Dipolar Electromagetic Condensate

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Dipolar fields exist in Stars and planets and Black Holes and Galactic centers.

The core creates magnetic fields around.
In Stars it creates turbulence within the star envelope.
In Galactic center it creates the dipolar jets that evolve as spiral arms turbulence in forming elliptical galaxy.
Jun 11, 2023
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Understanding Neutron stars allows us to further understand Transients from Neutron Matter to the complex Quark, Partonic and Axion Gluon matter.
Understanding Neutron Stars given as mostly made up of reverse beta decay hydrogen to Neutron Matter can't have anything to do with quarks or gluon matter because neither can survive outside the nucleon envelope/indestructible nucleon permeable mass-energy vessel sacs.
While nucleons, electrons, neutrinos and valence quarks are proven to exist as mass-energy vessel permeable sacs): The valence quarks and gluons can't exist outside the nucleon envelope and are irrelevent to understanding Neutron Stars Or Magnetars.
We are given that gluons are virtual particles that exist only inside the nucleon envelope and, possibly, nucleus of an atom!!

Under unique temporary circunstance per wikipedia): Quark-Gluon Plasma Is alleged): Production of QGP in the laboratory is achieved by colliding heavy atomic nuclei (called heavy ions as in an accelerator atoms are ionized) at relativistic energy in which matter is heated well above the Hagedorn Temperature TH = 150 MeV per particle, which amounts to a temperature exceeding 1.66×10e12 K. This can be accomplished by colliding two large nuclei at high energy (note that 175 MeV is not the energy of the colliding beam). Lead and gold nuclei have been used for such collisions at CERN SPSt and BNL RHIC , respectively. The nuclei are accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds (contracting their length) and directed towards each other, creating a "fireball", in the rare event of a collision. Hydrodynamic simulation predicts this Fireball will expand under its own pressure, and cool while expanding. By carefully studying the spherical and elliptic flow, experimentalists put the theory to test.

Does Wiki support my postulate that gravity is a direct function of matter heating up with the given): "The nuclei are accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds (contracting their length)" and that as the Fireball matter cools Dark Energy is released with the given): The Fireball will expand under its own pressure and ool while expanding!!
Sooooo): What comes first the cooling or the expansion??
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The general question is:
Do the jets form from falling matter?
Or the compact object within itself generates dipolar electromagnetic field expelling matter away from the core.?

[Submitted on 18 Sep 2020 (v1), last revised 9 Nov 2020 (this version, v2)]

Magnetic Ergostars, Jet Formation and Gamma-Ray Bursts: Ergoregions versus Horizons​

Milton Ruiz, Antonios Tsokaros, Stuart L. Shapiro, Kyle C. Nelli, Sam Qunell
We perform the first fully general relativistic, magnetohydrodynamic simulations of dynamically stable hypermassive neutron stars with and without ergoregions to assess the impact of ergoregions on launching magnetically--driven outflows. The hypermassive neutron stars are modeled by a compressible and causal equation of state and are initially endowed with a dipolar magnetic field extending from the stellar interior into its exterior. We find that, after a few Alfvén times, magnetic field lines in the ergostar (star that contains ergoregions) and the normal star have been tightly wound in both cases into a helical funnel within which matter begins to flow outward. The maximum Lorentz factor in the outflow is ΓL∼2.5, while the force-free parameter holds at B2/8πρ0≲10. These values are incompatible with highly relativistic, magnetically-driven outflows (jets) and short γ-ray bursts. We compare these results with those of a spinning black hole surrounded by a magnetized, massless accretion disk that launches a bona fide jet. Our simulations suggest that the Blandford-Znajek mechanism for launching relativistic jets only operates when a black hole is present, though the Poynting luminosity in all cases is comparable. Therefore, one cannot distinguish a magnetized, accreting black hole from a magnetized hypermassive neutron star in the so-called mass-gap based solely on the value of the observed Poynting luminosity. These results complement our previous studies of supramassive remnants and suggest that it would be challenging for either normal neutron stars or ergostars in a hypermassive state to be the progenitors of short γ-ray bursts.
Although the paper is worth reading.
It's the assumption that the BBT applies.
The dipolar fields are worth investigating.

[Submitted on 5 Jul 2023]

Anisotropic Inflation in Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates​

Arun Rana, Abhijit Pendse, Sebastian Wüster, Sukanta Panda
Early during the era of cosmic inflation, rotational invariance may have been broken, only later emerging as a feature of low-energy physics. This motivates ongoing searches for residual signatures of anisotropic space-time, for example in the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background. We propose that dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) furnish a laboratory quantum simulation platform for the anisotropy evolution of fluctuation spectra during inflation, exploiting the fact that the speed of dipolar condensate sound waves depends on direction. We construct the anisotropic analogue space-time metric governing sound, by linking the time-varying strength of dipolar and contact interactions in the BEC to the scale factors in different coordinate directions. Based on these, we calculate the dynamics of phonon power spectra during an inflation that renders the initially anisotropic universe isotropic. We find that the expansion speed provides an experimental handle to control and study the degree of final residual anisotropy. Gravity analogues using dipolar condensates can thus provide tuneable experiments for a field of cosmology that was until now confined to a single experiment, our universe.
Chiral Supersymmetry plays an important role in Neutron Star Spin.
The dipolar Vector fields that are expelled from the star, is generated from the core. Just like a magnet it will have dipolar fields.

[Submitted on 7 Sep 2022 (v1), last revised 9 Oct 2022 (this version, v2)]

Intrinsic chiral field as vector potential of the magnetic current in the zig-zag lattice of magnetic dipoles​

Paula Mellado, Kevin Hofhuis, Ignacio Tapia, Andres Concha
Chiral magnetic insulators manifest novel phases of matter where the sense of rotation of the magnetization is associated with exotic transport phenomena. Effective control of such phases and their dynamical evolution points to the search and study of chiral fields like the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Here we combine experiments, numerics, and theory to study a zig-zag dipolar lattice as a model of an interface between magnetic in-plane layers with perpendicular magnetization. The zig-zag lattice comprises two parallel sublattices of dipoles with perpendicular easy plane of rotation. The dipolar energy of the system is exactly separable into a sum of symmetric and antisymmetric long-range exchange interactions between dipoles, where the antisymmetric coupling generates a nonlocal Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya field which stabilizes winding textures with the form of chiral solitons. The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction acts as a vector potential or gauge field of the magnetic current and gives rise to emergent magnetic and electric fields that allow the manifestation of the magnetoelectric effect in the system.
Understanding the properties of condensates may lead to understanding how the parts within the universe work. Assuming most the matter within the universe is within condensates.

[Submitted on 4 Sep 2023 (v1), last revised 14 Sep 2023 (this version, v2)]

Mini droplet, mega droplet and stripe formation in a dipolar condensate​

Luis E. Young-S., S. K. Adhikari
We demonstrate mini droplet, mega droplet and stripe formation in a dipolar 164Dy condensate, using an improved mean-field model including a Lee-Huang-Yang-type interaction, employing a quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) trap in a way distinct from that in the pioneering experiment, M. A. Norcia et. al., Nature 596, 357 (2021), where the polarization z direction was taken to be perpendicular to the quasi-2D x-y plane. In the present study we take the polarization z direction in the quasi-2D x-z plane. Employing the same trapping frequencies as in the experiment, and interchanging the frequencies along the y and z directions, we find the formation of mini droplets for number of atoms N as small as N = 1000. With the increase of number of atoms, a spatially-periodic supersolid-like one-dimensional array of mega droplets containing 50000 to 200000 atoms are formed along the x direction in the x-y plane. These mega droplets are elongated along the polarization z direction, consequently, the spatially periodic arrangement of droplets appears as a stripe pattern in the x-z plane. To establish the supersolidity of the droplets we demonstrate continued dipole-mode and scissors-mode oscillations of the droplet-lattice pattern. The main findings of the present study can be tested experimentally with the present know-how.
Particle speed coming out of dipolar fields is at the speed of light. The larger the particles the less the speed.

[Submitted on 20 Jun 2023 (v1), last revised 7 Jul 2023 (this version, v2)]

Particle motion in neutron stars ultra-strong electromagnetic field: the influence of radiation reaction​

Ivan Tomczak, Jérôme Pétri
As a follow-up to our previous work on particle acceleration simulation near neutron stars, in this paper, we discuss the impact of radiation reaction on test particles injected into their magnetosphere. We therefore neglect the interaction between particles through the electromagnetic field as well as gravitation. We integrate numerically the reduced Landau-Lifshitz equation for electrons and protons in the vacuum field of a rotating magnetic dipole based on analytical solutions in a constant electromagnetic field. These expressions are simple in a frame where the electric and magnetic field are parallel. Lorentz transforms are used to switch back and forth between this frame and the observer frame. We found that, though due solely to the Lorentz force, electrons reach Lorentz factors up to γ=1014 and protons reach them up to γ=1010.7. When radiation reaction is enabled, electrons reach energies up to γ=1010.5 and protons reach energies up to γ=108.3. The second set of values are more realistic since the radiation reaction feedback is predominant within the magnetosphere. Moreover, as expected, symmetrical behaviours between the north and south hemispheres are highlighted, either with respect to the location around the neutron star or with respect to particles of opposite charge to mass ratio~(q/m). The study of the influence of the magnetic dipolar moment inclination shows similar behaviours regardless of whether radiation reaction is enabled. Protons (respectively electrons) impact the surface of the neutron star less as the inclination angle increases (decreases for electrons), while if the rotation and magnetic axes are aligned, all the protons impact the neutron star, and all the electrons impact the surface if the rotation and magnetic axes are anti-aligned.
It's funny that the paper talks about magnetic reconnection. Sun's magnetic loops when they reconnect, the flood of energy is released.

Now imagine if the reconnection is out of control within a compact body.
To explain this, you may need to research.
Chiral Super Symmetry
To explain how a compact body can produce Dipolar jets small and large.
M87 jets 100,000 light years with the birth of millions of stars
Super Cluster Compact Core jet (vortex) millions of light years, with the birth of Trillions of stars.
These jets come out like the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis.

[Submitted on 3 Jul 2023 (v1), last revised 21 Jul 2023 (this version, v2)]

Particle acceleration by magnetic reconnection in geospace​

Mitsuo Oka, Joachim Birn, Jan Egedal, Fan Guo, Robert E. Ergun, Drew L. Turner, Yuri Khotyaintsev, Kyoung-Joo Hwang, Ian J. Cohen, James F. Drake
Particles are accelerated to very high, non-thermal energies during explosive energy-release phenomena in space, solar, and astrophysical plasma environments. While it has been established that magnetic reconnection plays an important role in the dynamics of Earth's magnetosphere, it remains unclear how magnetic reconnection can further explain particle acceleration to non-thermal energies. Here we review recent progress in our understanding of particle acceleration by magnetic reconnection in Earth's magnetosphere. With improved resolutions, recent spacecraft missions have enabled detailed studies of particle acceleration at various structures such as the diffusion region, separatrix, jets, magnetic islands (flux ropes), and dipolarization front. With the guiding-center approximation of particle motion, many studies have discussed the relative importance of the parallel electric field as well as the Fermi and betatron effects. However, in order to fully understand the particle acceleration mechanism and further compare with particle acceleration in solar and astrophysical plasma environments, there is a need for further investigation of, for example, energy partition and the precise role of turbulence.
Going back a few posts to Adoni

Under confinement
The first Transient
is Atomic Matter 10^5
Protons gain and electron changing it to a Neutron.
Neutrons can compact under confinement to 10 ^17
beyond this compaction
Neutrons split the Quarks in various combinations, that allows the compaction to jump above 10^18 and so on.
Its only under confinement that compacted objects remain stable.
It is estimated that most matter 95% in the universe is in compacted objects.

The properties of these compacted objects may explain the ongoing workings of the universe.

Hey! I could be wrong.
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Jun 11, 2023
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Going back a few posts to Adoni

Under confinement
The first Transient
is Atomic Matter 10^5
Protons gain and electron changing it to a Neutron.
Neutrons can compact under confinement to 10 ^17
beyond this compaction
Neutrons split the Quarks in various combinations, that allows the compaction to jump above 10^18 and so on.
Its only under confinement that compacted objects remain stable.
It is estimated that most matter 95% in the universe is in compacted objects.

The properties of these compacted objects may explain the ongoing workings of the universe.

Hey! I could be wrong.
Harry!! What do you mean by under confinement, the first Transient is Atomic Matter at 10^5 Compaction??
You appear to imply some sort of density for unknown atomic matter and of unknown compaction in terms of kilograms/meter cubed!!
Can you explain Atomic Matter Compaction Density 0f 10^5 in terms of kilograms/meter cubed??
I'm still trying to understand your given compaction/density scale in terms of kilograms/meter cubed!!

Wiki Says): “The density of a white dwarf is very high, with an average density of matter roughly a million times greater than the average density of the Sun.
An Earth-sized white dwarf has a density of 1 x 10^9 kg/m^3, which is 200,000 times as dense as Earth. White dwarfs are composed of one of the densest forms of matter known, surpassed only by other compact stars such as neutron stars and black holes.”

FYI): My research along with the discovery of a moon sized white dwarf at about 1.35 Solar Masses implies a maximum white dwarf density of about 20,000,000 times Earth density or 1x10^11 kg/m^3!! Because A White Dwarf Is Given To Explode Into a Type 1a Supernova As It Approaches 1.41 Solar Masses!!
Modern Physicists say that Type 1a Supernovae are the result of runaway carbon fusion!! But 1.40 solar masses of carbon at 20 million times Earth Density can't simply runaway and fuse instantly releasing all the energy that our Sun could release in 15 billion years of hydrogen fusion of 1.5^44 Joules instantly!!
I propose that the compression-decompression cycles of a white dwarf as it approaches 1.41 Solar Masses convert 125 Earth masses of matter to antimatter that mixes with 125 Earth masses of matter to yield 1.5^44 Joules of Energy Instantly!!

What do you think about my proposal??

I will explain the exact mechanics that convert matter to antimatter later!!
Smile Often and Have A Great Day!!
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Matter when it compacts by adding matter, will reach a critical mass of compaction.
This compaction is one theory of explaining the formation of a star.
Atomic matter will compact to 10^5.
add more matter, the next compaction, being under confinement, the Proton gain an electron and form Neutron.
Neutrons compact to 10^17 Neutron matter is a condensate.
Transition from one phase to the next.
Each phase is a Transient of a condensate.

Rather than me trying to explain.
Keep Researching
The scientists that keep at it, searching for further information.
OK sometimes they hit a dead end. But! they learn being on the journey.

[Submitted on 20 Dec 2023]

Excitations and phase ordering of the spin-stripe phase of a binary dipolar condensate​

Au-Chen Lee, D. Baillie, P. B. Blakie
We consider the ground states, excitations and dynamics of a quasi-two-dimensional binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate. Our focus is on the transition to a spin-stripe ground state in which the translational invariance is spontaneously broken by a striped immiscible pattern of the alternating components. We develop a ground state phase diagram showing the parameter regime where the spin-stripe state occurs. Using Bogoliubov theory we calculate the excitation spectrum and structure factors. We identify a balanced regime where the system has a Z2 symmetry, and in the spin-stripe state this yields a nonsymmorphic symmetry. We consider the evolution of the system following a quench from the uniform to spin-stripe state, revealing novel ordering dynamics involving defects of the stripe order. Using an order parameter to characterize the orientational order of the stripes, we show that the phase ordering exhibits dynamic scaling.
We know the space within an atom is huge.
An Atom can be compared to our Solar System.
Nucleus Being the Sun's inner core.
The Electron being Pluto.
How many INNER Sun's Core can fit in the solar system.
This is what I call compaction.
Transients Of Condensates
Atomic matter 10^5
Neutron Matter 10^17
Quark matter and its composites range from 10^18 to rough estimate 10^25
Partonic matter Electron Groups compact 10^26 to 10^30 rough estimate.
Axion matter and Neutrino composites compaction over 10^30.
A finite matter within the core will result.
A Singularity cannot form, because of a property, from Chiral Super Symmetry within the condensate forming a Dipolar Electromagnetic vector fields expelling matter away.
Away from the vortex influence, matter is sucked in. In large Condensate Black Hole stars and galaxies are attracted into the core. We can see this out there. Milkyway, M87 and the great attractor.
Part of a cyclic Process that has no ending.
I may have posted this paper earlier.
The property of dipolar producing Vortices is very important in explaining formations from stars to galaxies.

[Submitted on 7 Jan 2024 (v1), last revised 17 Jan 2024 (this version, v2)]

Vortex dynamics and turbulence in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates​

S. Sabari, R. Kishor Kumar, Lauro Tomio
Quantum turbulence indicators in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensed fluids, following emissions of vortex-antivortex pairs generated by a circularly moving detuned laser, are being provided by numerical simulations of the corresponding quasi-two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii formalism with repulsive contact interactions combined with tunable dipole-dipole strength. The critical velocities of two variants of a circularly moving obstacle are determined and analyzed for vortex-antivortex nucleation in the form of regular and cluster emissions. The turbulent dynamical behavior is predicted to follow closely the initial emission of vortex-antivortex pairs, relying on the expected Kolmogorov's classical scaling law, which is verified by the spectral analysis of the incompressible part of the kinetic energy. Within our aim to provide further support in the up-to-now investigations of quantum turbulence, which have been focused on non-dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates, we emphasize the role of dipole-dipole interactions in the fluid dynamics.
[Submitted on 17 Jan 2024]

Universal Vortex Statistics and Stochastic Geometry of Bose-Einstein Condensation​

Mithun Thudiyangal, Adolfo del Campo
The cooling of a Bose gas in finite time results in the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate that is spontaneously proliferated with vortices. We propose that the vortex spatial statistics is described by a homogeneous Poisson point process (PPP) with a density dictated by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). We validate this model using numerical simulations of the two-dimensional stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation (SGPE) for both a homogeneous and a hard-wall trapped condensate. The KZM scaling of the average vortex number with the cooling rate is established along with the universal character of the vortex number distribution. The spatial statistics between vortices is characterized by analyzing the two-point defect-defect correlation function, the corresponding spacing distributions, and the random tessellation of the vortex pattern using the Voronoi cell area statistics. Combining the PPP description with the KZM, we derive universal theoretical predictions for each of these quantities and find them in agreement with the SGPE simulations. Our results establish the universal character of the spatial statistics of point-like topological defects generated during a continuous phase transition and the associated stochastic geometry.

The dipolar property of all Condensates from Bose-Einstein to Axion Gluon matter can give us some understanding of the workings of AGN and Supernova ongoings.
The research is getting there, step by step.
The focus needs to be on the core and the properties of Neutron Matter.
Chiral Supersymmetry and the dipolar fields that are generated within the core. The jets created form a vortex that allows the jet to expel matter EMR at the speed of light and matter at close to the speed of light.

[Submitted on 12 Mar 2022]

Angular Dependence of Coherent Radio Emission from Magnetars with Multipolar Magnetic Fields​

Shotaro Yamasaki, Kazim Yavuz Eksi, Ersin Gogus
The recent detection of a Fast Radio Burst (FRB) from a Galactic magnetar secured the fact that neutron stars (NSs) with super-strong magnetic fields are capable of producing these extremely bright coherent radio bursts. One of the leading mechanisms to explain the origin of such coherent radio emission is the curvature radiation process within the dipolar magnetic field structure. It has, however, already been demonstrated that magnetars likely have a more complex magnetic field topology. Here we critically investigate curvature radio emission in the presence of inclined dipolar and quadrupolar ("quadrudipolar") magnetic fields and show that such field structures differ in their angular characteristics from a purely dipolar case. We analytically show that the shape of open field lines can be modified significantly depending on both the ratio of quadrupole to dipole field strength and their inclination angle at the NS surface. This creates multiple points along each magnetic field line that coincides with the observer's line of sight and may explain the complex spectral and temporal structure of the observed FRBs. We also find that in quadrudipole, the radio beam can take a wider angular range and the beam width can be wider than in pure dipole. This may explain why the pulse width of the transient radio pulsation from magnetars is as large as that of ordinary radio pulsars.
And this one.
Within the next 10 years the properties of dipolar electromagnetic compact objects, I hope will give us more understanding of the core properties.

[Submitted on 21 Aug 2022]

The Enigma of GLEAM-X~J162759.5-523504.3​

Sushan Konar
It is proposed that GLEAM-X~J162759.5-523504.3, the newly discovered radio transient with an unusually long spin-period (Ps = 1091.1690s), can be identified to be a Radio Magnetar which has a dipolar surface magnetic field of 2.5×1016~G. It is shown that - a) it is possible to anchor such a strong field at the core-crust boundary of a neutron star, and b) the energy of field dissipation can explain the observed luminosity (radio & X-ray) of this source.
Reseaching and searching for the interior core properties. On track
"General Relativity corrections must be accounted for in Maxwell's equations, leading to modified interior and exterior electromagnetic solutions"

[Submitted on 20 Feb 2023 (v1), last revised 7 Jan 2024 (this version, v2)]

Magnetic frame-dragging correction to the electromagnetic solution of a compact neutron star​

R. Torres, T. Grismayer, F. Cruz, L.O. Silva
Neutron stars are usually modelled as spherical, rotating perfect conductors with a predominant intrinsic dipolar magnetic field anchored to their stellar crust. Due to their compactness, General Relativity corrections must be accounted for in Maxwell's equations, leading to modified interior and exterior electromagnetic solutions. We present analytical solutions for slowly-rotating magnetised neutron stars taking into account the magnetic frame-dragging correction. For typical compactness values, i.e. Rs∼0.5[R∗], we show that the new terms lead to a percent order correction in the magnetic field orientation and strength compared to the case with no magnetic frame-dragging correction. Also, we obtain a self-consistent redistribution of the surface azimuthal current. We verify the validity of the derived solution through two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of an isolated neutron star. Defining the azimuthal electric and magnetic field amplitudes during the transient phase as observables, we prove that the magnetic frame-dragging correction reduces the transient wave amplitude, as expected from the analytical solution. We show that simulations are more accurate and stable when we include all first-order terms. The increased accuracy at lower spatiotemporal resolutions translates into a reduction in simulation runtimes.