Solar 'superflares' millions of times stronger than anything today may have sparked life on Earth

"Life on Earth could have been sparked by enormous superflares from a hyperactive young sun, a new study suggests. By firing charged particles found in the solar wind at a concoction of gases present in Earth's early atmosphere, scientists found that the combined ingredients form significant quantities of amino acids and carboxylic acids — the building blocks for proteins and all organic life."

My observations. I find it interesting concerning how abiogenesis experiments are conducted. This experiment used charged particles by firing these particles at a *concoction of gases present in Earth's early atmosphere." Here is another report experimenting with lightning strikes using sparks and early Earth atmosphere but showing problems for early life on Earth to live on nitrogen.

Life on Earth quickly became independent from lightning as a nitrogen source, says new study,

This experiment and information make it look even harder for abiogenesis to take place and create life, a living cell that uses nitrogen to continue to evolve and change in 3D complexity. There were some experimental conflicts with known geology samples apparently. “However, the isotopic composition the researchers found in their spark experiments does not match that of nitrogen archived in the rock record of early Earth. This discrepancy suggests that lightning was not a major source of nitrogen as microbial life evolved. Instead, these results provide another piece of evidence that microorganisms have been able to convert N2 gas into bioavailable forms for more than three billion years.”

Ref - Isotopic constraints on lightning as a source of fixed nitrogen in Earth’s early biosphere,, 22-May-2023. “Abstract Bioavailable nitrogen is thought to be a requirement for the origin and sustenance of life. Before the onset of biological nitrogen fixation, abiotic pathways to fix atmospheric N2 must have been prominent to provide bioavailable nitrogen to Earth’s earliest ecosystems. Lightning has been shown to produce fixed nitrogen as nitrite and nitrate in both modern atmospheres dominated by N2 and O2 and atmospheres dominated by N2 and CO2 analogous to the Archaean Earth. However, a better understanding of the isotopic fingerprints of lightning-generated fixed nitrogen is needed to assess the role of this process on early Earth..."

Abiogenesis must create life from non-living matter, no law of biogenesis at work in the beginning, and then later nature must figure out how to allow cells to use nitrogen and not depend upon lightning strikes to feed and grow. Studies like this are important for exoplanet science and astrobiology.
My thought. A database should be developed and presented to the public, documenting all of these abiogenesis experiments and evolutionary changes postulated as well as any traps used to eliminate unwanted results. The exoplanet sites are my standard for information tracking on them, the site and nasa archive site are well organized IMO. Something akin is needed here I feel for the abiogenesis folks and astrobiology folks attempting to show some type of life, somewhere other than here on Earth and show how life evolves from non-living matter and no law of biogenesis is needed.
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