# These equations can explain dark matter

#### MaxGaofeiYan

F = Y1f1f2/r^2
Y
1= 3.62*10^-111 m^3 kg

F= Y
2fm/r^2
Y
2=4.91*10^-61 m^3 s^-1

These equations can explain why we can detect dark matter's gravitational effect but not dark matter itself. Please check the following link for the source.

https://vixra.org/abs/2003.0603

#### Catastrophe

##### "Science begets knowledge, opinion ignorance.
Excuse me, but your name seems like that of the author.
If so, please explain what these Y and f stand for.
There seem to be items divided by a length parameter squared, which is reminiscent of the Inverse Square Law.

Can I also ask please if this is the right time to raise this on a board? (Before peer review).

#### MaxGaofeiYan

Y is a constant, f is the frequency of a photon in an EM wave, r is the distance between a photon in EM wave 1 and a photon in EM wave 2.

Thanks for asking. The paper is uploaded on a pre-published eprint site. It is in the process of being peer reviewed and will be published in a journal.

#### Catastrophe

##### "Science begets knowledge, opinion ignorance.
It is very refreshing to find that equations for UFT are actually very simple. Is it possible to explain to a modest scientist how these explain dark matter?

You are to be congratulated. This is really most interesting.

#### MaxGaofeiYan

It is very refreshing to find that equations for UFT are actually very simple. Is it possible to explain to a modest scientist how these explain dark matter?

You are to be congratulated. This is really most interesting.
Thank you for the kind words. Could you check my paper in the above mentioned eprint site?

#### MaxGaofeiYan

This paper defines the gravitational field as a medium with elastic properties, and the gravitational force occurs when matter creates a more concentrated region in the gravitational field. Further, this paper explains how electromagnetic waves are changing concentrations in this field. Hence, the gravitational field and electromagnetic field are the same, called the unified field. Based on this understanding of the unified field, there are attractive forces between electromagnetic waves as defined as: F=Y_1 (f_1 f_2)/r^2 There are also attractive forces between electromagnetic waves and matter possessing mass at rest. This force is defined as: F=Y_2 fm/r^2 . Dark matter observations support this unified field theory.

#### IG2007

##### "Don't criticize what you can't understand..."
M stands for mass, right?
Y is a constant, f is the frequency of a photon in an EM wave, r is the distance between a photon in EM wave 1 and a photon in EM wave 2.

Thanks for asking. The paper is uploaded on a pre-published eprint site. It is in the process of being peer reviewed and will be published in a journal.

Catastrophe

#### Ed Stauffer

Below Figure 6.1 on page 14
c. Using current theories, PLANETS - did you mean planets or should it read stars?
d. Also planets or stars?

on page 15
figure 6.2
what you don’t show is the black hole jets of an AGN accelerating dark matter at 90 degrees to the galactic disk

on page 16
4. Dark matter cannot be observed by traditional EM wave detecting methods
the detected EM fields do not appear strong enough to replace dark matter. My feeling is that it takes dark matter and the EM field. The dark matter converting to dark energy and releasing energy in nanoflares when it leaves the gravity well also ionizes huge amounts of matter which helps create the EM field.

Conclusion
Hence, the gravitational field and electromagnetic field are the same, called the unified field.

I still think you need dark matter too, just less of it.

Catastrophe

#### Ed Stauffer

Below Figure 6.1 on page 14
c. Using current theories, PLANETS - did you mean planets or should it read stars?
d. Also planets or stars?

on page 15
figure 6.2
what you don’t show is the black hole jets of an AGN accelerating dark matter at 90 degrees to the galactic disk

on page 16
4. Dark matter cannot be observed by traditional EM wave detecting methods
the detected EM fields do not appear strong enough to replace dark matter. My feeling is that it takes dark matter and the EM field. The dark matter converting to dark energy and releasing energy in nanoflares when it leaves the gravity well also ionizes huge amounts of matter which helps create the EM field. The flashing of the dark matter to dark energy also would tend to push the regular matter into filaments due to the streaming effect.

Conclusion
Hence, the gravitational field and electromagnetic field are the same, called the unified field.

Catastrophe

#### Catastrophe

##### "Science begets knowledge, opinion ignorance.
Here is the relevant bit on page 14:
a. Keplerian predictions and calculations show that the rotation velocity should decrease steadily after a certain distance from the center of the galaxy.
b. However, observed rotation curves of galaxies show a constant rotation velocity at a distance from the center of the galaxy.
c. Using current theories, planets further out with the observed velocities should fly out of orbit since there is not enough matter in the galaxy to create a gravitational force that could maintain the planets’ orbits.
d. Current theories suggest that there is unseen matter generating the gravity required to hold the planets in orbit.

e. Using the elastic feature of the unified field of gravity and electromagnetism, all celestial bodies and their emitted EM waves will influence the gravitational field as stated in Section V. f. EM waves in limited amounts will not have a noticeable effect on planets, but on a galactic scale, the observations of the effects can be seen.

Ed Stauffer

#### Ed Stauffer

Thanks Cat I thought it was the stars on the outside of the galaxy that would fly off, taking their planets with them.

Catastrophe

#### Catastrophe

##### "Science begets knowledge, opinion ignorance.
Ed, this may interest you:

"Also, partly because of their small total mass, open clusters have relatively poor gravitational cohesion and tend to disperse after a relatively short time, typically from 100 to 600 million years. [62] "

This is actually from the Wiki article on Planetary Nebula.
Here is the full reference:

62 Allison 2006, pp. 56–8
Allison, Mark (2006), Star clusters and how to observe them, Birkhäuser, pp. 56–8, ISBN 978-1-84628-190-7

And this is from Wiki Open Cluster:

“Open clusters generally survive for a few hundred million years, with the most massive ones surviving for a few billion years. In contrast, the more massive globular clusters of stars exert a stronger gravitational attraction on their members, and can survive for longer.”

Cat

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#### Catastrophe

##### "Science begets knowledge, opinion ignorance.
Ed, as far as I recall both stars and planets (separately viz without accompanying stars) can be / have been ejected from systems, even galaxies by interaction with sufficiently large black holes.

I will see if I can find anything further. This relates to the section of the paper quoted on #11 (just pointing out on topic reference).

I can remember right off that large numbers of asteroids, including proto-Earths were ejected from the Solar System by Jupiter according to the Grand Tack hypothesis.

Cat

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#### Catastrophe

##### "Science begets knowledge, opinion ignorance.
Ed, here are a couple of studies which are relevant:

On the ejection of Earth-mass planets from the habitable zones of the solar twins HD 20782 and HD 188015
K.E. Yeager (a1), J. Eberle (a1) and M. Cuntz (a1)

https://www.bing.com/search?q=On+th...B43D69A64C8AB6&ts=1601719996685&wsso=Moderate

We provide a detailed statistical study of the ejection of fictitious Earth-mass planets from the habitable zones of the solar twins HD 20782 and HD 188015. These systems possess a giant planet that crosses into the stellar habitable zone, thus effectively thwarting the possibility of habitable terrestrial planets. In the case of HD 188015, the orbit of the giant planet is essentially circular, whereas in the case of HD 20782, it is extremely elliptical. As starting positions for the giant planets, we consider both the apogee and perigee positions, whereas the starting positions of the Earth-mass planets are widely varied. For the giant planets, we consider models based on their minimum masses as well as models where the masses are increased by 30%. Our simulations indicate a large range of statistical properties concerning the ejection of the Earth-mass planets from the stellar habitable zones.

Massive star ejected from the Milky Way galaxy: 'A visitor from a strange land'
https://www.foxnews.com/science/star-ejected-from-milky-way-galaxy

Approximately 5 million years ago, a star got too close to the "mind-boggling" black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy and was "ejected," a new study has found.

The star, known as S5-HVS1, ventured too close to the black hole and when it did, it was hurtled "at the blistering speed of 6 million kilometers per hour." When astronomers discovered it, it was found to be moving "nearly 10 times faster than most of the stars in the galaxy."

Cat

#### MaxGaofeiYan

Thank you very much for the input, Ed and Cat. Sorry for not replying quicker.

#### MaxGaofeiYan

The equation on gravitational force between two photons:

F=Y_1 (f_1 f_2)/r^2
Y_1 = 3.62 × 10^−111 𝑚^3 𝑘g

When the frequencies (f) of both photons are very high, and the distance (r) between the two photons is very short, the gravitational force (F) between these two could be significant enough to change their course, which could be observed in a lab. This may explain the following experiment of something "impossible" in a much simpler way.

Inside Giant Atom Smasher, Physicists See the Impossible: Light Interacting with Light

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