# QuestionAXION GLUON MATTER AS DARK MATTER

Page 3 - Seeking answers about space? Join the Space community: the premier source of space exploration, innovation, and astronomy news, chronicling (and celebrating) humanity's ongoing expansion across the final frontier.

Hello

#### Classical Motion​

What is your opinion on Transients of condensates.?

#### Classical Motion

It depends. In which context are you using the term condensate........and the term transients.

Without knowing the structure and motion of an atom, who knows what we are talking about.

The only condensates I know of is for quantum sensors. But I am pretty sure they have nothing to do with bio-condensates....in cells.

When we ionize an atom, it seems to contract, but no one knows why. We have no clue as to the arrangement of the nucleus.........or the structure of ANY atom.

Our standard model is based on the Bohr model. With electrons in orbit. A physical impossibility. And of course our science uses it.

Then we have QM......based on oscillation.......which is only an indirect result of rotation. The rotation of the particles is where the power and the glue for atoms comes from.....oscillation is just a by-product..........and our science is trying to base mass on it.

At this rate, no one will ever understand mass......and without that understanding......all else is conjecture. Just like the last one hundred years.

I use a physical model for mass. Helical particle currents. The electron has about 18 amps. The proton has about 30,000 amps........ALL from the same amount of charge. e.

We have a constant called e. That constant e has a constant length and a constant amount of E field. That e field can be corralled by a velocity that empowers the M field to balance the E field. That is a constant also.....angular c. Linear and propagated c...........has a relative velocity, not a constant one.

The velocity of linear c has never been measured.......only the reflection of it. And that measurement has always been different.

Because light is a flux......and can result in only an average.

To verify the speed of light.......one needs to use one and only one photon. Our science tries the measure a shower head, instead of one drop.

The constant e and the angular constant of c. The angular constant of c is NOT a velocity.......it's an acceleration. A constant force. Much more then a constant speed.

Last edited:

#### Classical Motion

Harry, what happens when we superposition velocity? When we super position a linear velocity with an angular velocity, what do we get?

We get an acceleration. E = MC2. Do you see that C2 or C squared? That is NOT c times c. That is c times a 90 degree c. It's a perpendicular velocity. The two velocities scissor each other into an angular acceleration. Angular acceleration forms a rotational structure. A ring-type structure. A charge particle. With ONLY selective and quantum rotations. Charge can only rotate at certain diameters or circumferences. Only certain quantum sizes. They are discrete sizes. With discrete energy, motion, levels. This is due to rotational resonance......NOT oscillatory resonance. Electrical rotation resonance is quantum. NOT broadband. This is all due to the constant tangential velocity. In an oscillation the speed changes. From zero to maximum. But with rotation, the speed is constant.

See the difference?

E stands for energy, but what it really stands for is motion. M stands for mass, but what it really means is confined motion. Confined motion expresses itself as inertia. The scissoring does this. Two scissored rotations makes inertia. And if the scissoring is reversed......we get an inertia cancelling dynamic......where one scissor cancels the other.....an anti inertia motion. This is the electron.....the inertia we measure is the difference of the opposing inertias. We can not measure the mass of an electron.....because the two inertias are opposing each other. And makes the electron extremely "light". 99.9% of the universe energy inventory is locked and un-used.....in protons. 99.9% of all energy transferred, in this universe is done with electrons. Because the electron charge can be charged up and then relaxed, because the anti motion, always wants to discard motion. The electron wants to stay empty of motion and energy.....because of the anti inertia motion.

E is energy, which is motion......when motion is confined it expresses inertia and we call it mass. Energy and inertia are PROPERTIES of an entity.......not an entity. Energy and mass are the motion of an entity. If you remove the motion, the energy and mass.....disappears.

When we confine motion(energy), the structure of the charge, spins that motion into a rotation.

The charge structure can catch and confine motion. c motion. The charge catches very fast motion.

Motion not only has velocity, it has duration. The quickest and shortest motions, like xray and gamma, can be caught directly by the particle. Longer durations of motion like light.....can be be caught by atomic dipole structures, which have the length and size to catch these longer durations......like IR heat frequencies. Light and the colors.....from dipoles. Tripoles. Quadpoles, etc.

Harry, don't fall for these modern science fiction theories. Physicality has always been firm and solid mechanics. And will remain so, whether science recognizes it or not.

That said, if you are a student or in school, don't repeat this in your class. It will not be accepted.

And if you ever want to see a real pants pooper(something no one has ever seen).......inject a rectified sine into an antenna, instead of an AC sine. Have your instructor explain that one to you.

DC emission. Both Maxwell and Einstein were wrong about light. Should study Ampere and Weber instead. These two discovered and described relativity decades before Einstein.

Mechanical motional relativity. Interaction duration(Weber). Interaction angle(Ampere). Not spacetime fiction.

Just an opinion of an old decrepit radio mechanic. I hope it made some sense to you.

I'll retire and let you get back to your conversation. Pardon my interruption.

#### Classical Motion

Just one more small thought. If we took a body of atoms, ionized them, remove or nullify the ionized electrons, leaving repulsive net charged atoms. Cool, shield and settle.....and hopefully the charge(atoms) will reach a positional stability formation.

This aligned formation, as a whole, would be extremely sensitive to external stimuli. Very weak EM. The body of atoms would ripple like a blanket. It would have an amplifying dynamic. And a storage dynamic.

A super sensor. Not just for EM. But physical motion at very small levels could be detected also. Much more sensitive than we have now.

The problem is the temp. So, what if we use another method for alignment, instead of cooling?

Instead of cooling, lets zap the body of atoms into formation with a laser. Align the body. Turn laser off.....and then sample the body for deformity. Deformity from the stimulus we are trying to measure. Rinse and repeat

Quantum digital sampling. I can't wait. I want to see a photon propagate thru that condensate body. And I want to see that ripple.

Hello

#### Classical Motion​

Condensates
In reference to compaction
normal matter 10^5
Neutron matter 10^17
Quark matter and its composites range from 10^18 to estimate 10^25
Partonic matter and its campsites rough estime10^26 to 10^30
Axion Gluon matter and its composites 10^31 to 10^35

They are Transients,

All have a property.
Dipolar Electromagnetic Vector fields that stop a singularity from forming.

Quark matter composites can form an Event Horizon and mimic the properties of a classical Black Hole.

Hey! it's OK to disagree.

#### Classical Motion

Alrighty Harry, thanks. Cause I disagree with just about everything. The ONLY one thing that all men have in common is physicality, and we still can't agree on that. Ironic isn't it?

The one thing we all experience the same way, all can see and can't deny.....is argued over. After all this time, it's kinda disappointing we haven't figured it out yet.

And that's because it's either to small to see, or too far to see. Neither can be verified with surety.

Smallness and toofarness seem indistinguishable. And for some reason, we must use foreign physics, not local physics, to explain them. We can't explain the small or the far.

Apparently, the concept of size and distance is very limited by our intellect. Our dominion only goes so far.

#### Harry Costas

It's OK
and yet I think along a path, that many will disagree.

I keep telling people read as many science papers as possible, and then read more.

Hello

#### Classical Motion​

Condensates
In reference to compaction
normal matter 10^5
Neutron matter 10^17
Quark matter and its composites range from 10^18 to estimate 10^25
Partonic matter and its campsites rough estime10^26 to 10^30
Axion Gluon matter and its composites 10^31 to 10^35

They are Transients,

All have a property.
Dipolar Electromagnetic Vector fields that stop a singularity from forming.

Quark matter composites can form an Event Horizon and mimic the properties of a classical Black Hole.

Hey! it's OK to disagree.
Harry! By your shorthand given Neutron Star matter compaction Of 10^17, Are you approximating the given Neutron Star Density Range??): "Neutron stars have overall densities of 3.7×10e17 to 5.9×10e17 kg/m3"??
I am trying to reconcile your shorthand Neutron Star compaction schedule to given Neutron Star approximate density range!!
Smile Often And Have A Great Day!!

Hello

#### Adoni Yannop​

Short hand hand or long Hand they are estimates.
And may even be composite density range.
It will take years from now to work out the rest.

Regardless they are quite dance.
The point is to understand the compaction from one transient to the other.
Neutron
Quark composite
Quark Keon matter
Quark
Partonic matter
Axion Matter
etc
The common property being,
Chiral Super-Symmetry Dipolar Electro-Magnetic Vector Fields.
How this property forms
Stars
Galaxies varies forms
Cyclic events

Hello

#### Adoni Yannop​

Short hand hand or long Hand they are estimates.
And may even be composite density range.
It will take years from now to work out the rest.

Regardless they are quite dance.
The point is to understand the compaction from one transient to the other.
Neutron
Quark composite
Quark Keon matter
Quark
Partonic matter
Axion Matter
etc
The common property being,
Chiral Super-Symmetry Dipolar Electro-Magnetic Vector Fields.
How this property forms
Stars
Galaxies varies forms
Cyclic events
Harry!! Quark permeable sacs cannot exist outside the proton permeable sac!! and Einsteins E=MC2 Is only a half-truth!! Because mass and energy are stored inside the neutron, the proton, the electron and the neutrino gaseous permeable indestructible minted sacs in the form of compressed GP1 Gaseous Aether Particles!!
The only way to permanently and physically store both mass and energy inside a permeable proton sac is in the form of pressurized God Particle 1s (GP1) Aether Particles!! Fictional absurd impossible transitional energy-mass "gluons" cannot keep destructible fragile up quarks from decompressing, disappearing and losing their GP1 Aether Particle mass outside of the indestructible proton permeable sac!!
And the down quark must be an orbiting combo of a destructible up quark and an indestructible electron permeable sac because when an electron indestructible permeable sac is spit out of the neutron envelope): IT IS INDESTRUCTIBLE and therefore, must have been indestructible inside the neutron envelope/permeable indestructible sac!?!?

Since there is much matter-antimatter interactions in our universe our supply of hydrogen derived from neutrons would end over infinite time!!
There are many ways that I can prove that embryonic neutrons are minted inside stars that warm up to neutrons from the CMBR and perpetuate our universe with freshly minted hydrogen forever and ever unto the ages of ages!!
The given miraculously pulling of identical proton indestructible sacs in pairs with antiproton permeable sacs from vacuum that immediately annihilate each other results in no additional proton mass!!

Whereas, my Neutron Evolution Theory and the minting of pristine new embryonic neutrons in the center of stars and the reverse beta decay of protons and electrons to neutrons also in the center of stars and under sufficient pulsating pressure to the neutronium of Neutron Stars and Black Holes): Simply Neutron Stars with an event horizon and over 3 solar masses of neutronium!! PERPETUATES OUR UNIVERSE FOREVER And EVER UNTO THE AGES OF AGES!!
THe bottom line is that "quark-gluon" composite matter cannot physically exist because there are no "gluons" and because up quark permeable sacs cannot exist outside of the nucleon permeable sac envelope!!
The Neutronium of Neutron Stars is the densest object actually observed and verified so far!!
Smile Often and Have A Great Day!!

#### Harry Costas

Quark matter can only be confined by a Neutron envelope.
Neutron matter can be confined by compaction of normal matter 10^5l

[Submitted on 15 Aug 2023]

### Thermodynamics of quark matter with multiquark clusters in an effective Beth-Uhlenbeck type approach​

D. Blaschke, M. Cierniak, O. Ivanytskyi, G. Röpke
We describe multiquark clusters in quark matter within a Beth-Uhlenbeck approach in a background gluon field coupled to the underlying chiral quark dynamics using the Polyakov gauge which establishes the center symmetry of color SU(3) that suppresses colored states as an aspect of confinement. Quark confinement is modeled by a large quark mass in vacuum motivated by a confining density functional approach. A multiquark cluster containing n quarks and antiquarks is described as a binary composite of smaller subclusters n1 and n2 (n1+n2=n). It has a spectrum consisting of a bound state and a scattering state continuum. For the corresponding cluster-cluster phase shifts we discuss simple ansätze that capture the Mott dissociation of clusters as a function of temperature and chemical potential. We go beyond the simple "step-up-step-down" model that ignores continuum correlations and introduce an improved model that includes them in a generic form. In order to explain the model, we restrict ourselves here to the cases where the cluster size is 1≤n≤6. A striking result is the suppression of the abundance of colored multiquark clusters at low temperatures by the coupling to the Polyakov loop and their importance for a quantitative description of lattice QCD thermodynamics at non-vanishing baryochemical potentials. An important ingredient are Polyakov-loop generalized distribution functions of n-quark clusters which are derived here for the first time. Within our approach we calculate thermodynamic properties such as baryon density and entropy. We demonstrate that the limits of a hadron resonance gas at low temperatures and O(g2) perturbative QCD at high temperatures are correctly reproduced. A comparison with lattice calculations shows that our model is able to give a unified, systematic approach to describe properties of the quark-gluon-hadron system.

#### Adoni Yannop

Quark matter can only be confined by a Neutron envelope.
Neutron matter can be confined by compaction of normal matter 10^5l

[Submitted on 15 Aug 2023]

### Thermodynamics of quark matter with multiquark clusters in an effective Beth-Uhlenbeck type approach​

D. Blaschke, M. Cierniak, O. Ivanytskyi, G. Röpke
Harry, Thanks on agreeing on some of my points!! I appreciate!! But How can you stand "THIS DOUBLE TALK" that has absolutely nothing to do with reality!!

Paper): Thermodynamics of quark matter {Bounce Of Quarks Before Immediate Annihiliation And Release Of Energy!!} with multiquark clusters in an effective Beth-Uhlenbeck type approach??
Adoni asks): How do we know that the Beth-Uhlenbeck approach is an effective analogy type of the thermodynamics of quark matter {Bounce of Quark Matter And Not Energy release of energy from the disintegration of quarks}??
And can quarks/quark matter exist outside of the nucleon permeable sac?? No!! Thanks for agreeing Harry!!

Let's Google The Question): Can quarks exist outside of the nucleon envelope??
Wikipedia Says): Owing to a phenomenon known as color confinement, quarks are never found in isolation; they can be found only within hadrons, which include baryons (such as protons and neutrons) and mesons, or in quark–gluon plasmas!!

Now, let's google): Has a quark-gluon plasma ever been observed??
Answer): Yes): There is overwhelming evidence for production of quark–gluon plasma in relativistic heavy ion collisions!!

Even assuming the above to be true, we're talking about only microseconds before the alleged quark gluon plasma disappears into oblivion!!
In any event, any theorectical magical quark-gluon plasma produced by relativistic collisions of lead ions is tiny, fleeting and momentary and has absolutely no effect on the validity and proofs of my Nucleon Evolution Theory Or Fact from God Particle 1s (GP1s) about one quintillionth the mass of the neutrino that evolved to Neutrons and replicated themselves inside stars in a finite in volume ageless universe over infinite time??

Anyway): We are given both the immediate annihilation of the alleged quark-gluon matter in quark-antiquark interactions as follows by the paper writers themselves!!): Quote): "A multiquark cluster containing n quarks and antiquarks is described as a binary composite of smaller subclusters n1 and n2 (n1+n2=n)!!
Google Question): The fact is that not even one quintillionth of a gram of quark-gluon matter has been created at LHC-CERN??
Google Answer): "Yes, you’re correct. The amount of quark-gluon matter created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is incredibly small. The LHC’s 2018 dataset included more than 13 billion lead-ion collisions, each of which released quarks and gluons that scattered and merged to form more than a quadrillion short-lived particles before cooling and decaying!!'
This absurd quark-gluon plasma theory is predicated on another misassumption theory that the Big Bang Energy Release “Creationist Singularity” magically made everything visible and invisible): Quote Given FALSEHOODS): “In the first millionths of a second after the Big Bang, the universe was a roiling, trillion-degree plasma of quarks and gluons — elementary particles that briefly glommed together in countless combinations before cooling and settling into more stable configurations to make the neutrons and protons of ordinary matter.
In the chaos before cooling, a fraction of these quarks and gluons collided randomly to form short-lived “X” particles, so named for their mysterious, unknown structures. Today, X particles are extremely rare, though physicists have theorized that they may be created in particle accelerators through quark coalescence, where high-energy collisions can generate similar flashes of quark-gluon plasma.
Now physicists at MIT’s Laboratory for Nuclear Science and elsewhere have found evidence of X particles in the quark-gluon plasma produced in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, based near Geneva, Switzerland!!"
So, are "long lived"condensates other than the neutronium of Neutron Stars possible??
Smile Often and Have A Great Day!!

#### Harry Costas

Hello Andoni

You cannot isolate Quark matter on Earth or anywhere else.
The matter would dominate the surroundings.
If you could, you would have a trillion-dollar business.

Like I keep saying.
We research and research in hope of further understanding.
I had this other science person for years argued that I was wrong.
Until the penny dropped.

I'm not trying to change your thinking.
You may be right in what you say.

But! my reseach for the last few decades have lead me to think along the line of Transient Condensates and their property.
Quantum Chromo Dynamic.
Chiral-Super-Symmetry-Dipolar-Electro-Magnetic- Vector fields
.
Imagine a compact body acting as one, like a huge Neutron.

#### Harry Costas

I do not know where the link is.
Re: The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis.
The stars as we know them expelled from an extreme compact body.

#### Harry Costas

Trying to understand the dynamics of compact matter. This understanding may lead us, working the ways of the parts within the universe.

[Submitted on 27 Jul 2023]

### Probing an ultralight QCD axion with electromagnetic quadratic interaction​

Hyungjin Kim, Alessandro Lenoci, Gilad Perez, Wolfram Ratzinger
The axion-gluon coupling is the defining feature of the QCD axion. This feature induces additional and qualitatively different interactions of the axion with standard model particles -- quadratic couplings. Previously, hadronic quadratic couplings have been studied and experimental implications have been explored especially in the context of atomic spectroscopy and interferometry. We investigate additional quadratic couplings to the electromagnetic field and electron mass. These electromagnetic quadratic couplings are generated at the loop level from threshold corrections and are expected to be present in the absence of fine-tuning. While they are generally loop-suppressed compared to the hadronic ones, they open up new ways to search for the QCD axion, for instance via optical atomic clocks. Moreover, due to the velocity spread of the dark matter field, the quadratic nature of the coupling leads to low-frequency fluctuations in any detector setup. These distinctive low-frequency fluctuations offer a way to search for heavier axions. We provide an analytic expression for the power spectral density of this low-frequency background and briefly discuss experimental strategies for a low-frequency background search.

#### Adoni Yannop

Trying to understand the dynamics of compact matter. This understanding may lead us, working the ways of the parts within the universe.

[Submitted on 27 Jul 2023]

### Probing an ultralight QCD axion with electromagnetic quadratic interaction​

Hyungjin Kim, Alessandro Lenoci, Gilad Perez, Wolfram Ratzinger
I find it Interesting that Modern Physicists postulate the miraculous ‘Big Bang Singularity Matter Creationist Story” versus a neutron indestructible permeable sac evolution story when most college educated people believe in Darwin Evolution for mankind over the Judeo-Christian God Creationism Of Man In His Image!!

So, Harry did The Big Bang Singularity miraculously pull your “Condensates” out vacuum or not??

Given That The Big Singularity Is given as the Miraculous Creator Of Everything Visible And Invisible, The Cosmic Web and of space itself from nothing in a mere 13.77 Billion Years Instead Of Over Infinite Time??

I think you make the age of universe at 28 billion years over my universe age of infinite years??

Talk More Later!! Have A Wonderful Day!!

#### Harry Costas

There was never a big bang.
And
Classical Black Hole with a singularity cannot form.
The age of the universe is infinite.
The parts within recycle, merge, compact, expel, expand.

But! you can have a condensate that mimics the properties of Black Holes.
Transient Condensates research to your hearts content.

#### Adoni Yannop

There was never a big bang.
And
Classical Black Hole with a singularity cannot form.
The age of the universe is infinite.
The parts within recycle, merge, compact, expel, expand.

But! you can have a condensate that mimics the properties of Black Holes.
Transient Condensates research to your hearts content.
OK!! We agree to so much Harry!!):

1): The absurd impossible Big Bang Accelerating Expanding Universe did not occur and a "Singularity" did not magically release energy that magically pulled protons and antiprotons in pairs out vacuum that immediately annihilated each other!!

2): The Classical Black Hole with a singularity cannot form but do you, also, agree that at the center of a black hole is a ball of embryonic neutrons that when warmed up to absolute zero yield 10X or more pristine new neutron matter that decays to pristine new hydrogen??

If you don't believe that newly minted embryonic neutrons in the neutronium balls of compact objects "Your Condensates" can warm up to indestructible permeable neutron sacs at 10X the mass from net implosion of GP1 Aether Particles, then, how do you explain the origin of the hydrogen that built our present 200 billion to 2 trillion galaxies in our finite in volume ageless universe??

3): The age of the universe is infinite!!

4): The parts within our universe recycle, merge, compact, expel, expand!!

I suggest that from the discovery of the DiPole RePeller Void in 2017 that matter in voids is net cooling and releasing dark energy causing the DiPole RePeller Void to observably expand!!

And that matter in the Shapley and Great Attractor is net heating up and contracting while storing potential dark energy because "FOR EVERY ACTION, THERE MUST BE AN EQUAL AND OPPOSITE REACTION!!

In other words, I'm just explaining the physical mechanics that will eventually transform the contracting superclusters of today to the expanding voids of tomorrow??

I leave you with a question, do electromagnetic waves propagate in a Gaseous GP1 Aether Medium under pressure just as sound waves propagate in an air gaseous medium under pressure??

Talk more soon!! Have A Great Day!!

#### Harry Costas

Centre of any Transient Condensate
Is confined by the leased confined.
Normal matter
Condensate 10^5
Neutron Matter 10^17
Quark matter composites 10^18 to probably over 10^25 estimate
Partonic composite matter 10^25 to 10^30
Axion - Neutrino matter over 10 ^30

#### Harry Costas

Are we getting closer to understanding the process of inflation?
Within the last few decades, scientists have managed to take a few steps forward.
Sometimes taking a few steps back.
The Process of Nucleosynthesis in part, is promising to explain the cyclic process.

[Submitted on 23 Aug 2023]

### QCD Axion Hybrid Inflation​

Yuma Narita, Fuminobu Takahashi, Wen Yin
When the inflaton is coupled to the gluon Chern-Simons term for successful reheating, mixing between the inflaton and the QCD axion is generally expected given the solution of the strong CP problem by the QCD axion. This is particularly natural if the inflaton is a different, heavier axion. We propose a scenario in which the QCD axion plays the role of the inflaton by mixing with heavy axions. In particular, if the energy scale of inflation is lower than the QCD scale, a hybrid inflation is realized where the QCD axion plays the role of the inflaton in early stages. We perform detailed numerical calculations to take account of the mixing effects. Interestingly, the initial misalignment angle of the QCD axion, which is usually a free parameter, is determined by the inflaton dynamics. It is found to be close to π in simple models. This is the realization of the pi-shift inflation proposed in previous literature, and it shows that QCD axion dark matter and inflation can be closely related. The heavy axion may be probed by future accelerator experiments.

#### Harry Costas

Axion matter and Quarks matter play an important role in the function of Neutron Star.

[Submitted on 19 Dec 2023 (v1), last revised 15 Mar 2024 (this version, v2)]

### Neutron Stars as the Dark Matter detectors​

Ariel Zhitnitsky
It has been known for quite sometime that the Neutron Stars (NS) can play a role of the Dark Matter (DM) detectors due to many uniques features of NS. We apply these (previously developed) ideas to a specific form of the DM when it is represented by a composite object, rather than by a local fundamental field (such as WIMPs). To be more precise we consider the so-called axion quark nuggets (AQN) dark matter model, when the ``non-baryonic" dark matter in fact is made of quarks and gluons which are in dense quark phase (similar to the old idea of the Witten's strangelets). We argue that the interaction of the AQNs with NS material may lead to many profound observable effects, which dramatically different from conventional picture when DM particles are represented by weakly interacting WIMPs. In particular, we argue that the AQNs may serve as the triggers for the magnetic reconnection to heat the NS surface. This effect may strongly alleviate (or even completely remove) the observed inconsistencies between the predicted and observed surface temperatures for many old NS. This heating mechanism is always accompanied by the hard X ray emission, which may serve as an indicator of the proposed mechanism.

#### Harry Costas

Neutron Star compaction to calculate is an estimate by far.
We assume maybe two layers. A core with an external crust.

[Submitted on 3 Jan 2024]

Part Conclusion
"The most interesting phenomenological cases, compatible with the observational mass-radius constraints and respecting the causality condition, have been obtained forρ+dis = 0.5 × 10^15 g/cm3 and ρ+dis = 0.8 × 10^15 g/cm3 with A = 0.48 and a wide range of values for α. Consequently, our work has shown that the existence of neutron stars with a dark-energy core is possible in the sense that they are dynamically stable under small radial perturbations and are compatible with the recent astronomical measurements."

#### Jzz

There was never a big bang.
And
Classical Black Hole with a singularity cannot form.
The age of the universe is infinite.
The parts within recycle, merge, compact, expel, expand.

But! you can have a condensate that mimics the properties of Black Holes.
Transient Condensates research to your hearts content.

One of the biggest problems with our present day physics is that it is so facile, new particles or new concepts are tailor made and thrown out there to suit every requirement. The most facile of all of these developments is the theory developed to explain the propagation of light from point A to point B. This theory includes both quantum field theory and quantum electro-dynamics. One of the unfortunate aspects of quantum mechanics or standard theory if you prefer, is its reluctance to evolve new strategies to explain physical phenomena according to its own ethos. Instead, in most instances QM likes to hijack an existing theory, in this case Maxwell’s equations to describe the propagation of electromagnetic radiation, and to try to impose on this theory its own ethos of the particle notion of nature.
However, it turns out that it is not an easy task to impose a particle explanation of EMR onto a wave explanation of EMR. These are the steps followed to explain the propagation of EMR by QM:

First Quantisation: refers to the standard approach of quantizing individual particles, in this case photons. In this framework, particles are described by wavefunctions that evolve according to the Schrodinger equation. First quantization deals with the wave-particle duality and the behaviour of individual quantum systems. (note) Schrodinger’s wave equation works well for single particle situations, however with each additional particle that is needed, three additional dimensions are required. This is a well-documented fact, freely admitted by both Max Born and Heisenberg. Though recent proponents argue that it is not dimensions that are involved it is multiple degrees of freedoms. This is an evasion rather than an attempt to address the problem. Even a cursory examination of the philosophical implications reveal that it is dimensions that are involved (i.e., actual spatial dimension) and not degrees of freedom.

For cynics out there who will insist that all this is wrong and that use of Schrodinger’s equation does not involve multiple dimensions. Here is a quote by Max Born the founder of the quantum mechanics wave function: ″We have two possibilities. Either we use waves in space of more than three dimensions,..or we remain in three dimensional space, but give up the simple picture of the wave amplitude as an ordinary physical magnitude , and replace it with a purely mathematical concept into which we cannot enter.? Yet one has to wonder how something that can be ethically unacceptable in the ′real′ world can be perfectly justifiable in the abstract ′mathematical′ world. . " Max Born

Also kindly watch this video from 12 minutes 12 seconds to around 12 minutes 35 seconds where the quantum mechanics stand on determinism was crystallised and it is expressly stated that particles such as electrons or photons are not real till detected. This view held that light as it travelled from point A to point B was not ‘real’ it existed in a state of superposition in the form of an abstract wave function.

Second Quantisation: is a different approach used in quantum field theory (QFT) to quantize fields rather than individual particles. Instead of describing particles as discrete entities, second quantization treats particles as excitations of quantum fields that permeate space. This framework allows for the creation and annihilation of particles and provides a more natural description for many-particle systems present in EMR. Quantization of the Electromagnetic Field, involves imposing commutation relations on the creation and annihilation operators to ensure that the resulting quantum field theory is consistent with the principles of quantum mechanics.
In second quantization, the electric and magnetic fields are represented by creation and annihilation operators. These operators create or destroy particles (quanta) associated with the electromagnetic field. During second quantisation the electromagnetic field is expanded in terms of its Fourier modes, which describe the field in terms of different wavelengths and momenta. (note) Each creation and annihilation process involves 1024 MeV approx., since there are an almost infinite number of photons all; undergoing these processes at the same time, it is a staggering amount of energy.

Normalisation: Could be described as a house-cleaning process, used in quantum mechanics to ensure that wavefunctions (or states) are properly normalized. Normalization ensures that the integral of the square of the wavefunction over all space (or some appropriate region) equals 1. This condition guarantees that the probability of finding a particle in any allowed region of space is unity. Normalization is achieved by dividing the wavefunction by a normalization constant, which is determined by integrating the square of the wavefunction and then taking the square root of the result.

Re-normalisation: is a technique used in quantum field theory to handle infinities that arise in certain calculations. In quantum field theory, interactions between particles can lead to divergent quantities, such as infinite values for certain physical quantities. Renormalization involves redefining these quantities in terms of experimentally measurable quantities, effectively absorbing the infinities into the parameters of the theory. Renormalization ensures that physical predictions from the theory remain finite and meaningful. It's a crucial aspect of quantum field theory, particularly in dealing with theories like QED where infinities arise in perturbative calculations.

One can see that this is a totally unrealistic and impractical theory, one that can never be used even to calculate the performance of a toy radio. Second quantisation tells us that radio waves travel as follows: A signal is created emitting a photon, that photon undergoes spontaneous self-annihilation giving rise to an electron and a positron which immediately undergo mutual annihilation giving rise to a photon of the exact same vale as the original one that self-annihilated. In this way radio-waves and light propagate. So, what is the point of introducing such theories. To further complicate the scenario axions are introduced. Instead of trying to explain physical phenomena QM just creates a new particle or theory to explain observed phenomena, there is no effort to search deeper and yet QM often boasts that it is the most perfect science that was ever conceived by man!

If you want to read a beautiful theory explaining Dark Matter read my paper “ Redefining electrons: A Modern Theory of the Aether

#### Harry Costas

Hello Jzz
Well written

Tell me more.

Do you understand?
Chiral Super-Symmetry Dipolar Electro-Magnetic Vector Fields.

#### Jzz

Hello Jzz
Well written

Tell me more.

Do you understand?
Chiral Super-Symmetry Dipolar Electro-Magnetic Vector Fields.
Thank you Harry Costas for your comments. I am sorry to answer one question with another. Have you read my paper to which I had posted a link? Many of the questions you have asked are answered in that. In terms of Maxwell’s equation, chirality is everything, without it nothing would work. But what if Maxwell was wrong and Faraday, with his lines of force were correct? In such a scenario, there would be no difference between magnetic fields and electric fields. An electric field would be a polarised fields, a magnetic field would be that same field carrying energy. Would appreciate your feed back on my photon model and also on the possibility that Dark Matter is in fact Dark Light, made up of very low energy photons (electric dipoles) that as a result of their low energy have very low interaction with matter. In theory such a virtual photon field could pass through a lead sheet a light year across without undergoing any interaction. Yet, at the same time, this same Universe permeating virtual photon field will instantly align itself in the presence of a real photon, forming a line of aligned photons whose ends rest on the shoulders of infinity and the energy of the real photon travels along this line of linked virtual photons.

I will save you the embarrassment of trying to explain second quantisation. But the possibility is always there, that I will ask you to solve a simple problem of propagation using this theory!

Replies
5
Views
1K
Replies
5
Views
4K
Replies
0
Views
227
Replies
0
Views
4K
Replies
1
Views
4K