Question How do stars form?

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Apr 13, 2021
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Rather than giving you my opinion, , please make your own judgement.
So here is a paper for your reading.

Astrophysics > Astrophysics of Galaxies
[Submitted on 19 Oct 2022]
Forming Stars in a Dual AGN Host: Molecular and Ionized Gas in the Nearby, Luminous Infrared Merger, Mrk 266
Damien Beaulieu, Andreea Petric, Carmelle Robert, Katherine Alatalo, Timothy Heckman, Maya Merhi, Laurie Rousseau-Nepton, Kate Rowlands
We present star formation rates based on cold and ionized gas measurements of Mrk 266 (NGC 5256), a system composed of two colliding gas-rich galaxies, each hosting an active galactic nucleus. Using 12CO (1-0) observations with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy (CARMA), we find a total H2mass in the central region of 1.1±0.3×1010 M⊙ which leads to a possible future star formation rate of 25±10M⊙ yr−1. With the Fourier Transform Spectrograph (SITELLE) on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we measure an integrated Hα luminosity and estimate a present-day star formation rate of 15±2M⊙ yr−1 in the core of the system (avoiding the two active nuclei). These results confirm that Mrk 266 is an intermediate stage merger with a relatively high recent star formation rate and enough molecular gas to sustain it for a few hundred million years. Inflowing gas associated with the merger may have triggered both the starburst episode and two AGN but the two galaxy components differ: the region around the SW nucleus appears to be more active than the NE nucleus, which seems relatively quiet. We speculate that this difference may originate in the properties of the interstellar medium in the two systems.
 
Apr 13, 2021
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To explain star formation on a rate that can explain Trillions of stars across Trillions of Galaxies.
Assuming Condensates over a few million solar masses are able to expel droplets of condensates that can form stars.
think of this way
1 cm droplet expanding 10^25

1000 droplets will form a cluster of stars


[Submitted on 31 Oct 2022]
The phase structure of cosmic ray driven outflows in stream fed disc galaxies
Nicolas Peschken, Michał Hanasz, Thorsten Naab, Dominik Wóltański, Artur Gawryszczak
Feeding with gas in streams is predicted to be an important galaxy growth mechanism. Using an idealised setup, we study the impact of stream feeding (with 107 M⊙ Myr−1 rate) on the star formation and outflows of disc galaxies with ∼1011 M⊙ baryonic mass. The magneto-hydrodynamical simulations are carried out with the PIERNIK code and include star formation, feedback from supernova, and cosmic ray advection and diffusion. We find that stream accretion enhances galactic star formation. Lower angular momentum streams result in more compact discs, higher star formation rates and stronger outflows. In agreement with previous studies, models including cosmic rays launch stronger outflows travelling much further into the galactic halo. Cosmic ray supported outflows are also cooler than supernova only driven outflows. With cosmic rays, the star formation is suppressed and the thermal pressure is reduced. We find evidence for two distinct outflow phases. The warm outflows have high angular momentum and stay close to the galactic disc, while the hot outflow phase has low angular momentum and escapes from the centre deep into the halo. Cosmic rays can therefore have a strong impact on galaxy evolution by removing low angular momentum, possibly metal enriched gas from the disc and injecting it into the circumgalactic medium.
 
Apr 13, 2021
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Food for thought although, I do not agree with the paper below.
It does have merit in star formation.
I do not dispute star formation by matter collecting.
This method would take longer that the age of the predicted age of the Universe being 13.7 to 14 billion years.
Nucleosynthesis as predicted by the Big Bang theory, stars and the formation galaxies evolved from a compact source.
The process is logical to explain Nucleosynthesis of matter ejected from the core of galaxies and various cores distributed throughout the galaxies.

[Submitted on 9 Nov 2022]
Regulation of Star Formation by a Hot Circumgalactic Medium
Christopher Carr, Greg L. Bryan, Drummond B. Fielding, Viraj Pandya, Rachel S. Somerville
Galactic outflows driven by supernovae (SNe) are thought to be a powerful regulator of a galaxy's star-forming efficiency. Mass, energy, and metal outflows (ηM, ηE, and ηZ, here normalized by the star formation rate, the SNe energy and metal production rates, respectively) shape galaxy properties by both ejecting gas and metals out of the galaxy and by heating the circumgalactic medium (CGM), preventing future accretion. Traditionally, models have assumed that galaxies self-regulate by ejecting a large fraction of the gas which enters the interstellar medium (ISM), even though such high mass-loadings are in growing tension with observations. To better understand how the relative importance of ejective (i.e. high mass-loading) vs preventative (i.e. high energy-loading) feedback affects the present-day properties of galaxies, we develop a simple gas-regulator model of galaxy evolution, where the stellar mass, ISM, and CGM are modeled as distinct reservoirs which exchange mass, metals, and energy at different rates within a growing halo. Focusing on the halo mass range from 1010 to 1012M⊙, we demonstrate that, with reasonable parameter choices, we can reproduce the stellar-to-halo mass relation and the ISM-to-stellar mass relation with low mass-loaded (ηM∼0.1−10) but high energy-loaded (ηE∼0.1−1) winds, with self-regulation occurring primarily through heating and cooling of the CGM. We show that the model predictions are robust against changes to the mass-loading of outflows but are quite sensitive to our choice of the energy-loading, preferring ηE∼1 for the lowest mass halos and ∼0.1 for Milky Way-like halos.
 
Nov 24, 2022
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Rod, firstly, I said "simple answer". There may be some newer readers happy with this, for starters. I, and many others, greatly appreciate your in depth replies. :)

Regarding uniformitarianism, I believe the correct view is to temper this with a certain (variable) amount of catastrophism. Thus, there was considerable impacting roughly 4 billion years ago. S ince the Late Heavy Bombardment, but still impacts occur from dust upwards to quite small (depending on definition).

Late Heavy Bombardment - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Late_Heavy_Bombard...


The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), or lunar cataclysm, is a hypothesized event thought to have occurred approximately 4.1 to 3.8 billion years (Ga) ago, ...
Evidence for a cataclysm · ‎Geological consequences on... · ‎Possible causes


Cat :)
I saw a programme about Mars a while ago in which they stated that the top of Mars was flatter than the remainder due to a glancing blow by a dwarf planet. This has been estimated to have been just before the late heavy bombardment of Earth. The cause of this was traced back to the ejection of millions of tons of Mars itself into space and, eventually earth. Pieces of Mars are still hitting the earth to this day. This was an accepted theory by the many experts involved in the documentary and yet some, like Brian Cox, don't even acknowledge it. One of the astronomers proudly stated that she had held a piece of Mars in her hand, found near the South Pole.
 
Apr 13, 2021
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Bruno Mars will be proud, just joking.

We all are searching for answers to many questions.

The following paper is food for thought.

My opinion is sometimes miss-placed.


[Submitted on 22 Nov 2022]
The spatially resolved view of star formation in galaxy clusters
Bianca M. Poggianti, the GASP team
Integral field spectroscopic studies of galaxies in dense environments, such as clusters and groups of galaxies, have provided new insights for understanding how star formation proceeds, and quenches. I present the spatially resolved view of the star formation activity and its link with the multiphase gas in cluster galaxies based on MUSE and multi-wavelength data of the GASP survey. I discuss the link among the different scales (i.e. the link between the spatially resolved and the global star formation rate-stellar mass relation), the spatially resolved signatures and the quenching histories of jellyfish (progenitors) and post-starburst (descendants) galaxies in clusters. Finally, I discuss the multi-wavelength view of star-forming clumps both in galaxy disks and in the tails of stripped gas.
 
Apr 13, 2021
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OK let's assume the Big Bang Theory maybe correct with a pinch of salt.

From an infinity standpoint.
We can predict a dipolar electromagnetic field expelled extremely high dense droplets.
These droplets being isolated and clusters. Seeding stars. This can explain how clusters of stars exist as we see them.
The process is logical but! we can observe trillions of galaxies near and far.
How on earth can one Big Bang event be everywhere at the same time.
 
Qualifying a bit differently the above question of Harry's: How on earth can [a constant of (an ever continuing)] Big Bang event be everywhere at the same time?

Cosmological (collapsed) constant) (cc (/\)) 'Horizon' (T0 (T1)).
Planck level (Big Bang level) | Big Bang level (Planck level) 'Horizon'.

Altogether, "Flatland."

One and the same 'Horizon' / 'Flatland'. Simply a different view of lay to it.
 
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Hello Atlan
They are the words that keep the Big Bang Theory, a theory.

I'd rather try to explain the universe as infinite and that the parts within behave under the laws of physics.

If we break down the workings, we may end up in the future with an accumulated knowledge from scientists around the world.

Right now we are too many opinions that lead with a ?????
 
Hello Atlan
They are the words that keep the Big Bang Theory, a theory.

I'd rather try to explain the universe as infinite and that the parts within behave under the laws of physics.

If we break down the workings, we may end up in the future with an accumulated knowledge from scientists around the world.

Right now we are too many opinions that lead with a ?????
That is quite right, well done, and perfectly okay with me.

I think it was Einstein who said that in physics, and the Cosmic All at large, "if the answers don't lead to more questions, the answers are wrong." If you didn't notice, Harry, that in that statement of Einstein's, if it is Einstein's statement, is an Einsteinian statement of 'infinity'. The TOE -- the 'Theory of Everything' (of everythingness) -- is at once the TON -- the 'Theory of Nothing' (of nothingness).
 
Apr 13, 2021
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Hello Atlan
I did not know if Einstein was credited.
I thought that it was general statement, through the ages.

I'm sorry that my response was slow.
I have been extremely busy and not enough time for myself.

Just read the following paper, food for thought.

[Submitted on 11 Apr 2023]
Hα emission line sources from VLT-MUSE in a low-metallicity star forming region -- Dolidze 25
Mizna Ashraf, Jessy Jose, Gregory Herczeg, Min Fang
The process of accretion through circumstellar disks in young stellar objects is an integral part of star formation and the Hα emission line is a prominent signature of accretion in low-mass stars. We present the detection and characterization of Hα emission line sources in the central region of a distant, low-metallicity young stellar cluster - Dolidze 25 (at ∼ 4.5 kpc) - using medium-resolution optical spectra (4750-9350 Å ) obtained with the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) at the VLT. We have identified 14 potential accreting sources within a rectangular region of (2′ x 1′) towards the center of the cluster based on the detection of strong and broad emissions in Hα as well as the presence of other emission lines such as [OI] and Hβ. Based on their positions in both photometric color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we have also confirmed that these objects belong to the pre-main sequence phase of star formation. Our results were compared with the disk and diskless members of the cluster previously identified by Guarcello et al. (2021) using near-IR colors, and all sources they had identified as disks were confirmed to be accreting based on the spectroscopic characteristics.
 
Apr 13, 2021
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We have trillions of galaxies; we have observed over 20 super clusters of galaxies.

For second assume that the universe is 13.7 billion years old.

Our Sun is about 12 billion yrs old.

Our Milkyway Galaxy has billions of stars, a few dwarf galaxies and a merger of another galaxy.

Deep field images over 13.2 billion years show us that, in an area of a rice seed, over 5000 galaxies in various formation as are the near galaxies. It does not matter where the telescope points it all the same, in every direction.

Recently the James Wed telescope cannot explain how deep field images couldform in a few hundred million years.

We are not talking about one or two stars.

We are talking of trillions of galaxies that contain billion of stars.

The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis may explain how stars, dwarf galaxies, bar Galaxies, Spiral Galaxies form and so on, in a way that is questionable as a theory.

So the door opens to:

How does it work?
 
Apr 13, 2021
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Forming stars, two ways but not limited to these only.
One method is by collecting dust over time and allowing coaction to make a spark and form the star. This method is so slow, that it would take billions of years just to form one.

Second method is by Mega Compact (large enough to mimic Black Hole properties) objects that form dipolar jets that eject compact droplets that may seed a star. This method can expalin star cluster that number over 1 million. M87 vortex has millions of stars.
 
Apr 13, 2021
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The Theory of everything may sometimes be misinterpreted as the Theory of Nothingness.
My theory of everything is based on what I know.
The theory of nothingness is what I do not know.
I sound like I'm going around in circles.

Understanding stars may lead us to understand their origins.
Research into this area is on the way.
One day in the future, I hope we get some concrete understanding, until than have fun with it, and keep an open mind.

[Submitted on 30 Mar 2023 (v1), last revised 26 May 2023 (this version, v3)]

Electromagnetic fields in compact binaries: a post-Newtonian approach​

Quentin Henry, François Larrouturou, Christophe Le Poncin-Lafitte
Galactic binaries, and notably double white dwarfs systems, will be a prominent source for the future LISA and Einstein Telescope detectors. Contrarily to the black holes observed by the current LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA network, such objects bear intense magnetic fields, that are naturally expected to leave some imprints on the gravitational wave emission. The purpose of this work is thus to study those imprints within the post-Newtonian (PN) framework, particularly adapted to double white dwarfs systems. To this end, we construct an effective action that takes into account the whole electromagnetic structure of a star, and then specify it to dipolar order. With this action at hand, we compute the acceleration and Noetherian quantities for generic electric and magnetic dipoles, at a relative 2PN order. Finally, focusing on physically relevant systems, we show that the magnetic effects on the orbital frequency, energy and angular momentum is significant, confirming previous works conclusions.
 
Jun 11, 2023
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The Theory of everything may sometimes be misinterpreted as the Theory of Nothingness.
My theory of everything is based on what I know.
The theory of nothingness is what I do not know.
I sound like I'm going around in circles.

Understanding stars may lead us to understand their origins.
Research into this area is on the way.
One day in the future, I hope we get some concrete understanding, until than have fun with it, and keep an open mind.

[Submitted on 30 Mar 2023 (v1), last revised 26 May 2023 (this version, v3)]

Electromagnetic fields in compact binaries: a post-Newtonian approach​

Quentin Henry, François Larrouturou, Christophe Le Poncin-Lafitte
Hey Harry,

Adoni Is Here, Again!! Trying To Push His Neutron Evolution Theory And GP1 Aether Particle As The Medium Of Electromagnetic Waves Theory !!

With All Due Modesty, I Have The Only Workable Grand Unified Theory Of The Cosmos And Everything BUTTE I'm Having Trouble With The Administrator In Posting It!!

My Most Recent Post Is Below!!):
Dark Matter Can Never Be Explained By The Three Million Physicists Of Today Because The Physicists Do Not Know How Gravitational Force Is Generated By Matter And That Gravitational Force Is The Direct Function Of Mass And The Rate At Which The Matter Particles Of The Mass Heat Up As Evidenced By The History Of Our Sun And Its Projected Future!!

1): Take Our Own Sun As An Example Of Gravity Generation As Our Sun’s Matter Heats Up!!):

A): We Are Given That Our Sun Formed From The Collapse Of A Molecular Hydrogen-Helium Cloud At 10 Degrees Kelvin!!

B): We Are Given That For The Past 5 Billion Years That Our Sun Has Been Heating Up And Generating Gravity!!

C): We Are Given That Our Sun Will Heat Up By 6% Per Billion Years For The Next 5 Billion Years While Generating Gravity!!

D): In 5 Billion Years); We Are Given That Our Sun Will Start Cooling From 7777 Kelvin To 3000 Kelvin While Net Emitting The Stored Anti-Gravity/Dark Energy Stored Inside The Nucleon, Electron And Neutrino Indestructible Mass-Energy Vessel Permeable Hovering Sacs In The Form Of Compressed GP1 Aether Particles That Were Stored During The 10 Billion Years That Our Sun Heated Up And Generated Gravity Blowing Off Half Its Mass Leaving A White Dwarf Remnant About The Size Of Earth At 200,000 Times Earth Density!!

E): One Proof That As Matter Cools And Net Expels GP1 Aether Particles); Dark Energy Is Released Is The Red Giant Phase Of Our Sun’s Life Cycle And All Red Giant Stars!!

2): From Observations Of Bullet Clusters We Know That Gravity And Dark Matter Gravity Stays With The Star Matter And Dark Neutrino Matter Heating Up From The Radiant Energy Of Stars And Not With An Equal Amount Of Cooling Hot Gaseous Matter Left Behind As The Two Galactic Clusters Separate!!
 
Jun 11, 2023
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Why Does Our Sun Have Long Jeopardy?? Translation): Why Is Our Given A Ten Billion Year Life Span?? And Why Is Our Sun's Red Giant Phase Given As 2 Billion Years??

Based On Our Sun's Mass Of About One Solar Mass, The Scientific Community Consensus Opinion Is That Our Sun Should Have About A 10 Billion Year Life Span Of "Hydrogen Fusion" Generation Because It Has Too Little Mass To Fuse Helium Our Sun Will Start Cooling After 10 Billion Years Of Fusion Generation!!

Then, Our Sun Will Enter Its 2 Billion Year Red Giant Phase As Our Sun's Matter Starts Cooling And Net Expelling GP1 Aether Particles That Expand Space Emitting Dark Expansion Energy That Will Blow Off Half Of Our Sun's Mass Letting The White Dwarf That Was Created Over The Life Of Our Sun As Our Sun Pulsated And Extracted Heat From Our Sun's Core Through The Siemen's Refrigeration Cycle Process): Compression Heating Of The Core); Heat Exchanger Removal Of Heat To Our Sun's Outercore, Decompression Cooling Of Our Sun's Core Forming The White Dwarf Remnant That Will Become Visible In 7 Billion Years About The Size Of Earth BUTTE With A Mass Of 200,000 Earth's In The Volume Of Earth!!
 
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Jun 11, 2023
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I Am Not Being Allowed To Post My Answer To
Why Does Our Sun Have Long Jeopardy?? Translation): Why Is Our Given A Ten Billion Year Life Span?? And Why Is Our Sun's Red Giant Phase Given As 2 Billion Years??

Based On Our Sun's Mass Of About One Solar Mass, The Scientific Community Consensus Opinion Is That Our Sun Should Have About A 10 Billion Year Life Span Of "Hydrogen Fusion" Generation Because It Has Too Little Mass To Fuse Helium Our Sun Will Start Cooling After 10 Billion Years Of Fusion Generation!!

Then, Our Sun Will Enter Its 2 Billion Year Red Giant Phase As Our Sun's Matter Starts Cooling And Net Expelling GP1 Aether Particles That Expand Space Emitting Dark Expansion Energy That Will Blow Off Half Of Our Sun's Mass Letting The White Dwarf That Was Created Over The Life Of Our Sun As Our Sun Pulsated And Extracted Heat From Our Sun's Core Through The Siemen's Refrigeration Cycle Process): Compression Heating Of The Core); Heat Exchanger Removal Of Heat To Our Sun's Outercore, Decompression Cooling Of Our Sun's Core Forming The White Dwarf Remnant That Will Become Visible In 7 Billion Years About The Size Of Earth BUTTE With A Mass Of 200,000 Earth's In The Volume Of Earth!!
I Am Not Being Allowed To Post My Answer To How old is our Sun?? How can we estimate the age Of Our Sun?? For Sunspots And Solar Flares, I Do Not Have Much Of An Opinion!!
BUTTE I Understand That Sunspots And Solar Flares Increase As Our Sun Is About To Flip Its Magnetic Poles About Every 11 Years Which Is Soon And May Take Out My Computer Data!!
 
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Jun 11, 2023
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I Am Not Being Allowed To Post My Answer To How old is our Sun?? How can we estimate the age Of Our Sun?? For Sunspots And Solar Flares, I Do Not Have Much Of An Opinion!!
BUTTE I Understand That Sunspots And Solar Flares Increase As Our Sun Is About To Flip Its Magnetic Poles About Every 11 Years Which Is Soon And May Take Out My Computer Data!!

How Old Is Our Sun?? And How Can We Estimate The Age Of Our Sun??

Through U-Pb Radiometric Dating, A Refined Estimate Of The Age Of The Earth Was Obtained): 4.550 Billion Years (± 70 Million Years!!
 
Apr 13, 2021
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Our Son has long Life.
This is what I think

Based a cyclic process between the core and the solar envelope.

The core has 95% of the mass of the total solar system which includes the outer parts.

Core mass (95%) much greater than >>>>>>Solar Envelope + all other. (5%)

Core controls the size of the envelope stopping and outflow.

One day the core will lose its mass and the envelope will expand as far as Jupiter if not more and become a Red Giant.

Until than
The core may possibly have Neutron matter.
The dipolar magnetic fields eject Neutrons out into the envelope.
Neutrons away from confinement turn into Protons (hydrogen)
Hydrogen via fusion will form He, He + He form Carbon.
Via fusion all the elements are formed.
Fe has a full shell and remains in the solar envelope.
Any other elements above Fe, photo-disintegrates back to Fe or other elements.
All other elements when they make their way back to the core, Photo-disintegrate to Neutrons and Protons.
Protons under confinement gain an electron and turn into Neutrons.
We know that Neutrons are able to compact to 10^17 , this is what gives the core its massive mass.

This cyclic event gives our Sun long Life.

Most of the energy 65 % comes from the core. Fusion is about 30% and 5% other.

If it was just Hydrogen, short life would result.
 
Jun 11, 2023
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Our Son has long Life.
This is what I think

Based a cyclic process between the core and the solar envelope.

The core has 95% of the mass of the total solar system which includes the outer parts.

Core mass (95%) much greater than >>>>>>Solar Envelope + all other. (5%)

Core controls the size of the envelope stopping and outflow.

One day the core will lose its mass and the envelope will expand as far as Jupiter if not more and become a Red Giant.

Until than
The core may possibly have Neutron matter.
The dipolar magnetic fields eject Neutrons out into the envelope.
Neutrons away from confinement turn into Protons (hydrogen)
Hydrogen via fusion will form He, He + He form Carbon.
Via fusion all the elements are formed.
Fe has a full shell and remains in the solar envelope.
Any other elements above Fe, photo-disintegrates back to Fe or other elements.
All other elements when they make their way back to the core, Photo-disintegrate to Neutrons and Protons.
Protons under confinement gain an electron and turn into Neutrons.
We know that Neutrons are able to compact to 10^17 , this is what gives the core its massive mass.

This cyclic event gives our Sun long Life.

Most of the energy 65 % comes from the core. Fusion is about 30% and 5% other.

If it was just Hydrogen, short life would result.
Hi Harry);
Interesting How You Mentioned Neutrons At The Center Of Our Sun!!

I Don't Believe In Proton-Proton Hydrogen Fusion In Our "Main Sequnce" Star As Given!!

What I Suggest Is That When Our Sun's Core Heats Up Fast Enough To Produce Strong Enough Compression-Decompression Gravitational Force Cycle Pulsations To Start Reverse Beta Decay Of Hydrogen That Results In The Hydrogen Electron Being Pushed Back Into The Indestructible Proton Indestructible Permeable Sac Making A Neutron Permeamble Indestructible Sac!!

The Neutron Thus Made From A Hydrogen Atom Can Attach To A Proton Through The s-process To Make Deuterium Or To Deuterium To Make Tritium That Can Decays To Helium3 That Can Acquire A Second Neutron To Form Helium4!!

While The Alleged Proton-Proton Fusion Process Produces The Exact Same Amount Of Net Energy As The s-process/Reverse Hydrogen Beta Decay Process< I Believe That The s-process Can And Does Happen BUTTE The Proton-Proton Fusion Process Can't Happen!!

Our Sun's Life Span Is Determined By Its Beginning Mass); A 1 Solar Mass Star Is Given To Burn Through Its Hydrogen Fuel In About 10 Billion Years At Which Time It Will Transform Into A Red Giant For About Two Billion Years!!

Our Sun Is Given To Leave A White Dwarf Compact Remnant About The Volume Of Earth BUTTE With About The Mass Of 200,000 Earths In It In Seven Billion Years!!

Back 50 Years Ago Our Sun Was Given Only A 2 Billion Year Life Span!!

Modern Technology And New Space Observatories Have Resulted In Better And Longer Estimates For Our Sun's Lifespan!!

I Can't Seem To Reconcile): Neutrons Can Compact To 10e17?? Versus Neutron Star At Up To 1 Quadrillion (10e15) 1,000,000,000,000,000 Times Earth Density?? Or Given 1 (5ml) Teaspoon Neutron Star Given At A Mass Over 5.5X10e12 Kilograms): 5.5 Trillion Kilograms??
 
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Hello Adoni

If you do not understand condensates.
I would suggest you do a bit of research.
Read the following.
It does not mean that I agree with it.

[Submitted on 14 Jun 2023]

Thermal properties of the core of magnetar​

Trisha Sarkar, Shalu Yadav, Monika Sinha
During very early age of neutron stars, the core cools down faster compared to the crust creating a large thermal gradient in the interior of the star. During 10−100 years, a cooling wave propagates from the core to the crust causing the interior of the star to thermalize. During this duration thermal properties of the core material is of great importance to understand the dynamics of the interior of the star. The heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the core depends on the behaviour of matter inside the core. We investigate these two properties in case of magnetars. Due to presence of large magnetic field, the proton superconductivity is quenched partially inside the magnetars depending upon the comparative values of upper critical field and the strength of the magnetic field present. This produces non-uniformity in the behaviour of matter throughout the star. Moreover, such non-uniformity arises from the variation of nature of the pairing and values of the pairing gap energy. We find that the heat capacity is substantially reduced due to the presence of superfluidity. On the other hand, the thermal conductivity of neutron is enhanced due to proton superconductivity and gets reduced due to neutron superfluidity. Hence, the variation of the thermal properties due to superfluidity in presence of magnetic field is different at different radius inside the star. However, in all the cases the %minimum maximum variation is of the order one. This affects the thermal relaxation time of the star and eventually its the thermal evolution.
 

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