How To 

Heliocentralism - Agreed Terms - April 2022

Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics Ed Robert A Myers Academic Press 1989.

"Centuries before the Christian era, several Greek philosophers had prepared heliocentric models to observed motions of the Sun, Moon and planets in relation to the 'fixed' stars. However, the computational method of Alexandrian astronomer, Claudius Ptolemy, which he developed during the 2nd Century A,D., using a structure of equants and epicycles, based on the Earth as the only immovable point, also made successful predictions of apparent motions."
"Although additional epicycles had to be added from time to time to accommodate the increasingly the increasingly precise observations of later generations, this system became dominant in the Western world. Its assumption of a dichotomy between terrestrial experience and the laws of the 'celestial spheres' stifled fundamental progress until the middle of the 16th Century."
"In 1643, the Polish cleric, Mikolaj Kopernik, better known by the Latin form of his name, Nicholas Copernicus, cleared the way for modern astronomy with the publication of the De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (Concerning the Revolutions of the Celestial Worlds), Appearing in his last year, this work summarized the observations of a lifetime and presented logical arguments for the simplicity to be gained by an analysis based on the Sun as a fixed point."

Dictionary of Geophysics, Astrophysics and Astronomy Ed Richard A Matzner CRC Press 2001.
"heliocentric Centred on the Sun as in the Copernican model of the Solar System."

The Discovery of the Universe Carolyn Collins Petersen Amberley 2019
"The Greek-Roman scholar, Claudius Ptolemy, who suggested that Earth was the centre of the Universe, created a work called the Tetrabiblos, which was his treatise on the practices of Astrology and how to use it for predictive purposes."
"Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), a Polish astronomer, lived just prior to the invention of the telescope, He spent much of his effort developing his ideas that the planets orbited the Sun (as a fixed point in space), and that Earth turned on its axis daily. His heliocentric system triggrted a wave of scientific interest in the Sun-centred Universe, in what some called the Copernican Revolution, Yet, even he did not have a magnified view of the sky. Copernicus was, like everyone else up to the time of Galileo, a naked-eye observer.

Heliocentrism: Definition, origin and model | Forums

Work in progress.

Last edit Friday 8th April 2022 22.10 BST.
Last edited:
I am retired early and interested in everything from the Big Bang (and before) from Cosmology to Astronomy and Planetary Sciences to Geology including the 'geology' of exoplanets and miscellaneous objects including asteroids. That covers quite a...
View all 8 featured items


Latest posts