Model for a Local Universe

This is written with the hope of bringing a spark of light to the dark forces in cosmology.

I hate to speculate, but I need a foundation to build upon. Applying the principles of KISS, & Occam's razor as much as possible will be my main guide when speculating.

Highly Speculative

At present, "the Big Bang hypothesis states that all of the current and past matter in the Universe came into existence at the same time, roughly 13.8 billion years ago. At this time, all matter was compacted into a very small ball with infinite density and intense heat called a Singularity. Suddenly, the Singularity began expanding, and the universe as we know it began".

It is difficult to believe that something came from nothing; therefore, there must have been something before the Big Bang. We will assume that at least one 4-dimensional (parent) universe existed before the Big Bang. Two major components from the parent universe would be needed to create a big bang like explosion. The specific components needed from the parent universe are:

The birth of our universe was started and continues to be propagated by the pre-existing universe. If anyone notices an inconsistency on my part, let me know.

The aggregate of compressed slits moves around in the 4D "speculative universe." Ultimately, the aggregate of compressed slits enters an area where the dark fluid has a consistency that allows the dark fluid to leak out via the slits. It is similar to a tire leaking air, forming a bubble around the tire. Fluid continues to leak out today and in the foreseeable future. When the dark fluid began leaking out via the slits, the thread like particles were activated, resulting in the initial separation of the compressed slits.

The initial growth is more of an inflation than an explosion. Not all the particles become activated at the same time. The amalgamation of slits grows as each particle becomes activated. Time line would be a fraction of a second based on speed of light, size of amalgamation and flow of dark fluid . It is quick but not instant.

Less Speculative

Particles, formed by the slits leaking dark fluid out, express properties reflecting the size and shape of the slit. It would be similar to an air doll commonly seen in front of businesses seeking attention. As the incoming dark fluid accumulates, a bubble of dark fluid will develop around each slit visible in our 3D universe. Like a balloon being inflated, the radius and perimeter will grow accordingly. It will ultimately extend beyond the filament. Let's assume the flow rate of the "dark fluid" for this particle is Q and constant. Then the decreasing growth rate of the radius is shown below.

Q/4pi(r)^2 = (dr/dt) = Q/SA

When (dr/dt) falls below a value of K, particles of dark fluid will break off from the edges of the dark fluid sphere. The action would be similar to that of a lava lamp. Within a very short period of time, an equilibrium would be established between the volume of dark fluid leaking in and the dark fluid breaking away from the newly created dark fluid sphere.

Volume Leaving Sphere = Q and (dr/dt) = 0.

Inside the bubble, the particle can move at the speed of light as there is no inertia, gravity, or mass to contend with.

For about the first 500,000 years, there is no gravity, mass, or inertia anywhere in our universe. As the volume of dark fluid continues to build up over time, a halo begins to form with a radius of about 300,000–500,000 light years around the particles created by the Big Bang. During this time, particles can move freely inside their dark fluid bubbles. However, the dark fluid bubbles, aside from drifting, remain locked in place. We will return to this below.

Sink(s) & Source(s)

Let space behave like a super liquid. First, if space behaves like a super liquid, we must define the sink(s) and source(s). Since the masses appears to attract each other, the masses represent the sink(s).

Since the masses are the sinks for space, we will use the earth's surface to obtain a value for the flow of space that is being attracted. We use the earth's surface to build or gather more information about the amount of space the earth is absorbing. We will use the volume formula for a sphere to help us determine the volume of space being absorbed by the earth. Since I do not know how to write formulas on this editor, I will spell them out.

Volume will be measured in cubic meters, and time will be measured in seconds.

The derivative of the volume with respect to time is:

Vol. = (4/3) pi (r) ^3 dV/dt=4pi(r)^2(dr/dt) dr/dt = the velocity of the radius

In the case of a balloon, it determines how much air is coming in or out based on the velocity of the radius. But if the surface of the earth does not move, how can we measure something you cannot see, like dark matter? We will take advantage of the fact that the velocity is equal to v = a(t).

According to the formula above, velocity and acceleration will have the same magnitude when t = 1.

We now introduce the distance formula D = 1/2 (at^2). After replacing dr/dt with g and r with the radius of the earth, the new formula becomes:

dV/dt=4pi(r€)^2(g)

The formula above gives us the amount of space that the earth absorbs every second. It is similar to the Gauss equation for gravity.

If we divide by the mass of the earth, we will obtain a gravitational constant, theta, based on how much space is absorbed per kilogram per second.

4pi(r€)^2(g))/M

Below are the current properties believed to be associated with Dark Matter.

"

To better understand the source of space, the origin of space needs to be clarified. Understanding the origin of space will require going back to the moments after the Big Bang.

As the fluid continues to flow into our 3d Universe, a sphere is formed around the entry point. Within a very short time tiny amounts of the dark sphere will begin to separate and move away at high speed from the dark matter sphere.

Will continue on 1/15/2024

This is written with the hope of bringing a spark of light to the dark forces in cosmology.

I hate to speculate, but I need a foundation to build upon. Applying the principles of KISS, & Occam's razor as much as possible will be my main guide when speculating.

- Imbalance of matter and antimatter
- Origin & Source of Dark Matter and Dark Energy
- Origin & Source of inertia, mass, time, and gravitation
- Expansion and acceleration of the universe
- Einstein's Equivalency Principle
- Time Dilation Cause
- MOND Success and Failure
- Constant energy density (extragalactic) despite expansion

Highly Speculative

At present, "the Big Bang hypothesis states that all of the current and past matter in the Universe came into existence at the same time, roughly 13.8 billion years ago. At this time, all matter was compacted into a very small ball with infinite density and intense heat called a Singularity. Suddenly, the Singularity began expanding, and the universe as we know it began".

**Matt Williams,****Universe Today**It is difficult to believe that something came from nothing; therefore, there must have been something before the Big Bang. We will assume that at least one 4-dimensional (parent) universe existed before the Big Bang. Two major components from the parent universe would be needed to create a big bang like explosion. The specific components needed from the parent universe are:

- Dark Fluid: A substance that occupies volume in a 4th-dimensional (parent) universe and allows particles to move around at the speed of light or faster as there is no mass or inertia in this environment.
- Slits: tear-like cuts in the dark fluid that can form aggregates and move as a single unit

The birth of our universe was started and continues to be propagated by the pre-existing universe. If anyone notices an inconsistency on my part, let me know.

The aggregate of compressed slits moves around in the 4D "speculative universe." Ultimately, the aggregate of compressed slits enters an area where the dark fluid has a consistency that allows the dark fluid to leak out via the slits. It is similar to a tire leaking air, forming a bubble around the tire. Fluid continues to leak out today and in the foreseeable future. When the dark fluid began leaking out via the slits, the thread like particles were activated, resulting in the initial separation of the compressed slits.

**Phase 0**The initial growth is more of an inflation than an explosion. Not all the particles become activated at the same time. The amalgamation of slits grows as each particle becomes activated. Time line would be a fraction of a second based on speed of light, size of amalgamation and flow of dark fluid . It is quick but not instant.

**Phase 1**Less Speculative

Particles, formed by the slits leaking dark fluid out, express properties reflecting the size and shape of the slit. It would be similar to an air doll commonly seen in front of businesses seeking attention. As the incoming dark fluid accumulates, a bubble of dark fluid will develop around each slit visible in our 3D universe. Like a balloon being inflated, the radius and perimeter will grow accordingly. It will ultimately extend beyond the filament. Let's assume the flow rate of the "dark fluid" for this particle is Q and constant. Then the decreasing growth rate of the radius is shown below.

Q/4pi(r)^2 = (dr/dt) = Q/SA

When (dr/dt) falls below a value of K, particles of dark fluid will break off from the edges of the dark fluid sphere. The action would be similar to that of a lava lamp. Within a very short period of time, an equilibrium would be established between the volume of dark fluid leaking in and the dark fluid breaking away from the newly created dark fluid sphere.

Volume Leaving Sphere = Q and (dr/dt) = 0.

Inside the bubble, the particle can move at the speed of light as there is no inertia, gravity, or mass to contend with.

For about the first 500,000 years, there is no gravity, mass, or inertia anywhere in our universe. As the volume of dark fluid continues to build up over time, a halo begins to form with a radius of about 300,000–500,000 light years around the particles created by the Big Bang. During this time, particles can move freely inside their dark fluid bubbles. However, the dark fluid bubbles, aside from drifting, remain locked in place. We will return to this below.

**Phase 2**Sink(s) & Source(s)

**Sinks**Let space behave like a super liquid. First, if space behaves like a super liquid, we must define the sink(s) and source(s). Since the masses appears to attract each other, the masses represent the sink(s).

Since the masses are the sinks for space, we will use the earth's surface to obtain a value for the flow of space that is being attracted. We use the earth's surface to build or gather more information about the amount of space the earth is absorbing. We will use the volume formula for a sphere to help us determine the volume of space being absorbed by the earth. Since I do not know how to write formulas on this editor, I will spell them out.

Volume will be measured in cubic meters, and time will be measured in seconds.

The derivative of the volume with respect to time is:

Vol. = (4/3) pi (r) ^3 dV/dt=4pi(r)^2(dr/dt) dr/dt = the velocity of the radius

In the case of a balloon, it determines how much air is coming in or out based on the velocity of the radius. But if the surface of the earth does not move, how can we measure something you cannot see, like dark matter? We will take advantage of the fact that the velocity is equal to v = a(t).

According to the formula above, velocity and acceleration will have the same magnitude when t = 1.

We now introduce the distance formula D = 1/2 (at^2). After replacing dr/dt with g and r with the radius of the earth, the new formula becomes:

dV/dt=4pi(r€)^2(g)

The formula above gives us the amount of space that the earth absorbs every second. It is similar to the Gauss equation for gravity.

*The gravitational flux through any**closed surface**is proportional to the enclosed**mass**.*If we divide by the mass of the earth, we will obtain a gravitational constant, theta, based on how much space is absorbed per kilogram per second.

4pi(r€)^2(g))/M

**Source(s)**Below are the current properties believed to be associated with Dark Matter.

"

*Unlike normal matter, dark matter does not interact with the electromagnetic force. This means it does not absorb, reflect or emit light, making it extremely hard to spot. In fact, researchers have been able to infer the existence of dark matter only from the gravitational effect it seems to have on visible matter"*. CERNTo better understand the source of space, the origin of space needs to be clarified. Understanding the origin of space will require going back to the moments after the Big Bang.

As the fluid continues to flow into our 3d Universe, a sphere is formed around the entry point. Within a very short time tiny amounts of the dark sphere will begin to separate and move away at high speed from the dark matter sphere.

Will continue on 1/15/2024

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