This dissertation aims to deepen the understanding of the primordial composition of the Universe in the temperature range 300 MeV>T>0.02 MeV. I exploit known properties of elementary particles and apply methods of kinetic theory and statistical physics to advance the understanding of the cosmic plasma.
Within the Big Bang model, we begin by considering the Universe being a highly energetic fireball, an ultra-relativistic plasma exhibiting distinct properties. Fundamental particles such as quarks, leptons, and even heavier gauge bosons play a crucial role in the understanding of the early Universe. Our research focuses on the investigation of these fundamental particles as constituents of the dense Universe plasma during the epoch which transits from primordial quark-gluon plasma to the era of normal hadron matter, passing through the decoupling of neutrinos and addressing in detail the electron-positron antimatter plasma.
Then think (hyperspace / hypertime) superposition, Harry. There, in that Horizon, you've got all space and all time. Endless beginnings in timeless capsule form, endless mid-times (Hawking's immortal migrating "Life Zone Frontier (offsetting life zones)"), and endless end times. The universe exists -- the universes exist -- endlessly richly (some might think and say chromatically "densely" rather than colorfully "richly") parallel horizontally and vertically in all of them.I do not believe in the start of the universe, having trillions of galaxies found in all directions.
But!
As part of a cyclic process, i can accept it.
[Submitted on 17 Jan 2024]
Elementary Particles and Plasma in the First Hour of the Early Universe
Cheng Tao Yang
The modification, by exotic sources of cooling, of the neutrino burst's duration following the core collapse of SN 1987A is known to provide a formidable constraint on axion interactions with matter. Compton-like nucleon-pion to nucleon-axion scattering has recently been shown to be an important mechanism, due to the large baryon and the non-negligible pion densities in the concerned proto-neutron star volume. In this context, the question arises of the role of hadronic matter beyond the first generation -- in particular strange matter. We perform a first quantitative study of this question, by consistently including the full baryon and meson octets in axion emission from Compton-like scattering and from baryon decay. We consider a range of possible thermodynamic conditions in the SN as well as various scenarios for the axion-quark couplings -- among them an "agnostic" scenario bounded only by data. Irrespective of the scenario considered, we find that axion emissivity introduces non-trivial correlations between flavour-diagonal axial couplings and constrains the off-diagonal counterpart to O(10−1-10−2) for fa=109 GeV.
SPACE . . . The infinitely open system of discreet quanta space frontiers (inclusive of hyperspace, hypertime (more or less timeless), warp space, wormholes, etc.).Hello Atlan
I think you lost me at the OK corral.
Hyper time does not exist. Time is not a physical item, and therefore cannot be manipulated.
Horizon is a barrier where EMR cannot escape.
The forces that keep the EMR from escaping is created by a condensate, probably made up of composite Quarks, partonic matter, Axion matter etc, attracting all matter.
This Condensate has another property, Chiral Super-Symmetry Dipolar Electro-Magnetic vector fields expelling matter through a spin vortex that is able to travel from a few Klms, to 100,000 light yrs. (M87 jet) or the core of a supercluster of galaxies millions of light years.
Hey! my thoughts and opinions maybe off this planet.
We present a complete proof of the Weak Gravity Conjecture in any perturbative bosonic string theory in spacetime dimension D≥6. Our proof works by relating the black hole extremality bound to long range forces, which are more easily calculated on the worldsheet, closing the gaps in partial arguments in the existing literature. We simultaneously establish a strict, sublattice form of the conjecture in the same class of theories. We close by discussing the scope and limitations of our analysis, along with possible extensions including an upcoming generalization of our work to the superstring.
A method is introduced which, for the first time, allows us to construct axial vector fields without which formal definitions of quasi-local angular momentum, in general, would remain empty. The introduced method is practical, it can be used to construct all such axial vector fields, and it allows the quasi-local angular momentum to be represented by a triple vector in three-dimensional Euclidean space. We also derive balance relations which allow us to monitor the variation of the magnitude and direction of this vector, and also to monitor the angular momentum transports in generic spacetimes without symmetries.
Unfortunately Harry, more research into the field of condensates will not result in a better understanding of “compact objects” given by you and others as “condensates” because of the fundamental theoretical flaw of the 3 million modern physicists and yourself that “core collapse” supernovae occur miraculously and instantly without work inputs!!The more we research into the field of condensates, the more we begin to understand.
I do apologize for the downloading papers.
For one second do not think that I'm smart doing this.
Give credit to the scientists that research and research and sometime lead to a dead end.
In the standard model of particle physics, the strong force is characterized by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). It is commonly understood from QCD properties that hadrons, at sufficiently high temperatures or densities, melt into their constituent quarks, thereby undergoing a deconfinement transition to a new phase of quarks and gluons, often referred to as quark matter or quark-gluon plasma (QGP) \cite{qcd00,qcd01}. Although QGP has been observed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions \cite{qgp1,qgp2}, uncertainties remain about when the onset of deconfinement occurs. After comparing simulations from a reliable hadron and quark relativistic transport model with recent data from the STAR experiment, we determined that the onset of the hadron-quark phase transition occurs at about five times nuclear compression, corresponding to temperature T∼ 112 MeV and baryon chemical potential μB∼ 586 MeV, in the nuclear matter phase diagram. This discovery has significant implications for the studies of both the early and present universe \cite{ann2006}, including the fraction of dark matter formed in the early universe \cite{bhd2016,bhf1997,pbh20} and the structure and dynamics of neutron stars and their mergers \cite{nature2020}.
I do read you, Harry, and I shake my head when I see the above. The infinite universe does not preclude infinite beginnings as an infinity unto itself, one of at least three *stereotypical* infinities, beginning universe, middle universe, and endgame universe:Yep, and research keeps moving forward.
Early universe i disagree with, since I see the universe as infinite.
But what if the universe is infinitely old, finite in volume and mass that evolved neutron permeable sacs from tinier physical particles that decayed to hydrogen could such a universe go on forever??I do read you, Harry, and I shake my head when I see the above. The infinite universe does not preclude infinite beginnings as an infinity unto itself, one of at least three *stereotypical* infinities, beginning universe, middle universe, and endgame universe:
Stephen Hawking called the middle universe the "life zone universe" and that life was probably migratory cubic local life zone to cubic local life zone, to cubic local life zone, on and on, and on. Which would mean a mix of middle universe cubic local life zones among cubic local beginning universe zones and cubic local end universe zones, to infinity and eternity.
You can total the beginning point universes into a single event horizon; the distant surrounding Horizon, though you will never come any closer to it than you are now (at 0-point-center point between horizons . . . which also puts you on a point on the surface of a ballooning sphere, putting you in a sort of quantum entanglement of universe's point-positions) no matter how fast and far you might travel. But as Hawking also indicated in talking constant migrations of life, try to keep from falling into the local vortices, the local sink drains, of the end universe.
The constant of "early universe" is one parallel constant of the "universe as infinite." There is "early universe" around in the universe, today! "Early universe" will be around in the universe tomorrow.
I disagree Atlan0001!! There is concurrent local time throughout every locality in the universe!! What that means is that each and all localities in the universe have a concurrent local time as the universe as whole steadily moves forward in the overall universe time frame!!There are at least three dimensions to time, as I've described more than once, not one. One primal and primary! Spontaneous concurrent REALTIME (t=0).
Harry, You are correct that the Hubble flow redshift/the cosmological redshift correctly determines how far away the light was when the light source emitted the light and from the distance measurements we can calculate the time that it took the light to reach us??Hello Adoni
I agree with you.
Time is not a physical item.
You cannot manipulate it.
How we record time is the issue.
If we look 13.4 billion light years deep field.
We are seeing galaxies that existed before our solar system.
The Trillions of galaxies are beyond our comprehension.
Well, Harry, Neutron star matter is given a density of up to 200 trillion Earth density or twice the density of the nucleus of an atom. I do not know how that fact translate to your compaction scale!!Hello Adoni
Let's put it this way.
What is the compaction of Neutron matter?
We study the stability and characteristics of two-dimensional (2D) quasi-isotropic quantum droplets (QDs) of fundamental and vortex types, formed by binary Bose-Einstein condensate with magnetic quadrupole-quadrupole interactions (MQQIs). The magnetic quadrupoles are built as pairs of dipoles and antidipoles polarized along the x-axis. The MQQIs are induced by applying an external magnetic field that varies along the x-axis. The system is modeled by the Gross-Pitaevskii equations including the MQQIs and Lee-Huang-Yang correction to the mean-field approximation. Stable 2D fundamental QDs and quasi-isotropic vortex QDs with topological charges S<4 are produced by means of the imaginary-time-integration method for configurations with the quadrupoles polarized parallel to the systems two-dimensional plane. Effects of the norm and MQQI strength on the QDs are studied in detail. Some results, including an accurate prediction of the effective area, chemical potential, and peak density of QDs, are obtained in an analytical form by means of the Thomas-Fermi approximation. Collisions between moving QDs are studied by means of systematic simulations.
We investigate particle emission from a Bose-Einstein condensate with periodically modulated interactions in a one-dimensional lattice. Within perturbative analysis, which leads to instabilities for discrete modes, we obtain the main regimes where the system can emit a large particle jet, and find that the emission is distinctly intermittent rather than continuous. The time evolution of the trapped particles exhibits a stair-like decay, and a larger drive induces a more significant intermittency. We further shed light on the dynamics of the stimulating process, and demonstrate that instead of a real suspension, the intermittency represents a build-up stage of the system. The theoretical framework might be generalized to the explorations on multiple-site systems with analogous configurations and couplings, and offer new insights into other fundamental nonequilibrium problems.
I like encouragement, Harry. Thanks!! But it's hard to get someone to consider the given evidence and my logical conclusions derived from the given evidence or to look at a 5 minute video about the DiPole RePeller Void discovered in 2017!! The Dipole Repeller Void!!Well, my advice is keep thinking along the path.
Keep accumulating evidence and have others confirm your theories.
In some way we are on the similar same path.