Dipolar Electromagetic Condensate

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What evidence is there that proves the universe is expanding?

All evidence shows that the parts in the universe are clustering.

We do see parts of the universe expanding caused by dipole vector fields from extreme condensates.
We also see perpendicular to these vector fields contraction to the core of the condensates.


"Science begets knowledge, opinion ignorance.
nature abhors a vacuum
Is this simply a matter of any volatile substances present moving, providing they are above absolute zero?

I have in mind 4 helium atoms stationary on an inner surface of an otherwise empty box. Providing the temperature is above 0K they will move and, hey presto, you have a gas at very low pressure. What if the atoms had been attracted to the surface?

Then, even if the 4 helium atoms remained stationary, would you have had a vacuum? And, what if you had 4 non volatile atoms, say gold, in the box - would you have had a vacuum? Would it depend on the temperature?

Cat :)
What is the force that creates expansion and contraction

We notice these forces in images such as
Hour glass from stars
Galaxy dipolar jets such as M87

The power that can generate such dipolar jets can be explained by Transients of Condensates that have core s such as Neutron, Quark, Partonic matter and so on

Expansion along the jet stream
Compaction of incoming matter to the core
These are supported by images
Dipolar jets are common in the cases of neutron stars and black holes that have abundant infalling material to feed off of. Their high level of gravity draws in material from all directions and as it infalls it gets crowded and very high pressures are generated. Conservation of angular momentum creates rapid rotation of the infalling material. Being heated to high temperatures, lots of the gas is ionized thus is electrically conductive. Very high magnetic fields are generated. The fields are generally bipolar and aligned with the spin axis. It is difficult for a charged particle to cross a magnetic field line, thus the only exit from the pressure cooker is via both poles. Thus bipolar jets.
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Scientists around the world are trying to explain how expansion maybe driven

Cosmic acceleration driven by dark matter self-interactions
A. Kazım Çamlıbel
We explore a Gedanken-model for cosmic evolution, where dark matter is strongly self-interacting and stays in a plasma state until late stages. After decoupling, it condensates to super-structures with cosmic voids similar to the current picture of the universe. With the help of the equation of state of dry foam (equivalently a fluid with voids in it) from fluid mechanics, it is possible to show that tension within these cosmic walls due to their binding interaction may cause an accelerated expansion in the absence of dark energy. Furthermore, we give a cosmological analysis of this scenario with a semi-phenomenological ansatz, where we use recent Type Ia supernova compilation.
[Submitted on 18 Aug 2022]
The Photon Ring in M87*
Avery E. Broderick, Dominic W. Pesce, Paul Tiede, Hung-Yi Pu, Roman Gold, Richard Anantua, Silke Britzen, Chiara Ceccobello, Koushik Chatterjee, Yongjun Chen, Nicholas S. Conroy, Geoffrey B. Crew, Alejandro Cruz-Osorio, Yuzhu Cui, Sheperd S. Doeleman, Razieh Emami, Joseph Farah, Christian M. Fromm, Peter Galison, Boris Georgiev, Luis C. Ho, David J. James, Britton Jeter, Alejandra Jimenez-Rosales, Jun Yi Koay, Carsten Kramer, Thomas P. Krichbaum, Sang-Sung Lee, Michael Lindqvist, Ivan Martí-Vidal, Karl M. Menten, Yosuke Mizuno, James M. Moran, Monika Moscibrodzka, Antonios Nathanail, Joey Neilsen, Chunchong Ni, Jongho Park, Vincent Pietu, Luciano Rezzolla, Angelo Ricarte, Bart Ripperda, Lijing Shao, Fumie Tazaki, Kenji Toma, Pablo Torne, Jonathan Weintroub, Maciek Wielgus, Feng Yuan, Shan-Shan Zhao, Shuo Zhang
We report measurements of the gravitationally lensed secondary image -- the first in an infinite series of so-called "photon rings" -- around the supermassive black hole M87* via simultaneous modeling and imaging of the 2017 Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations. The inferred ring size remains constant across the seven days of the 2017 EHT observing campaign and is consistent with theoretical expectations, providing clear evidence that such measurements probe spacetime and a striking confirmation of the models underlying the first set of EHT results. The residual diffuse emission evolves on timescales comparable to one week. We are able to detect with high significance a southwestern extension consistent with that expected from the base of a jet that is rapidly rotating in the clockwise direction. This result adds further support to the identification of the jet in M87* with a black hole spin-driven outflow, launched via the Blandford-Znajek process. We present three revised estimates for the mass of M87* based on identifying the modeled thin ring component with the bright ringlike features seen in simulated images, one of which is only weakly sensitive to the astrophysics of the emission region. All three estimates agree with each other and previously reported values. Our strongest mass constraint combines information from both the ring and the diffuse emission region, which together imply a mass-to-distance ratio of 4.20+0.12−0.06 μas and a corresponding black hole mass of(7.13±0.39)×109M⊙, where the error on the latter is now dominated by the systematic uncertainty arising from the uncertain distance to M87*.

Imagine the core of M87 being 0ver 7 billion solar masses and trillions of stars in the galactic envelope
Within the dipolar jets there exists billions of stars
Years gone by
Scientists thought that the spinning of the disc created the jets
No longer is the answer
The core that cannot not be seen regardless of images thought to be an image of the Black Hole
Is responsible for the dipolar jets ejecting matter into the envelope.
Black Holes without a singularity are condensates that mimic black hole properties and can be explained by quantum physics.
The common property of condensates is a dipolar electromagnetic field.

Many scientists think that a Neutron star is a remnant of and existing star.

Another theory is that the Star's core dipolar electromagnetic fields created an hourglass image removing the solar envelope and leaving a Neutron Star, next generation condensate that with added matter may evolve into a Quark Star.

Remnant I don't think so, not the end of the line.

Submitted on 27 May 2022 (v1), last revised 12 Sep 2022 (this version, v2)]
On the diversity of magnetar-driven kilonovae
Nikhil Sarin, Conor M. B. Omand, Ben Margalit, David I. Jones
A non-negligible fraction of binary neutron star mergers are expected to form long-lived neutron star remnants, dramatically altering the multi-messenger signatures of a merger. Here, we extend existing models for magnetar-driven kilonovae and explore the diversity of kilonovae and kilonova afterglows. Focusing on the role of the (uncertain) magnetic field strength, we study the resulting electromagnetic signatures as a function of the external dipolar and internal toroidal fields. These two parameters govern, respectively, the competition between magnetic-dipole spindown and gravitational-wave spindown (due to magnetic-field deformation) of the rapidly-rotating remnant. We find that even in the parameter space where gravitational-wave emission is dominant, a kilonova with a magnetar central engine will be significantly brighter than one without an engine, as this parameter space is where more of the spin-down luminosity is thermalised. In contrast, a system with minimal gravitational-wave emission will produce a kilonova that may be difficult to distinguish from ordinary kilonovae unless early-epoch observations are available. However, as the bulk of the energy in this parameter space goes into accelerating the ejecta, such a system will produce a brighter kilonova afterglow that will peak on shorter times. To effectively hide the presence of the magnetar from the kilonova and kilonova afterglow, the rotational energy inputted into the ejecta must be ≲10−3−10−2Erot. We discuss the different diagnostics available to identify magnetar-driven kilonovae in serendipitous observations and draw parallels to other potential magnetar-driven explosions, such as superluminous supernovae and broad-line supernovae Ic.
[Submitted on 11 Jan 2023]
Anisotropic vortex quantum droplets in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates
Guilong Li, Xunda Jiang, Bin Liu, Zhaopin Chen, Boris A. Malomed, Yongyao Li
Creation of stable intrinsically anisotropic self-bound states with embedded vorticity is a challenging issue. Previously, no such states in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) or other physical settings were known. Dipolar BEC suggests a unique possibility to predict stable anisotropic vortex quantum droplets (AVQDs). We demonstrate that they can be created with the vortex' axis oriented \emph{perpendicular} to the polarization of dipoles. The stability area and characteristics of the AVQDs in the parameter space are revealed by means of analytical and numerical methods. Further, the rotation of the polarizing magnetic field is considered, and the largest angular velocities, up to which spinning AVQDs can follow the rotation in clockwise and anti-clockwise directions, are found. Collisions between moving AVQDs are studied too, demonstrating formation of bound states with a vortex-antivortex-vortex structure. A stability domain for such stationary bound states is identified. A possibility of the creation of AVQDs in a two-component dipolar BEC is briefly considered too.
We cannot see within Condensates, Scientists are looking.
The answers to dipolar cores and their impact may lead to very interesting future outcomes.
The secrets of expansion and contraction may possibly be found in understanding the Transients of Condensates.
From Atomic to Neutron to Quark to Partonic to Axion matter.
Imagine compaction with Transient condensates from 10^5 to 10^35.
Now imaging droplets being released from confinement.
[Submitted on 7 Sep 2022 (v1), last revised 12 Sep 2022 (this version, v2)]
Primordial neutron star; a new candidate of dark matter
M. Yoshimura
Z-boson exchange interaction induces attractive force between left-handed neutrino and neutron. The Ginzburg-Landau mean field calculation and the Bogoliubov transformation suggest that this attractive force leads to neutrino-neutron pair condensate and super-fluidity. When the result of super-fluid formation is applied to the early universe, horizon scale pair condensate may become a component of dark energy. A further accretion of other fermions from thermal cosmic medium gives a seed of primordial neutron stars made of proton, neutron, electron, and neutrino in beta-equilibrium. Primordial neutron stars may provide a mechanism of giving a part or the whole of the dark matter in the present universe, if a properly chosen small fraction of cosmic thermal particles condenses to neutrino-neutron super-fluid and primordial neutron star not to over-close the universe. The proposal can be verified in principle by measuring neutrino burst at primordial neutron star formation and by detecting super-fluid relic neutrinos in atomic experiments at laboratories.
I do not agree with a start to the Universe, but! saying that we can look at the probable ways matter seeded at the start of the universe.

If we assume before the Big Bang matter was confined in an extreme compacted core such as a condensate.
How that matter was released and seeded the various star formations is of extreme interest.
I posted this paper in the recycling thread.
Understanding the quantum Mechanics of Compacted objects can lead us to understand the functioning of the parts within the universe.
Chiral Super-Symmetry creating a dipolar vector fields, is omni important.

[Submitted on 7 Sep 2022 (v1), last revised 9 Oct 2022 (this version, v2)]

Intrinsic chiral field as vector potential of the magnetic current in the zig-zag lattice of magnetic dipoles​

Paula Mellado, Kevin Hofhuis, Ignacio Tapia, Andres Concha
Chiral magnetic insulators manifest novel phases of matter where the sense of rotation of the magnetization is associated with exotic transport phenomena. Effective control of such phases and their dynamical evolution points to the search and study of chiral fields like the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Here we combine experiments, numerics, and theory to study a zig-zag dipolar lattice as a model of an interface between magnetic in-plane layers with perpendicular magnetization. The zig-zag lattice comprises two parallel sublattices of dipoles with perpendicular easy plane of rotation. The dipolar energy of the system is exactly separable into a sum of symmetric and antisymmetric long-range exchange interactions between dipoles, where the antisymmetric coupling generates a nonlocal Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya field which stabilizes winding textures with the form of chiral solitons. The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction acts as a vector potential or gauge field of the magnetic current and gives rise to emergent magnetic and electric fields that allow the manifestation of the magnetoelectric effect in the system.
The Dipolar Electromagnetic Fields is very important in explaining the formation of stars and their long Jeopardy.
Not! only stars but! all the formations such as the different forms of galaxies, Magnetars, Hour Glass Supernova, Formation of vortices etc.

[Submitted on 30 Mar 2023 (v1), last revised 5 Apr 2023 (this version, v2)]

Electromagnetic fields in compact binaries: a post-Newtonian approach​

Quentin Henry, François Larrouturou, Christophe Le Poncin-Lafitte
Galactic binaries, and notably double white dwarfs systems, will be a prominent source for the future LISA and Einstein Telescope detectors. Contrarily to the black holes observed by the current LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA network, such objects bear intense magnetic fields, that are naturally expected to leave some imprints on the gravitational wave emission. The purpose of this work is thus to study those imprints within the post-Newtonian (PN) framework, particularly adapted to double white dwarfs systems. To this end, we construct an effective action that takes into account the whole electromagnetic structure of a star, and then specify it to dipolar order. With this action at hand, we compute the acceleration and Noetherian quantities for generic electric and magnetic dipoles, at a relative 2PN order. Finally, focusing on physically relevant systems, we show that the magnetic effects on the orbital frequency, energy and angular momentum is significant, confirming previous works conclusions.
The Dipolar Electromagnetic Vector Fields going in and going out of the Compact Objects.
One opinion is that they form at the crust.
The other opinion is that the dipolar fields are created within the core of the compact object. To understand this you may have to research the topic, Chiral Super Symmetry.

[Submitted on 23 Feb 2022 (v1), last revised 1 Jun 2022 (this version, v3)]

Vanishing Poynting observers and electromagnetic field classification in Kerr and Kerr-Newman spacetimes​

H. Vargas-Rodríguez, H. C. Rosu, M. G. Medina-Guevara, A. Gallegos, M.A. Muñiz-Torres
We consider electromagnetic fields having an angular momentum density in a locally non-rotating reference frame in Schwarzschild, Kerr, and Kerr-Newman spacetimes. The nature of such fields is assessed with two families of observers, the locally non-rotating ones and those of vanishing Poynting flux. The velocity fields of the vanishing-Poynting observers in the locally non-rotating reference frames are determined using the 3+1 decomposition formalism. From a methodological point of view, and considering a classification of the electromagnetic field based on its invariants, it is convenient to separate the consideration of the vanishing-Poynting observers into two cases corresponding to the pure and non-pure fields, additionally if there are regions where the field rotates with the speed of light (light surfaces) it becomes necessary to split these observers into two subfamilies. We present several examples of relevance in astrophysics and general relativity, such as pure rotating dipolar-like magnetic fields and the electromagnetic field of the Kerr-Newman solution. For the latter example, we see that vanishing-Poynting observers also measure a vanishing super-Poynting vector, confirming recent results in the literature. Finally, for all non-null electromagnetic fields, we present the 4-velocity fields of vanishing Poynting observers in an arbitrary spacetime.