Preposterous (Theory of) Expansion of the Universe

Dec 27, 2022
Cosmologists teach that space inside galaxies and galactic clusters does not expand at all. They reject the scenario in which expansion inside galaxies and galactic clusters does occur but is overcome by gravitational attraction. According to their models, even the slightest gravitational attraction blocks any expansion:

"Is the space inside, say, a galaxy growing but overcome by the gravitational attraction between the stars? The answer is no. Space within any gravitationally bound system is unaffected by the surrounding expansion."

Sabine Hossenfelder: "The solution of general relativity that describes the expanding universe is a solution on average; it is good only on very large distances. But the solutions that describe galaxies are different - and just don't expand. It's not that galaxies expand unnoticeably, they just don't. The full solution, then, is both stitched together: Expanding space between non-expanding galaxies...It is only somewhere beyond the scales of galaxy clusters that expansion takes over."

"Expanding space between non-expanding galaxies" (more precisely, between non-expanding galactic clusters) is preposterous per se, and its implications are preposterous as well. Consider, for instance, the famous stretching of light caused by expansion:

"As light travels towards us from the distant galaxies, it is stretched over time by the ever expanding space it is travelling through. The longer it travels, the more the wavelengths are increased (reddened)."

So light is stretched as it travels in the space between galactic clusters, then stretching stops as the light enters a cluster, then stretching continues as the light leaves the cluster, etc. Idiotic, isn't it?

Why do cosmologists apply expansion solutions only to voids where there is no gravitational attraction? Because, if they applied expansion solutions to spaces where objects attract one another gravitationally, observations would immediately disprove the expansion theory. Here is why:

If expansion is actual inside galaxies and galactic clusters, the competition between expansion and gravitational attraction would distort those cosmic structures - e.g. fringes only weakly bound by gravity would succumb to expansion and fly away. And the theory, if it assumes that intragalactic expansion does occur, will have to predict distortions.

But no distortions are observed - there is really no expansion inside galaxies and galactic clusters. And cosmologists, without much publicity, have decided to apply the expansion theory only to gravity-free space. Nothing new. Theoretical physics has been a dishonest ideology since 1905:

"This paper investigates an alternative possibility: that the critics were right and that the success of Einstein's theory in overcoming them was due to its strengths as an ideology rather than as a science. The clock paradox illustrates how relativity theory does indeed contain inconsistencies that make it scientifically problematic. These same inconsistencies, however, make the theory ideologically powerful...The gatekeepers of professional physics in the universities and research institutes are disinclined to support or employ anyone who raises problems over the elementary inconsistencies of relativity. A winnowing out process has made it very difficult for critics of Einstein to achieve or maintain professional status. Relativists are then able to use the argument of authority to discredit these critics. Were relativists to admit that Einstein may have made a series of elementary logical errors, they would be faced with the embarrassing question of why this had not been noticed earlier. Under these circumstances the marginalisation of antirelativists, unjustified on scientific grounds, is eminently justifiable on grounds of realpolitik. Supporters of relativity theory have protected both the theory and their own reputations by shutting their opponents out of professional discourse...The triumph of relativity theory represents the triumph of ideology not only in the profession of physics bur also in the philosophy of science." Peter Hayes, The Ideology of Relativity: The Case of the Clock Paradox

Since there is no expansion inside galaxies and galactic clusters, there is no expansion anywhere else.
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There are many probably who've seen the illustrated grid lines of illustrated flat universe. Imagine those grid lines to be crisscrossing light lines, interference lines from any far, including very, very, far, there (-) to here (0-point). How many crisscrossing interference -- from all angles of the shell of a sphere, global shell to infinities of centers (0-points), crossing through each and every crossroad -- light-time history grid lines, in three to four dimensions rather than two, will there be between a collapsed constant global Horizon (thus, too, a horizon of infinities of horizon point-portals) about 13.7 billion light years distant and 0-point center here (again, everywhere here is)? Thus, a light loaded (thus black (thus dark)) crisscrossing grid system universe in fact piling on light, piling up light interference, as light travels space and time histories from back there (-) to front here (0-point), everywhere here is. Trying to resolve light from light -- and thus the dark of the light, too -- from distant and evermore distant regions of the universe doesn't remove the intervening [crossroads met] interference lines of the piled-on light-time histories, therefore the shift, from it. To think the universe isn't light loaded, light-time history loaded, to the max, thus largely dark appearing, thus also shadowed in a different dimension of fade, is wrong.
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Sep 11, 2020
when I look at the cosmic web I see topography.
As time goes on the curvature of spacetime results in light having to travel further into the valleys of gravity wells and higher to the plateau of voids. Now does this angle make the total sawtooth distance light travels 2% further or 20% ?… thus the expansion of the universe could be proportional to the depth of the gravity wells. ie: galaxies, clusters, filaments.
Dec 27, 2022
"Indeed, Wilczek began his lecture by speaking of the profound analogy between materials and vacuum. What our naked senses perceive as empty space turns out to be a riotous environment of virtual particles fluorescing and dying away on extremely small scales of space and time, as well as fog-like fields and condensates, which permeate all space and dictate the properties of elementary particles. To give an analogy for this perplexing new picture of reality, Wilczek asks us to imagine intelligent fish in a world surrounded by water. Such creatures would perceive the water surrounding them as their version of empty space or a vacuum. "The big idea I want to convey is simply this: We're like those fish," he said. What our senses perceive as empty space is better understood as a substance, a material."

Paul Davies: "This leads to the prediction of vacuum friction: The quantum vacuum can act in a manner reminiscent of a viscous fluid."

"Some physicists, however, suggest that there might be one other cosmic factor that could influence the speed of light: quantum vacuum fluctuation. This theory holds that so-called empty spaces in the Universe aren't actually empty - they're teeming with particles that are just constantly changing from existent to non-existent states. Quantum fluctuations, therefore, could slow down the speed of light."

The idea that vacuum slows down light has been largely discussed but only in terms of quantum gravity. The implication that the cosmological (Hubble) redshift might be due to slow speed of light (and therefore the universe is not expanding) is blocked by crimestop:

" some quantum-gravity models, the speed of photons in gamma rays would be affected by the grainy nature of spacetime..."

Sabine Hossenfelder: "It's an old story: Quantum fluctuations of space-time might change the travel-time of light. Light of higher frequencies would be a little faster than that of lower frequencies. Or slower, depending on the sign of an unknown constant. Either way, the spectral colors of light would run apart, or 'disperse' as they say if they don't want you to understand what they say. Such quantum gravitational effects are miniscule, but added up over long distances they can become observable. Gamma ray bursts are therefore ideal to search for evidence of such an energy-dependent speed of light."

George Orwell: "Crimestop means the faculty of stopping short, as though by instinct, at the threshold of any dangerous thought. It includes the power of not grasping analogies, of failing to perceive logical errors, of misunderstanding the simplest arguments if they are inimical to Ingsoc, and of being bored or repelled by any train of thought which is capable of leading in a heretical direction. Crimestop, in short, means protective stupidity."
Dec 27, 2022
"You build these machines not to confirm the paradigm, but to break it," said JWST scientist Mark McCaughrean, at the European Space Agency. "You just don't know how it will break." As light from a very distant galaxy travels across the cosmic abyss, it is stretched by the expansion of the universe."

Here is how the paradigm will break. Replace

"it is stretched by the expansion of the universe"


"it is slowed down by vacuum 'friction', in a non-expanding universe".
The traveler will always outrun the speed of light to an observer, stretching out (slowing down in the observed time now of light born images (become nothing but a 'history' point in a triangulation of three points, two real, two virtuals (sic), one virtual history point (-) for each futuristic (+), 0-point, real)), the distance between 0-point real space-time traveler and 0-point real space-time observer.

The run, the stretch, of three points, both back and forth, is in-line. The triangulation of the same three points, though, is angular and curving, one angle line curving to future (+); one angle line, say curving to 90-degree right angle, to past (-). The third angle-line between 0-point reals / concurrent 'dark' futures (+) in space-time, I would identify as future histories (+), are always unobservable concurrent 0-point now (quantum entangled-like 0-point space-time reality)! Both the 90-degree angle lines (to future (+)) and (to past (-)) always exactly equal in length due to the constancy of the speed of light (the constancy of 'c'). Both flexibly capable of increasing in expansion of triangulation and flexibly capable of decreasing in triangulation (flexibly capable of shift change).

Did you notice the word and physic "curve"? I could just as easily have used "spiral" / "spiraling". There are straight -- rather ever straighter -- path lines in space-time but they are more or less called "wormholes" to future (+) point 0-point arrival positions in space-time rather than ever straighter, ever more "leading", path lines. Accelerating, powering, or simply traveling, ever faster into ever tightening light-time history curves throws the traveler out of the best, straightest, path line to a destination space-time future (+) 0-point.

Observers will always observe into space-time light-time history curvatures, at least one curvature to many more curvatures than one. Knowing travelers would not travel into a space-time light-time curvature. At least not more than once, and probably not once, not even traveling our solar system (not even in skeet shooting on Earth: Not ever, if not ignorant of navigation, not "leading" a moving object). Why chase reality from the rear, from a long chase to possibly forever, in space-time if you can more or less "cut the curve (the curvature / the 'spiral' in space-time)" and get out front and meet the 0-point real having come to you at the best possible future (+) 0-point crossroad meeting point?
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