the expense of ambient heat (there is no other source of usable energy):

#### Pentcho Valev

Fundamentals of the Electrospray Process

The jet and other dynamic processes are powered by

(A) electric energy?

(B) ambient heat?

It is not difficult to see that (B) is the correct (only possible) answer.

#### Pentcho Valev

"However, in experiments in which a capacitor is submerged in a dielectric liquid the force per unit area exerted by one plate on another is observed to decrease...This apparent paradox can be explained by taking into account the DIFFERENCE IN LIQUID PRESSURE in the field filled space between the plates and the field free region outside the capacitor." http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/jk1/lectures/node46.html

The specific pressure that develops in water placed in an electric field is NON-CONSERVATIVE (caused by thermal motion, like gas pressure). This means that, if suitably harnessed, the pressure will do work AT THE EXPENSE OF AMBIENT HEAT.

The emergence of a non-conservative force in an electrostatic system where all acting forces are conservative (electrical) by definition is embarrassing for the conventional theory. Scientists admit that the effect is "somewhat mysterious" and leave it at that:

Introduction to Electromagnetic Theory: A Modern Perspective, Tai Chow, p. 267: "Calculations of the forces between charged conductors immersed in a liquid dielectric always show that the force is reduced by the factor K. There is a tendency to think of this as representing a reduction in the electrical forces between the charges on the conductors, as though Coulomb's law for the interaction of two charges should have the dielectric constant included in its denominator. This is incorrect, however. The strictly electric forces between charges on the conductors are not influenced by the presence of the dielectric medium. The medium is polarized, however, and the interaction of the electric field with the polarized medium results in an increased fluid pressure on the conductors that reduces the net forces acting on them." https://www.amazon.com/Introduction-Electromagnetic-Theory-Modern-Perspective/dp/0763738271

Classical Electricity and Magnetism: Second Edition (Dover Books on Physics), Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky, Melba Phillips, p. 114: "This means that if a system maintained at constant charge is totally surrounded by a dielectric liquid all mechanical forces will drop in the ratio 1/k. A factor 1/k is frequently included in the expression for Coulomb's law to indicate this decrease in force. The physical significance of this reduction of force, which is required by energy considerations, is often somewhat mysterious. It is difficult to see on the basis of a field theory why the interaction between two charges should be dependent upon the nature or condition of the intervening material, and therefore the inclusion of an extra factor 1/k in Coulomb's law lacks a physical explanation." p.115: "Therefore the decrease in force...cannot be explained by electrical forces alone." pp.115-116: "Thus the decrease in force that is experienced between two charges when they are immersed in a dielectric liquid can be understood only by considering the effect of the pressure of the liquid on the charges themselves. In accordance with the philosophy of the action-at-a-distance theory, no change in the purely electrical interaction between the charges takes place." https://www.amazon.com/Classical-Electricity-Magnetism-Second-Physics/dp/0486439240

#### Pentcho Valev

"Is electrospray emission really due to columbic forces?...Columbic forces cannot play a major role in jet formation, even in cases where the liquid consists of a solution of ionic species...When polarizing the dielectric needle, jet ignition is observed with no respect of the used fluid. In such a case no exchange of free electric charges between the capillary and the fluid can be hypothesized. In this perspective, electrospray shows strong analogy with another phenomenon, originally addressed as water bridge: an intense electric field can coax water into leaping a tenths of millimeters gap between two glass beakers, forming a floating bridge. This phenomenon, first ascribed to some unknown properties of water, finally revealed to be originated just by dielectric forces. In particular, the phenomenon is observed also in pure dielectric liquids where the deformation of the free liquid surface under an intense electric field is originated by the interaction of the electric field with the existing (both permanent and induced) dipoles while no free charge carriers can be hypothesized...In view of our results, the generally accept idea that electrospray emission is driven by columbic forces must be ruled out. At atmospheric pressure, any possible ionization mechanism is so poorly efficient to make any effect of columbic forces negligible. It could be that different mechanisms start to play a role when the gas dispersion of nanosized drops enters in low pressure volumes while approaching the counter electrode, as in any ESI-MS experiment." https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.4894800

Yes, in both cases - floating water bridge and electrospray - the driving force is not conservative (columbic). It is non-conservative, analogous to gas pressure - that is, caused by thermal motion. Accordingly, the vigorous motion of the liquid (water) can do work at the expense of ambient heat, in violation of the second law of thermodynamics.

#### Pentcho Valev

This video

View: https://youtu.be/rkntp3_cZl4?t=126

does not discuss the problems raised in the thread but still it could be useful.

When a SOLID dielectric is placed between the plates of a capacitor, the attraction between the plates INCREASES, due to polarization of the dielectric.

When a LIQUID dielectric (e.g. deionized water) is placed between the plates of the capacitor, there is polarization again but, paradoxically, the attraction between the plates DECREASES. Why? A pressure in the liquid between the plates emerges that pushes on the plates and so counteracts the original electrostatic force of attraction:

"However, in experiments in which a capacitor is submerged in a dielectric liquid the force per unit area exerted by one plate on another is observed to decrease...This apparent paradox can be explained by taking into account the DIFFERENCE IN LIQUID PRESSURE in the field filled space between the plates and the field free region outside the capacitor." http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/jk1/lectures/node46.html

The pressure is caused by thermal motion, like gas pressure. This means that, if suitably harnessed, it will do work AT THE EXPENSE OF AMBIENT HEAT. Here is the molecular mechanism (once again):

If it were not for the indicated (with an arrow) dipole, other dipoles in the picture are perfectly polarized as if there were no thermal motion. Of course, this is an oversimplification – thermal motion is a factor which constantly disturbs the polarization order. The crucial point is that, as can be inferred from the picture, any thermal disturbance contributes to the creation of a local microscopic pressure. Consider the indicated dipole. It has just received a thermal stroke and has undergone rotation as a result. Now it pushes adjacent dipoles electrostatically. One can say, somewhat figuratively, that the indicated dipole has absorbed heat and now, by pushing adjacent dipoles, is trying to convert the absorbed heat into work.

The sum of all such microscopic disturbances is macroscopically expressed as bulk pressure. Systems generating this specific pressure (as water finds itself in an electric field) can convert ambient heat into work, in violation of the second law of thermodynamics.

#### Pentcho Valev

Nature: "Second law broken. Researchers have shown for the first time that, on the level of thousands of atoms and molecules, fleeting energy increases violate the second law of thermodynamics...They found that over periods of time less than two seconds, variations in the random thermal motion of water molecules occasionally gave individual beads a kick. This increased the beads' kinetic energy by a small but significant amount, in apparent violation of the second law." http://www.nature.com/news/2002/020722/full/news020722-2.html

There is the usual blah blah blah about the second law being statistical, easily violable in small groups of molecules, "absolutely rock solid" for larger systems etc. But note something extraordinary: the kick can last two seconds! In other words, for the enormous (in this case) period of two seconds, something pushes the bead along a certain trajectory!

This "something" cannot be just random thermal motion of water molecules. Rather, there must be a local flow of water, large enough to ensure the two-second duration. And, as I have been trying to show in this thread, such flows of water can be caused by an electric field. So we have to look for an electric field and...yes, here it is:

"A deviation from the second law of thermodynamics has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time...To test the idea, the researchers put about 100 latex beads - each 6.3 µm across - into a water-filled cell, which was placed on the stage of a microscope. The researchers focused a laser onto one of the beads, which induced a dipole moment in the bead and drew it towards the most intense region of the ELECTRIC FIELD in the laser beam." http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2002/jul/16/small-systems-defy-second-law

"Optical tweezers are capable of manipulating nanometer and micron-sized dielectric particles by exerting extremely small forces via a highly focused laser beam. The beam is typically focused by sending it through a microscope objective. The narrowest point of the focused beam, known as the beam waist, contains a VERY STRONG ELECTRIC FIELD GRADIENT." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_tweezers

#### Pentcho Valev

"Genmiao M. Wang of the Australian National University and colleagues discovered the anomaly when they dragged a micron-sized bead through a container of water using optical tweezers. The team found that, on occasion, the water molecules interacted with the bead in such a way that energy was transferred from the liquid to the bead. These additional kicks used the random thermal motion of the water to do the work of moving the bead, in effect yielding something for nothing. For periods of movement lasting less than two seconds, the bead was almost as likely to gain energy from the water as it was to add energy to the reservoir, the investigators say. No useful amounts of energy could be extracted from the set-up, however, because the effect disappeared if the bead was moved for time intervals greater than two seconds." https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/second-law-of-thermodynam/

So the extraordinary fact that the bead can be moved for two seconds means nothing to thermodynamicists. Critics of the second law of thermodynamics are in a catch-22 situation:

No criticism deserves attention if the critic is not able to offer a machine converting ambient heat into "useful amounts of energy". If the critic does offer such a machine, however, then he/she is insane.

#### Pentcho Valev

The jet can obviously do mechanical work, e.g. by rotating a waterwheel. This work will be done at the expense of what energy?

"At the expense of ambient heat" is the only reasonable answer. The answer "at the expense of electric energy" is unreasonable, as can be seen here:

#### Pentcho Valev

When water (or any liquid) finds itself in an electric field and no or minimal current passes through it, it develops a pressure that can power vigorous flows, jets, can lift weights etc. The mechanical work extractable from all such effects will be done at the expense of ambient heat and in violation of the second law of thermodynamics.

Iver Brevik, Fluids in electric and magnetic fields: Pressure variation and stability https://www.academia.edu/25650739/Fluids_in_electric_and_magnetic_fields_Pressure_variation_and_stability. Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 give a nice illustration of the pressure: