Io Volcanic Observer.

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3488

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<p><font size="2"><strong>A proposal for a dedicated Io probe.</strong></font></p><p><font size="3"><strong>The Io Volcanic Observer. </strong></font><br /> <img src="http://sitelife.space.com/ver1.0/Content/images/store/4/10/545aac9c-155f-4b2e-aa8c-eee57223a2a3.Medium.jpg" alt="" /><br />&nbsp;</p><p><font size="2"><strong>This will enable entire global mapping of Io & many observations of the moon Europa also from Jovecentric orbit. The craft would orbit Jupiter at a 45 degree inclination (IMO a polar orbit would be better) & at each perijove, would encounter Io perhaps as close as 100 KM or even lower.</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Andrew Brown.&nbsp;</strong></font></p> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font color="#000080">"I suddenly noticed an anomaly to the left of Io, just off the rim of that world. It was extremely large with respect to the overall size of Io and crescent shaped. It seemed unbelievable that something that big had not been visible before".</font> <em><strong><font color="#000000">Linda Morabito </font></strong><font color="#800000">on discovering that the Jupiter moon Io was volcanically active. Friday 9th March 1979.</font></em></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://www.launchphotography.com/</font><br /><br /><font size="1" color="#000080">http://anthmartian.googlepages.com/thisislandearth</font></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://web.me.com/meridianijournal</font></p> </div>
 
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silylene old

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Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>A proposal for a dedicated Io probe.The Io Volcanic Observer. &nbsp;This will enable entire global mapping of Io & many observations of the moon Europa also from Jovecentric orbit. The craft would orbit Jupiter at a 45 degree inclination (IMO a polar orbit would be better) & at each perijove, would encounter Io perhaps as close as 100 KM or even lower.Andrew Brown.&nbsp; <br />Posted by 3488</DIV><br /><br />Is an Io orbiter impossible?&nbsp; I know it couldn't get too close, because the volcanic ejecta can reach more than 150 km above the surface. <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature" align="center"><em><font color="#0000ff">- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</font></em> </div><div class="Discussion_UserSignature" align="center"><font color="#0000ff"><em>I really, really, really miss the "first unread post" function.</em></font> </div> </div>
 
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3488

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<p><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'><font color="#ff0000">Is an Io orbiter impossible?&nbsp; I know it couldn't get too close, because the volcanic ejecta can reach more than 150 km above the surface. <br />Posted by silylene</font></DIV></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Hi silylene,</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>An Io orbiter would be possible & highly desirable. However, the Io Volcanic Observer if it ever goes ahead, is a Discovery class mission, very low budget like Phoenix, therefore sacrificing large enough tanks to first Jovecentric orbit then into an Iocentric one. Secondly mass also has to be reduced to save mass, therefore a smaller launch vehicle be used, the big problem here is radiation shielding. </strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>We know from both Pioneer 11 & Ulysses, that Jupiter's radiation belts are hamburger shaped, so the high inclination means that for the vast majority of each orbit, the Io Volcanic Observer (IVO) is outside of the belts, only really entering them at perijove, when making the Io observations (also the high inclination means we aget to fully map both Io polar regions).&nbsp;</strong></font></p><p><strong><font size="2">Really I would love to see an orbiter, with a LORRI / HiRISE type imager & also a lander, equipped with a Phoenix style SSI camera kit, seismometer & tilt meters, but beggars cannot be choosers not to mention radiation for both would render them useless in a very short time.</font></strong></p><p><font size="2"><strong><font color="#000080">I</font></strong></font><strong><font size="2" color="#000080">o polar regions, an article from the LPI D L Matson et al.&nbsp;</font></strong></p><p><font color="#000080"><strong><font size="2">South polar region of Io, imaged by Voyager 1.&nbsp; Bottom right, 9 KM tall&nbsp; Heamus Mons.</font></strong></font></p><p><font color="#000000"><strong><font size="2">Also visible are the volcanoes, Taransis Patera, Inti Patera, Aramazd Patera, Heno Patera (containing possible impact crater, if so 1 of only 2 suspected on Io, but could be a sag feature), Hiruko Patera, Bochica Patera (possible lowest point on Io, -2,000 metres), Credne Patera, Masaaw Patera (sheild volcano), Euboea Fluctis & a flattened mountain Echo Mensae as well as a gigantic fractured tilted crustal block Euboea Montes.</font></strong></font><br /><img src="http://sitelife.space.com/ver1.0/Content/images/store/13/13/4d52e6bd-c402-419b-8d0e-8819606610f5.Medium.jpg" alt="" /><br />&nbsp;</p><p><font size="2" color="#000000"><strong>Europa is more likely to get that sort of attention, even though the evidence of the existence of a subsurface ocean is circumstantial at best, the possibility of life there even less so, but that ice surface is tantalising, but so is Io's volcanoes & collosal mountains, some of which like Boosaulle Mons, 18,200 metres base to summit, Io's tallest known mountain & the tallest not on Mars, are getting on for the lofty heights of Mars's Tharsis volcanoes.</strong></font></p><p><strong><font size="2">Boosaulle Mons @ 18,200 metres / 59,700 feet, base to summit.</font></strong><br /><img src="http://sitelife.space.com/ver1.0/Content/images/store/4/11/44e5643b-3a19-4ed0-ab43-ae91148a96c9.Medium.jpg" alt="" /><br />&nbsp;</p><p><font size="2" color="#000000"><strong>Io in many ways is more likely a window into the very early Earth, more so perhaps than even Titan.</strong></font></p><p><font size="2" color="#000000"><strong>Andrew Brown.&nbsp;</strong></font></p> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font color="#000080">"I suddenly noticed an anomaly to the left of Io, just off the rim of that world. It was extremely large with respect to the overall size of Io and crescent shaped. It seemed unbelievable that something that big had not been visible before".</font> <em><strong><font color="#000000">Linda Morabito </font></strong><font color="#800000">on discovering that the Jupiter moon Io was volcanically active. Friday 9th March 1979.</font></em></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://www.launchphotography.com/</font><br /><br /><font size="1" color="#000080">http://anthmartian.googlepages.com/thisislandearth</font></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://web.me.com/meridianijournal</font></p> </div>
 
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brandbll

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<p><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>&nbsp;&nbsp;Io in many ways is more likely a window into the very early Earth, more so perhaps than even Titan.Andrew Brown.&nbsp; <br />Posted by 3488</DIV></p><p>Am i correct in assuming a lot of the heat that Io generates is not retained in the&nbsp;moon(edited)?&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>Also, did NASA ever get the official "thumbs up" to send that orbiter/probe to Europa?&nbsp; And if so, would such an orbiter be focused mainly on Jupiter and all of it's moons like Cassini, or would it soley orbit Europa?</p> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font size="3">You wanna talk some jive? I'll talk some jive. I'll talk some jive like you've never heard!</font></p> </div>
 
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baulten

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<p><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>Io in many ways is more likely a window into the very early Earth, more so perhaps than even Titan.Andrew Brown.&nbsp; <br /> Posted by 3488</DIV></p><p>I think Io's certainly more like the VERY early Earth, shortly after the formation of the Moon, but I'd have to think Titan is more like the early Earth in the days right before the "dawn of life".&nbsp; They are both interesting moons, though.&nbsp; A dedicated Io mission would be pretty interesting. </p>
 
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silylene old

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<p><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>Hi silylene,An Io orbiter would be possible & highly desirable. .............Bottom right, 9 KM tall&nbsp; Heamus Mons.Also visible are the volcanoes, Taransis Patera, Inti Patera, Aramazd Patera, Heno Patera (containing possible impact crater, if so 1 of only 2 suspected on Io, but could be a sag feature), Hiruko Patera, Bochica Patera (possible lowest point on Io, -2,000 metres), Credne Patera, Masaaw Patera (sheild volcano), Euboea Fluctis & a flattened mountain Echo Mensae as well as a gigantic fractured tilted crustal block Euboea Montes.&nbsp;&nbsp;.............. Io's volcanoes & collosal mountains, some of which like Boosaulle Mons, 18,200 metres base to summit, Io's tallest known mountain & the tallest not on Mars, are getting on for the lofty heights of Mars's Tharsis volcanoes.Boosaulle Mons @ 18,200 metres / 59,700 feet, base to summit. &nbsp;Io in many ways is more likely a window into the very early Earth, more so perhaps than even Titan.Andrew Brown.&nbsp; <br />Posted by 3488</DIV></p><p>Is Boosaulle Mons thought to be a volcano, or was this due to an uplift process?&nbsp; (It certainly doesn't look like a crater remnant)&nbsp; If Boosaulle Mons was formed due to an uplift process, this would imply a very active crustal and core process on Io.&nbsp; Yes, it is interesting!</p> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature" align="center"><em><font color="#0000ff">- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -</font></em> </div><div class="Discussion_UserSignature" align="center"><font color="#0000ff"><em>I really, really, really miss the "first unread post" function.</em></font> </div> </div>
 
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3488

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<p><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'><font color="#ff0000">Is Boosaulle Mons thought to be a volcano, or was this due to an uplift process?&nbsp; (It certainly doesn't look like a crater remnant)&nbsp; If Boosaulle Mons was formed due to an uplift process, this would imply a very active crustal and core process on Io.&nbsp; Yes, it is interesting! <br />Posted by silylene</font></DIV></p><p><strong><font size="2">Hi silylene,</font></strong></p><p><strong><font size="2">Boosaulle Mons does appear to be a crustal uplift rather than volcanic.</font></strong></p><p><strong><font size="2">Below the 13,200 metre / 43,300 foot tall Euboea Mons again, this time on the limb in profile.</font></strong><br /><img src="http://sitelife.space.com/ver1.0/Content/images/store/9/0/a99c5719-2777-4b37-8081-e79b1e3cbd22.Medium.jpg" alt="" /><br />&nbsp;</p><p><strong><font size="2">Euboea Mons with the shield volcano Masaaw Patera above & Credne Patera to the lower left.</font></strong><br /><img src="http://sitelife.space.com/ver1.0/Content/images/store/6/11/c6ef9695-5c7d-486b-bb41-8ae1d56a4c99.Medium.jpg" alt="" /><br />&nbsp;</p><p><strong><font size="2">Sobo Fluctus, the fan of young Sulphur flows is approx 80 KM wide.</font></strong><br /><img src="http://sitelife.space.com/ver1.0/Content/images/store/14/1/1ee4863a-2855-4f60-a103-4b41528e5c09.Medium.jpg" alt="" /><br />&nbsp;</p><p><font size="2"><strong>Andrew Brown.&nbsp;</strong></font></p> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font color="#000080">"I suddenly noticed an anomaly to the left of Io, just off the rim of that world. It was extremely large with respect to the overall size of Io and crescent shaped. It seemed unbelievable that something that big had not been visible before".</font> <em><strong><font color="#000000">Linda Morabito </font></strong><font color="#800000">on discovering that the Jupiter moon Io was volcanically active. Friday 9th March 1979.</font></em></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://www.launchphotography.com/</font><br /><br /><font size="1" color="#000080">http://anthmartian.googlepages.com/thisislandearth</font></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://web.me.com/meridianijournal</font></p> </div>
 
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3488

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<p><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'><font color="#ff0000">Am i correct in assuming a lot of the heat that Io generates is not retained in the&nbsp;moon(edited)?&nbsp;&nbsp;Also, did NASA ever get the official "thumbs up" to send that orbiter/probe to Europa?&nbsp; And if so, would such an orbiter be focused mainly on Jupiter and all of it's moons like Cassini, or would it soley orbit Europa? <br /> Posted by brandbll</font></DIV></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Hi brandbll.</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>A Europa orbiter has not been officially approved, though I cannot see that being delayed indefinately, due to the scientific interest & curiosity that Europa generates.</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>One initial idea was that a potential Europa orbiter would enter a jovecentric orbit first, with several close approaches to Callisto, Ganymede & Europa itself, to bring the Europa orbiter in the same orbit around Jupiter as Europa & also get some extra science done with Callisto & Ganymede including high resolution images, testing the RADAR, etc on them first. Once the jovecentric orbit was matched with Europa, the craft would slowly either backtrack or advance towards Europa, then during the final approach, either dive slightly south or head slightly north to enable a polar orbit around Europa to be achieved.</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>If or when a Europa Orbiter is given the go ahead, I do not know, if this is the type of mission that would still happen? I would really hope beyond hope that further close passes & science with Ganymede & Callisto would still be possible prior to a Europa orbit insertion.</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>The Europa Orbiter would not be a low budget mission like the Io Volcanic Observer, more likely a flagship mission. Really both should go ahead, the IVO taking the Io obs as well as closer Jupiter obs with the Europa Orbiter closely scrutinizing Europa obviously after performing a mini Galileo type tour beforehand.</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Both craft could observe Ganymede & Callisto prior to reaching their primary orbits as well as potentially encountering a main belt asteroid or two & / or one or more of Jupiter's own far flung minor moons & Jupiter weather / GRS obs during approach (the IVO would be very effective at this role during the primary mission, when not close to Io).</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Andrew Brown.</strong></font></p> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font color="#000080">"I suddenly noticed an anomaly to the left of Io, just off the rim of that world. It was extremely large with respect to the overall size of Io and crescent shaped. It seemed unbelievable that something that big had not been visible before".</font> <em><strong><font color="#000000">Linda Morabito </font></strong><font color="#800000">on discovering that the Jupiter moon Io was volcanically active. Friday 9th March 1979.</font></em></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://www.launchphotography.com/</font><br /><br /><font size="1" color="#000080">http://anthmartian.googlepages.com/thisislandearth</font></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://web.me.com/meridianijournal</font></p> </div>
 
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brandbll

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Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>Hi brandbll.A Europa orbiter has not been officially approved, though I cannot see that being delayed indefinately, due to the scientific interest & curiosity that Europa generates.One initial idea was that a potential Europa orbiter would enter a jovecentric orbit first, with several close approaches to Callisto, Ganymede & Europa itself, to bring the Europa orbiter in the same orbit around Jupiter as Europa & also get some extra science done with Callisto & Ganymede including high resolution images, testing the RADAR, etc on them first. Once the jovecentric orbit was matched with Europa, the craft would slowly either backtrack or advance towards Europa, then during the final approach, either dive slightly south or head slightly north to enable a polar orbit around Europa to be achieved.If or when a Europa Orbiter is given the go ahead, I do not know, if this is the type of mission that would still happen? I would really hope beyond hope that further close passes & science with Ganymede & Callisto would still be possible prior to a Europa orbit insertion.The Europa Orbiter would not be a low budget mission like the Io Volcanic Observer, more likely a flagship mission. Really both should go ahead, the IVO taking the Io obs as well as closer Jupiter obs with the Europa Orbiter closely scrutinizing Europa obviously after performing a mini Galileo type tour beforehand.Both craft could observe Ganymede & Callisto prior to reaching their primary orbits as well as potentially encountering a main belt asteroid or two & / or one or more of Jupiter's own far flung minor moons & Jupiter weather / GRS obs during approach (the IVO would be very effective at this role during the primary mission, when not close to Io).Andrew Brown. <br />Posted by 3488</DIV><br /><br />How risky would it be to put a Hyugens type lander on Io?&nbsp; Is the heat on Io going to make it extremely difficult to achieve such a task and do we have Io mapped out well enough so that we would know a safe spot to even attempt a landing without falling into some sort of active area? <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font size="3">You wanna talk some jive? I'll talk some jive. I'll talk some jive like you've never heard!</font></p> </div>
 
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3488

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<p><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'><font color="#ff0000">How risky would it be to put a Hyugens type lander on Io?&nbsp; Is the heat on Io going to make it extremely difficult to achieve such a task and do we have Io mapped out well enough so that we would know a safe spot to even attempt a landing without falling into some sort of active area? <br />Posted by brandbll</font></DIV></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Hi brandbll,</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>I would suspect a Pre Apollo Lunar Surveyor type lander&nbsp;to be the best option (rugged, relatively simple but very effective, good odds, 5&nbsp; successful lunar landings out of 7 & the data returned still among the best from the lunar surface). True, 1960's technology, but could be equipped with higher definition cameras, seismometers, etc. Io has virtually no atmosphere (does have a Sodium & sulphur&nbsp;dominated&nbsp;Ionosphere, but to all intents & purposes, it's a vacuum), so no parachutes would work. Io has a reasonably strong surface gravity, approx 18.12% of Earth's, the strongest of any planetary moon.</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Io is well mapped, except for the polar regions, particulalrly the northern polar region, though Voyager 1 & Galileo did provide some good coverage of the south.</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>I have a number of landing sites, that I would certainly suggest, such as Masaaw Patera (shield volcano), Prometheus, Pillan, Hi,iaka Patera (volcanic depression, next to a 11,000 metre / 36,000 foot tall mountain, so both scientifically & visually impressive), Gish Bar Patera, Loki Patera, Tupan Patera, etc, so just off the top of my head, I reeled of a list of interesting sites.</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Radiation is the real bogeyman rather than volcanoes, some 40,000 Greys / 4 Megarads a day. But I would love to see a few landers & an MRO type orbiter, but money & radiation, probably rule's these options out in the near term. The IVO, though is a great compromise, that will enable high resolution imagery of the entire surface of Io, but a lander would be wonderful too.</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Andrew Brown.<br /></strong></font></p> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font color="#000080">"I suddenly noticed an anomaly to the left of Io, just off the rim of that world. It was extremely large with respect to the overall size of Io and crescent shaped. It seemed unbelievable that something that big had not been visible before".</font> <em><strong><font color="#000000">Linda Morabito </font></strong><font color="#800000">on discovering that the Jupiter moon Io was volcanically active. Friday 9th March 1979.</font></em></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://www.launchphotography.com/</font><br /><br /><font size="1" color="#000080">http://anthmartian.googlepages.com/thisislandearth</font></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://web.me.com/meridianijournal</font></p> </div>
 
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ThereIWas2

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<p><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>...at each perijove, would encounter Io perhaps as close as 100 KM or even lower.</DIV></p><p>I wouldn't think such an orbit would be stable, due to all the close encounters.&nbsp; Without a lot of fuel onboard, how long could this be sustained?</p> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><span class="postbody"><span style="font-style:italic"><br /></span></span></p> </div>
 
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aphh

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What a pity that the radiation environment is so extreme at Io. Are all Galilean moons constantly bombarded by radiation or is there a moon that has manageable radiation levels (manageable from the viewpoint of electronics and humans)?<br />
 
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baulten

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<p><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>What a pity that the radiation environment is so extreme at Io. Are all Galilean moons constantly bombarded by radiation or is there a moon that has manageable radiation levels (manageable from the viewpoint of electronics and humans)? <br /> Posted by aphh</DIV></p><p>Callisto experiences less radiation than the other Galilean moons.&nbsp; Ganymede has a magnetic field, but I'm not sure if that mitigates radiation around the equatorial region of the moon or not. </p>
 
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aphh

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<p><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>Callisto experiences less radiation than the other Galilean moons.&nbsp; Ganymede has a magnetic field, but I'm not sure if that mitigates radiation around the equatorial region of the moon or not. <br /> Posted by baulten</DIV></p><p>Thanks for that. Interesting. </p>
 
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h2ouniverse

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<p><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'>What a pity that the radiation environment is so extreme at Io. Are all Galilean moons constantly bombarded by radiation or is there a moon that has manageable radiation levels (manageable from the viewpoint of electronics and humans)? <br />Posted by aphh</DIV><br /><br />Callisto is quiet.</p><p>Ganymede is reasonable in terms of radiations. ESA's Laplace mission has been re-designed so as to become a Jovecentric orbiter ending as a Ganymede orbiter. Io and Europa fly-bys would be avoided to save the mission cost (protecting the electronics would result in a cnsiderable increase in costs). One Io or Europa fly-by may be scheduled, essentially to gain fuel (gravity assist for insertion into Jupiter's orbit).</p><p>NASA plans a Europa Orbiter, with rad-hard electronics but will be a mission beyond 2 bns dollars. And lifetime around Europa less than two months.</p><p>An Io orbiter would be in an even worse environment.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>To Andrew:</p><p>The Ganymede Orbiter can be a good place to observe Io from. Long lifetime thanks to the relatively low radiations. And notsuch a large distance => Wrt to an Io orbiter, images of Io would be poorer BUT the volcanic activity will be observed over a much longer period. That is imho more interesting science-wise.</p><p>Best regards.</p><p>Best regards.</p>
 
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3488

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<p><BR/>Replying to:<BR/><DIV CLASS='Discussion_PostQuote'><font color="#ff0000">Posted by h2ouniverse</font></DIV></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Thanks Joel,</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>That does make sense. As you say the Europa the Europa Orbiter will likely last only weeks, an Io orbiter IMO, maybe only days, but that may be enough to get a high resolution gloabal map, capturing Io, in great detail in a moment of time.</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Another craft as you say orbiting Ganymede could observe Io at certain times to monitor long term volcanic activity (though Ganymede itself is a very interesting world, certainly worthy of an orbiter & a lander or two). That would be of tremendous scientific benefit, in fact both would be.&nbsp;</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>The IVO is suggested to take up a high inclination orbit around Jupiter, so most of it's time is outside of the hamburger shaped radiation belts thus too avoiding much radiation, though unfortunately Io is always within them, as is Europa. The IVO would also be well suited to monitor Jupiter & perhaps take some observations of the four inner moons Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea & Thebe, as well as at times, point outwards at Europa.</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>I assume LAPLACE if selected, will use a Galileo type orbital insertion around Jupiter & get to rendezvous with all four of the Galileans before taking up a Ganymede centric orbit?&nbsp;</strong></font></p><p><font size="2"><strong>Andrew Brown.&nbsp;</strong></font></p> <div class="Discussion_UserSignature"> <p><font color="#000080">"I suddenly noticed an anomaly to the left of Io, just off the rim of that world. It was extremely large with respect to the overall size of Io and crescent shaped. It seemed unbelievable that something that big had not been visible before".</font> <em><strong><font color="#000000">Linda Morabito </font></strong><font color="#800000">on discovering that the Jupiter moon Io was volcanically active. Friday 9th March 1979.</font></em></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://www.launchphotography.com/</font><br /><br /><font size="1" color="#000080">http://anthmartian.googlepages.com/thisislandearth</font></p><p><font size="1" color="#000080">http://web.me.com/meridianijournal</font></p> </div>
 
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stupidlaminatedrock

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<p>An IO orbiter is a complete was of time and resources. I think we all know, If a mission is launched anywhere near jupiter it needs to be a Europa based missions.</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>Besides, what the heck happened to JIMO? I remember that being such a great program and then they canceled it. Brought it back, and offed it again. Was it ever ressurrected?&nbsp;</p>
 
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