Update: A Model for a local universe

Jan 12, 2024
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Model for a Local Universe
This is written with the hope of bringing a spark of light to the dark forces in cosmology.
I hate to speculate, but I need a foundation to build upon. Applying the principles of KISS, & Occam's razor as much as possible will be my main guide when speculating.
" Nature is simple and straightforward: Man complicates the description"

  • Imbalance of matter and antimatter
  • Origin & Source of Dark Matter and Dark Energy
  • Origin & Source of inertia, mass, time, and gravitation
  • Expansion and acceleration of the universe
  • Einstein's Equivalency Principle
  • Time Dilation Cause
  • MOND Success and Failure
  • Constant energy density (extragalactic) despite expansion

Highly Speculative
At present, "the Big Bang hypothesis states that all of the current and past matter in the Universe came into existence at the same time, roughly 13.8 billion years ago. At this time, all matter was compacted into a very small ball with infinite density and intense heat called a Singularity. Suddenly, the Singularity began expanding, and the universe as we know it began". Matt Williams, Universe Today

It is difficult to believe that something came from nothing; therefore, there must have been something before the Big Bang. We will assume that at least one 4-dimensional (parent) universe existed before the Big Bang. Two major components from the parent universe would be needed to create a big bang like explosion. The specific components needed from the parent universe are:
  1. Dark Fluid: A substance that occupies volume in a 4th-dimensional (parent) universe and allows particles to move around at the speed of light or faster as there is no mass or inertia in this environment.
  2. Slits: tear-like cuts in the dark fluid that can form aggregates and move as a single unit

The birth of our universe was started and continues to be propagated by the pre-existing universe. If anyone notices an inconsistency on my part, let me know.

The aggregate of compressed slits moves around in the 4D "speculative universe." Ultimately, the aggregate of compressed slits enters an area where the dark fluid has a consistency that allows the dark fluid to leak out via the slits. It is similar to a tire leaking air, forming a bubble around the tire. Fluid continues to leak out today and in the foreseeable future. When the dark fluid began leaking out via the slits, the thread like particles were activated, resulting in the initial separation of the compressed slits.

Phase 0
The initial growth is more of an inflation than an explosion. Not all the particles become activated at the same time. The amalgamation of slits grows as each particle becomes activated. Time line would be a fraction of a second based on speed of light, size of amalgamation and flow of dark fluid . It is quick but not instant.

Phase 1
Less Speculative
Particles, formed by the slits leaking dark fluid out, express properties reflecting the size and shape of the slit. It would be similar to an air doll commonly seen in front of businesses seeking attention. As the incoming dark fluid accumulates, a bubble of dark fluid will develop around each slit visible in our 3D universe. Like a balloon being inflated, the radius and perimeter will grow accordingly. It will ultimately extend beyond the filament. Let's assume the flow rate of the "dark fluid" for this particle is Q and constant. Then the decreasing growth rate of the radius is shown below.
Q/4pi(r)^2 = (dr/dt) = Q/SA
When (dr/dt) falls below a value of K, particles of dark fluid will break off from the edges of the dark fluid sphere. The action would be similar to that of a lava lamp. Within a very short period of time, an equilibrium would be established between the volume of dark fluid leaking in and the dark fluid breaking away from the newly created dark fluid sphere.
Volume Leaving Sphere = Q and (dr/dt) = 0.
Inside the bubble, the particle can move at the speed of light as there is no inertia, gravity, or mass to contend with.

For about the first 500,000 years, there is no gravity, mass, or inertia anywhere in our universe. As the volume of dark fluid continues to build up over time, a halo begins to form with a radius of about 300,000–500,000 light years around the particles created by the "Big Bang". During this time, particles can move freely inside their dark fluid bubbles. However, the dark fluid bubbles, aside from drifting, remain locked in place. It is similar to carbonite in the Star Wars episode. We will return to this below.

"Space is neither created nor destroyed it is only altered by it's surroundings."

To better understand the source of space, the origin of space needs to be clarified. Understanding the origin of space will require going back to the moments after the Big Bang.
As the fluid continues to flow into our 3d Universe, a sphere is formed around the entry point. Within a very short time tiny amounts of the dark sphere will begin to separate and move away at high speed from the dark matter sphere. the t and around the edges of the sphere, parts of the dark fluid break off from the bubble, similar to a lava lamp. Inside the bubble, the particle can move at the speed of light as there is no inertia or mass to contend with. For about the first 500,000 years, there was no gravity, mass, or inertia. As the volume of dark fluid builds up, a halo begins to form with a radius of about 500,000 light years around the particles created by the Big Bang. During this time, particles remain inside their bubbles and locked in the medium. For simplicity, we will assume that the particles of dark matter have a lifespan of 500,000 years. The product of the dark fluid decay are particles of space plus x-rays.
Vol (dark fluid) = k (vol-space particles) + s (x-rays).
This is the origin of space. From the halo, space begins to populate inside and outside of the halo. Therefore, a source of space is the halo around the galaxy. For diffuse galaxies, the halo is just as diffuse but never the less there.

Phase 2
Sink(s) & Source(s)

Let space behave like a super liquid. First, if space behaves like a super liquid, we must define the sink(s) and source(s). Since the masses appears to attract each other, the masses represent the sink(s).
Since the masses are the sinks for space, we will use the earth's surface to obtain a value for the flow of space that is being attracted. We use the earth's surface to build or gather more information about the amount of space the earth is absorbing. We will use the volume formula for a sphere to help us determine the volume of space being absorbed by the earth. Since I do not know how to write formulas on this editor, I will spell them out.
Volume will be measured in cubic meters, and time will be measured in seconds.
The derivative of the volume with respect to time is:
Vol. = (4/3) pi (r) ^3 dV/dt=4pi(r)^2(dr/dt) dr/dt = the velocity of the radius
In the case of a balloon, it determines how much air is coming in or out based on the velocity of the radius. But if the surface of the earth does not move, how can we measure something you cannot see, like dark matter? We will take advantage of the fact that the velocity is equal to v = a(t).
According to the formula above, velocity and acceleration will have the same magnitude when t = 1.
We now introduce the distance formula D = 1/2 (at^2). After replacing dr/dt with g and r with the radius of the earth, the new formula becomes:
The formula above gives us the amount of space that the earth absorbs every second. It is similar to the Gauss equation for gravity.

The gravitational flux through any closed surface is proportional to the enclosed mass.

If we divide by the mass of the earth, we will obtain a gravitational constant, theta, based on how much space is absorbed per kilogram per second.


Below are the current properties believed to be associated with Dark Matter.

"Unlike normal matter, dark matter does not interact with the electromagnetic force. This means it does not absorb, reflect or emit light, making it extremely hard to spot. In fact, researchers have been able to infer the existence of dark matter only from the gravitational effect it seems to have on visible matter". CERN

Let the halo's production of space be driven by the decaying dark fluid. The amount of space created will depend on the amount of local matter available. Therefore, it will meet the needs of intragalactic matter. Any remaining space will be expunged away from the galaxy.

Total Space Created = k(Space for intragalactic use) + s(space for extragalactic use)

Due to the mechanisms involved, the % of space allocated to extragalactic duty by the halo will increase over time. (Explained in the expansion of universe causes).

Nature does not make changes without leaving behind left-over material in the form of photons. Therefore, the conversion of dark fluid to particles of space leaves behind enough left over energy to create x-rays.
There is a strong likelihood that a high concentration of x-rays may be used to locate points of conversion. Take note that as the halo forms and grows, space is being propelled towards the center of the halo at an accelerating pace( Continuity of Volume), and there is no gravity. If one applies continuity of volume, the increase in speed can be determined along the radius. If we apply this to the Milky Way's rotation curve, we obtain the surface area of a cylinder with a height of about 1000 light years. The outer surface area would be:
Surface area = circular perimeter * height
The volume of space traversing the outer surface area would become sa1*v1 = sa2*v2. We will assume that the halo is the source for intragalactic and extragalactic space. With the halo providing the movement of space, no additional Newtonian gravity is needed. After the galaxy has evolved, the amount of space absorbed by the matter in the arms must be subtracted from the incoming volume of space.
sa1*v1 = sa2*v2.

With time, space will reach the newly formed particles, creating a secondary explosion. Now the locked particles are able to break free and move anywhere with the introduction of space. Space makes it possible for light to travel from one particle to another or for particles to move at high speeds anywhere and in any direction.
By interacting with space, the particles will gain mass, inertia, gravity, and momentum, and electric fields will be extended beyond the small confines of the dark fluid sphere.

MOND was developed with the intention of eliminating dark matter. Milgrom assumed the general conception of decreased gravity strength at those locations and decreased the inertia to fit the behavior. In reality, there was never a problem with gravity, but the idea of pressure from a source was missing. This led scientists to believe that there was insufficient mass to provide the necessary centrifugal acceleration. They are right, but the centrifugal acceleration is mostly being managed by the source and not the sink. The opposite is true with gravity around masses and MOND fails.

This configuration allows each galaxy to separate itself from other galaxies and gives the impression that the universe is expanding. The acceleration occurs due to the increasing volume of space that is being pushed out as time goes by.
Where is the additional space coming from to accelerate the expansion?

Due to the maximum speed of light, black holes act as gateways for the movement of space. The black hole horizon is the location where space is moving inward at the speed of light. It provides the matter inside a small fraction of the space they were consuming before being swallowed by the Big Hole. The unconsumed space is redirected to the extragalactic portion.
For some reason, the running belief that black holes destroy all the matter they attract is mistaken. To destroy the matter, the black hole would have to stop the flow of dark fluid from the parent galaxy or somehow destroy the slit in the parent universe. To accomplish this, the black hole has no tools other than the fast movement of space.

A few months ago, a paper was published that tied the expansion of the universe to the increasing volume or size of black holes. For whatever reason, the scientific community interpreted the conclusion to mean that dark energy was being released by black holes. This gave the black hole a primary role in the growth of dark energy, when in fact it plays a secondary role.

Mass, time, and inertia
The mass associated with a particle is based on the surface area of the sphere made of dark fluid surrounding the particle and not on the volume. Particles with increased flow would have a larger area and more mass.
Increased flow also decreases the lifespan of a particle.
Time will always refer to the subatomic particle rate of energy release and uptake. The flow of time is controlled by the rate of dark fluid passing through the slit. Furthermore, the flow of time can be positive or negative. The flow of dark fluid from the 4th dimension into our world will be considered positive. A flow of dark fluid in the opposite direction will be considered negative.
The inertia of a particle will depend on the number of space particles consumed per unit time.

Anti-matter is created by the same particles, except the flow is negative. It is for this reason that anti-matter is so rare in the universe. Local instances of anti-matter are created, but at a considerable cost.

Time dilation of a particle's internal clock
Keep in mind that varying the flow rate can speed up or slow down a particle's internal clock. One way to dilate time is to decrease the effective area connecting the parent area to our universe. The only way I know to change the effective area is by moving the particle. Movement will cause the area to decrease. Having a maximum speed in our universe results in the deformation of the effective area, thus modifying the amount of fluid that can flow into our universe.

Einstein's Equivalency Principle
"The motion of an object in an inertial reference frame is indistinguishable from the motion of the object in the absence of this field, but with respect to a suitable uniformly accelerated reference system." American Institute of Physics
Remember that quantized space moves in the direction to replace the lost space created around the perimeter of the dark fluid bubble surrounding the slit. In a gravitational field, particles of space go through the mass, trying to accelerate it. the bubble of mass has been quantized and moves towards, moving in towards the center, a massive

Cluster of Galaxies
Single Galaxies like the Milky Way Create a single halo with a varying density. A Cluster of Galaxies can creates 3 types of halos. Local halos around the galaxies (keeps each galaxy together), external halo around the cluster of galaxies (keeps the cluster together) and a central halo in the center of the cluster of galaxies (keeps galaxies from collapsing inward).

Cluster of Universes
All universes based on the same material as ours will age forming similar galaxies with the same expediency as ours. They It will expand and accelerate like ours for the same reasons. Formation of galaxies and expansion will occur at the same local rate. With sufficient time, borders of the universes will come into contact with each the other. Depending when the universe started, advanced galaxy formation(s) will appear via telescopes near the edge of our galaxy. In other words, we will see well formed galaxies in a location of our universe galaxy that should only display images of embryonic galaxies.
If we could ever extend our view further, we would probably notice that the galaxy we found earlier is a member of a cluster of galaxies belonging to the encroaching Universe. may find out the galaxy is a member of a cluster of galaxies in the other universe….further extension of our view would show the cluster of galaxies as a member of a thread of galaxies.
Super attractors like the great attractor would be driven by the lack of symmetry and the limited speed of space in all expanding universes.
Jan 28, 2024
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I think this is an interesting theory, but I like my theory (How the Universe Works by Joseph Intille posted a few days ago) better because it does not require anything to exist or happen before it starts, and it does not require other universes. My theory assumes that all of the matter, energy and gravity in the universe has always existed and just continues to cycle through various state over time. The total amount of Energy (Dark and visible), Matter (Dark and visible), and its associated Gravity are fixed and never change. They just transition from on state to another. This is true for cyclical processes, there is no beginning or end. I am trying to post a copy of Figure 1 of my theory and have not figured out how to do that yet, but is shows the interrelationship between Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Conventional Energy, Visible Matter, and Black Holes over time. Gravity, Black Holes and Conversion of Dark Energy and Dark Matter into Visible Matter (atoms) are the keys to this whole process. With this scheme, there is no need for a magic, God or any other similar force to get the processes started. Basically, it has always existed so there is not start.
If someone can tell me how to post a JPG figure on this site, I think it will clarify these complex interrelationships. I have tried to provide a link to a file in my Goggle Drive account, but I have not been able to get it work yet.
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If someone can tell me how to post a JPG figure on this site, I think it will clarify these complex interrelationships. I have tried to provide a link to a file in my Goggle Drive account, but I have not been able to get it work yet.

Space.com does not allow for the uploading of images to it's site. Rather we'd request that you upload your images to a third party site (such as imgur.com) and then post the links to your images here. See the link in my sig block.


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