If you don't have something specific, like exoplanet discoveries, and want a more general view of astronomy, there are a couple of ways to go:
1) Go big then look more and more at closer stuff. In this case, you could start with getting some idea of the powerful Big Bang Theory, which explains not only space but all the elements in galactic clouds, stars, planets and even our body's material. It demonstrates there was a beginning to the universe.
2) Go small then grow outward. Start with stuff on Earth like meteorites and telescopes. Telescopes aren't all that complicated, but they are critical to modern astronomy. Next would be the solar system.
I would encourage anyone to start with the history behind any science. How we got to where we are today is more easily understood by looking at the past.