Earth, Mars, Venus, and Mecury are protostar Pairs

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With or without human interference each revolution around the sun creates a carbon layer for Earth. The Earth grows. When the Earth grows it places more gravitational force on the moon which is what causes the moon to move away from Earth. The moon's orbit is only partially understood by science. Science did not see or account for Earth’s belly.

Other than Earth the sun is the only thing that gains (significant) mass in our solar system post solar creation event.

Modern science says in time our planet the Earth will be consumed by a Red Dwarf stellar event. This is partially correct.

Space is easy if you turn the light on. Space is saturated in frozen hydrogen molecules. To create a star all you need is a source of heat. Put a heating element in space and turn it on. Hydrogen takes care of everything else. What we would notice is that we are blind and possibly incinerated. The light from a hydrogen helium reaction is blindingly bright and hot. The Big Bang universe is primarily, if not solely, hydrogen and iron. The expansion milky way universe is very similar in primary composition but the stars are born in binary pairs and the area is covered in cloudlike debris. There seems to be continuity to the milky way universe. The core of all planets and stars is iron alloy like ours. Iron may have a vaporized abundance in space though not as dense as hydrogen which is everywhere.

Our planet Earth’s core has long been cooling. We image Earth’s core through earthquakes. Along the North South Axis of the core our core has gone crystalline. The crystalline process is interesting as a cooling process; it defies the 2nd law of thermodynamics. It creates heat. The Earth’s core will begin heating once the highly evolved species on the surface of the planet perform their function. I know the function but cannot tell you yet.

Once the core has begun it’s heating phase the Earth will begin to expand; at least one new continent most likely two or three will be added to Earth’s surface. In many years the Oceans will evaporate and the land will become molten. We will know the end is near when cicadas cease to appear.

As Earth grows Earth’s moon will collide with Venus changing Venus’ orbital path. This creates chaos in the inner universe. Earth and Venus begin regular collisions. Earth is molten it will begin to collide with Venus. This will result in Earth, Venus, Mars and Mercury all covered in a carbon rich Lava. This will create an enormous release of heat in the universe which is stoking the sun as the sun being the larger mass gains more hydrogen mass from the heat. The planets will run into the surface of the sun once the planets are covered with lava.

The surface of the sun has long been misunderstood to be plasma. Plasma exists directly below the lava layer and is a byproduct of the hydrogen reaction. Carbon is also produced by the hydrogen reaction of the star. This carbon builds a pillar through the north south axis of the star. The pillar is later ejected by a stellar event. The carbon pillar is how the sun expels carbon deposits to the LAVA surface layer which results in sunspots as the surface layer as the heat gradually melts the carbon deposits. The carbon deposits on the sun are the only thing that makes our planet inhabitable. Plasma does not offer enough diffusion of light and heat. The top layer of the sun is silicate and oxygen rich in carbon. Lava lampshade. There is a plasma layer directly beneath the lava layer that is produced by the star. The protostar produces the carbon and lava but a good portion of our Sun’s lava layer will be passed onto the next generation of stars through red dwarf stellar event.

Once the planet/protostars or moons come in contact with the lava on the surface of the sun they migrate to either the north or south pole. Our moon will be the first to run into the sun. The sun has a carbon pillar at its north south axis. This carbon pillar shields the planet/protostars from extreme heat vaporization. The pillar also has a function for the star as some kind of carbon aspiration and the planet or moon will disrupt the aspiration and trigger the red dwarf expansion. During expansion the planets/protostars get covered in a carbon layer coating as the lava layer will also migrate to the north south poles of the star. The planets, lava layer, the IRON CORE and carbon are all fused into the carbon pillar. Once the red dwarf goes supernova the pillar is ejected both from it’s north and south axis. The pillar has ripped the iron core of the star in half which triggers the supernova blast. The star remnant is the plasma layer and others that condense rapidly under the force of gravity.

The north south ejection pillar is actually a star birthing activity of four new stars: a binary pair per axis. In addition to the pillars molecular clouds are also ejected. The molecular clouds sit in stasis after the event outside the solar system. The protostars will gradually melt the carbon and begin collision with the pillar and protostar pair. The prostars will also create a solar wind. Space is rich in frozen hydrogen molecules. Molecular clouds collapse and the rest is as is observed by science.

Science missed the spark. I think this one is much better but am no scientist.
 

COLGeek

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Interesting suppositions. Do you have any sources to substantiate these notions, or just your personal intuition?

This seems we are back to this:
 

Catastrophe

The devil is in the detail
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Earth, Mars, Venus, and Me/cury are protostar Pairs
...............................................r

"Protostar

Description

A protostar is a very young star that is still gathering mass from its parent molecular cloud. The protostellar phase is the earliest one in the process of stellar evolution. For a low-mass star, it lasts about 500,000 years. Wikipedia

Temperature

10 million K.


A protostar becomes a main sequence star when its core temperature exceeds 10 million K. This is the temperature needed for hydrogen fusion to operate efficiently. The length of time all of this takes depends on the mass of the star. The more massive the star, the faster everything happens."


I know it was warm last week, but not quite that warm - but I just love breathing hydrogen.

Cat :)
 
Jun 20, 2021
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Interesting suppositions. Do you have any sources to substantiate these notions, or just your personal intuition?

This seems we are back to this:
I have sources for the earths crystalline core which is the catalyst for earth heating.

Crystalline process is earth science. The rest follows space science to the best of my knowledge. Science misses like the moon, lava surface of the sun, and others are noted. Science said pointless red dwarf. I say birthing activity of 2 sets of binary stars which fits the milky way more than current scientific explanation.

I'm sure my old theory was way off.

 
Jun 20, 2021
73
8
35
Earth, Mars, Venus, and Me/cury are protostar Pairs
...............................................r

"Protostar

Description

A protostar is a very young star that is still gathering mass from its parent molecular cloud. The protostellar phase is the earliest one in the process of stellar evolution. For a low-mass star, it lasts about 500,000 years. Wikipedia

Temperature

10 million K.


A protostar becomes a main sequence star when its core temperature exceeds 10 million K. This is the temperature needed for hydrogen fusion to operate efficiently. The length of time all of this takes depends on the mass of the star. The more massive the star, the faster everything happens."


I know it was warm last week, but not quite that warm - but I just love breathing hydrogen.

Cat :)
Did you read my idea all the way through?
 

Catastrophe

The devil is in the detail
Feb 18, 2020
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"There are in fact two things, science and opinion; the former begets knowledge, the latter ignorance."
Hippocrates, Law, 460-377 BCE

I have read the post all the way through, and it rests on many false statements, such as:

"The Big Bang universe is primarily, if not solely, hydrogen and iron. "

The BB (some believe) began with mostly hydrogen and helium. Iron is at the end of the nucleosynthesis process. Higher elements come from exploding stars.

Cat :)
 
Last edited:
Jun 20, 2021
73
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"There are in fact two things, science and opinion; the former begets knowledge, the latter ignorance."
Hippocrates, Law, 460-377 BCE

I have read the post all the way through, and it rests on many false statements, such as:

"The Big Bang universe is primarily, if not solely, hydrogen and iron. "

The BB (some believe) began with mostly hydrogen and helium. Iron is at the end of the nucleosynthesis process. Higher elements come from exploding stars.

Cat :)
Hydrogen can easily form helium. Helium is not needed to be a base molecule. Iron containment is vaporized by the big bang blast. Consistent with big bang yes? Milky way is continuation that happens later.
 
Jun 20, 2021
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Earth, Mars, Venus, and Mecury are protostar Pairs

The title says protostar. Is the title correct, or not? How do you define a proto star pair?

Cat :)
protostar is baby star to me. Protostar pair is a pair of baby stars. If you read the entire piece the earth, mars, venus and mercury are covered in lava like the surface of the sun and get sucked up by the carbon pillar during red dwarf expansion and are ejected upon stellar event and become star pairs. The thawing of the carbon begins to melt hydrogen which collapse the molecular clouds.
 

Catastrophe

The devil is in the detail
Feb 18, 2020
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"The crystalline process is interesting as a cooling process; it defies the 2nd law of thermodynamics. It creates heat."

No.

The star has grown enough in size and density for the central region to initiate a nuclear reaction, the heat of which causes the star to shine.

Cat :)
 

Catastrophe

The devil is in the detail
Feb 18, 2020
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I do not understand. the pun was included

What is your problem with this? It is fact
Try reading the bit that follows:

"The crystallization process appears to violate the second principle of thermodynamics. Whereas most processes that yield more orderly results are achieved by applying heat, crystals usually form at lower temperatures—especially by supercooling. However, due to the release of the heat of fusion during crystallization, the entropy of the universe increases, thus this principle remains unaltered."
My emphasis.


Cat :)
 
Jun 20, 2021
73
8
35
I do not understand. the pun was included

What is your problem with this? It is fact
The crystallization process appears to violate the second principle of thermodynamics. Whereas most processes that yield more orderly results are achieved by applying heat, crystals usually form at lower temperatures—especially by supercooling. However, due to the release of the heat of fusion during crystallization, the entropy of the universe increases, thus this principle remains unaltered.

The molecules within a pure, perfect crystal, when heated by an external source, will become liquid. This occurs at a sharply defined temperature (different for each type of crystal). As it liquifies, the complicated architecture of the crystal collapses. Melting occurs because the entropy (S) gain in the system by spatial randomization of the molecules has overcome the enthalpy (H) loss due to breaking the crystal packing forces:

{\displaystyle T(S_{\text{liquid}}-S_{\text{solid}})>H_{\text{liquid}}-H_{\text{solid}},}{\displaystyle G_{\text{liquid}}<G_{\text{solid}}.}
Regarding crystals, there are no exceptions to this rule. Similarly, when the molten crystal is cooled, the molecules will return to their crystalline form once the temperature falls beyond the turning point. This is because the thermal randomization of the surroundings compensates for the loss of entropy that results from the reordering of molecules within the system. Such liquids that crystallize on cooling are the exception rather than the rule.

The nature of a crystallization process is governed by both thermodynamic and kinetic factors, which can make it highly variable and difficult to control. Factors such as impurity level, mixing regime, vessel design, and cooling profile can have a major impact on the size, number, and shape of crystals produced.

From the article
 

Catastrophe

The devil is in the detail
Feb 18, 2020
3,839
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The crystallization process appears to violate the second principle of thermodynamics. Whereas most processes that yield more orderly results are achieved by applying heat, crystals usually form at lower temperatures—especially by supercooling. However, due to the release of the heat of fusion during crystallization, the entropy of the universe increases, thus this principle remains unaltered.

The molecules within a pure, perfect crystal, when heated by an external source, will become liquid. This occurs at a sharply defined temperature (different for each type of crystal). As it liquifies, the complicated architecture of the crystal collapses. Melting occurs because the entropy (S) gain in the system by spatial randomization of the molecules has overcome the enthalpy (H) loss due to breaking the crystal packing forces:

{\displaystyle T(S_{\text{liquid}}-S_{\text{solid}})>H_{\text{liquid}}-H_{\text{solid}},}{\displaystyle G_{\text{liquid}}<G_{\text{solid}}.}
Regarding crystals, there are no exceptions to this rule. Similarly, when the molten crystal is cooled, the molecules will return to their crystalline form once the temperature falls beyond the turning point. This is because the thermal randomization of the surroundings compensates for the loss of entropy that results from the reordering of molecules within the system. Such liquids that crystallize on cooling are the exception rather than the rule.

The nature of a crystallization process is governed by both thermodynamic and kinetic factors, which can make it highly variable and difficult to control. Factors such as impurity level, mixing regime, vessel design, and cooling profile can have a major impact on the size, number, and shape of crystals produced.

From the article
Did you understand this bit?
However, due to the release of the heat of fusion during crystallization, the entropy of the universe increases, thus this principle remains unaltered." My emphasis.

Cat :)
 

Catastrophe

The devil is in the detail
Feb 18, 2020
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May I very respectfully suggest that you learn some science, and then think about what you are posting?

I mean this very sincerely in the best interests of all of us. You will probably find it enjoyable as most of us have.

With best wishes, and kind regards,

Cat :) :) :) :) :)
 
Jun 20, 2021
73
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Try reading the bit that follows:

"The crystallization process appears to violate the second principle of thermodynamics. Whereas most processes that yield more orderly results are achieved by applying heat, crystals usually form at lower temperatures—especially by supercooling. However, due to the release of the heat of fusion during crystallization, the entropy of the universe increases, thus this principle remains unaltered."
My emphasis.


Cat :)
DUE TO THE RELEASE of the HEAT OF FUSION during crystallization. right after however. Heat is released. Our core has been cooling not releasing heat. This is abnormal for our core. I do not know of any heating data.
 

Catastrophe

The devil is in the detail
Feb 18, 2020
3,839
2,424
8,070
DUE TO THE RELEASE of the HEAT OF FUSION during crystallization. right after however. Heat is released. Our core has been cooling not releasing heat. This is abnormal for our core. I do not know of any heating data.
The key difference between heat of fusion and crystallization is that heat of fusion refers to the change in energy when a solid state of a particular substance converts into the liquid state whereas heat of crystallization refers to the heat that is either absorbed or evolved when one mole of a given substance ...29 Jul 2020

Difference Between Heat of Fusion and Crystallization



Cat :)
 

Catastrophe

The devil is in the detail
Feb 18, 2020
3,839
2,424
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Heat of fusion
the entropy of the universe increases, thus this principle remains unaltered." My emphasis.

The principle referred to is the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics.


Second law of thermodynamics - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Second_law_of_therm...


The second law of thermodynamics establishes the concept of entropy as a physical property of a thermodynamic system. Entropy predicts the direction of ...
First law · ‎Zeroth law · ‎Third law of thermo · ‎Clausius theorem
You've visited this page 2 times. Last visit: 01/09/21


Second Law of Thermodynamics
https://www.grc.nasa.gov › www › airplane › thermo2


The second law states that there exists a useful state variable called entropy S. The change in entropy delta S is equal to the heat transfer delta Q divided by ...


What is the Second Law of Thermodynamics? | Live Science
https://www.livescience.com › 50941-second-law-thermo...



The Second Law of Thermodynamics says, in simple terms, entropy always increases. This principle explains, for example, why you can't ...
21 May 2015 My emphasis.




Cat :)
 

Catastrophe

The devil is in the detail
Feb 18, 2020
3,839
2,424
8,070

Entropy - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Entropy


Entropy is a scientific concept, as well as a measurable physical property that is most commonly associated with a state of disorder, randomness, ...
History · ‎Etymology · ‎Definitions and descriptions



Entropy (information theory) - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Entropy_(information...


In information theory, the entropy of a random variable is the average level of "information", "surprise", or "uncertainty" inherent in the variable's ...
Introduction · ‎Definition · ‎Example · ‎Characterization


entropy | Definition & Equation | Britannica
https://www.britannica.com › ... › Matter & Energy


entropy, the measure of a system's thermal energy per unit temperature that is unavailable for doing useful work. Because work is obtained from ordered ...

Cat :)
 
Jun 20, 2021
73
8
35
The key difference between heat of fusion and crystallization is that heat of fusion refers to the change in energy when a solid state of a particular substance converts into the liquid state whereas heat of crystallization refers to the heat that is either absorbed or evolved when one mole of a given substance ...29 Jul 2020
Difference Between Heat of Fusion and Crystallization


Cat :)
Entropy accounts for absorbed heat
If the core absorbs heat it is not cooling
 
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