Question Condensates

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Understanding condensate droplets may give us understanding of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis.
I do not think along the lines of Big Bang theory.I use this logic as part of the discussion.

[Submitted on 28 Jan 2022 (v1), last revised 21 Nov 2022 (this version, v2)]
Self-Interacting Superfluid Dark Matter Droplets
V. Delgado, A. Muñoz Mateo (Univ. La Laguna)
We assume dark matter to be a cosmological self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensate of non-relativistic ultralight scalar particles with competing gravitational and repulsive contact interactions and investigate the observational implications of such model. The system is unstable to the formation of stationary self-bound structures that minimize the energy functional. These cosmological superfluid droplets, which are the smallest possible gravitationally bound dark matter structures, exhibit a universal mass profile and a corresponding universal rotation curve. Assuming a hierarchical structure formation scenario where granular dark matter haloes grow around these primordial stationary droplets, the model predicts cored haloes with rotation curves that obey a single universal equation in the inner region (r≲1 kpc). A simultaneous fit to a selection of galaxies from the SPARC database chosen with the sole criterion of being strongly dark matter dominated even within the innermost region, indicates that the observational data are consistent with the presence of a Bose-Einstein condensate of ultralight scalar particles of mass m≃2.2×10−22 eV c−2 and repulsive self-interactions characterized by a scattering length as≃7.8×10−77 m. Such small self-interactions have profound consequences on cosmological scales. They induce a natural minimum scale length for the size of dark matter structures that makes all cores similar in length (∼1 kpc) and contributes to lower their central densities.
Some of these maybe hard Yaker, but! in time will become simple to apply to all the formations that we observe out there and beyond.
How condensates function is the key to the workings matter in space.

[Submitted on 22 Dec 2022 (v1), last revised 6 Jan 2023 (this version, v2)]
Mirror symmetry for new physics beyond the Standard Model in 4D spacetime
Wanpeng Tan
The two discrete generators of the full Lorentz group O(1,3) in 4D spacetime are typically chosen to be parity inversion symmetry P and time reversal symmetry T, which are responsible for the four topologically separate components of O(1,3). Under general considerations of quantum field theory (QFT) with internal degrees of freedom, mirror symmetry is a natural extension of P, while CP symmetry resembles T in spacetime. In particular, mirror symmetry is critical as it doubles the full Dirac fermion representation in QFT and essentially introduces a new sector of mirror particles. Its close connection to T-duality and Calabi-Yau mirror symmetry in string theory is clarified. Extension beyond the Standard model can then be constructed using both left- and right-handed heterotic strings guided by mirror symmetry. Many important implications such as supersymmetry, chiral anomalies, topological transitions, Higgs, neutrinos, and dark energy, are discussed.
The KEYS to understanding the images such as the hourglass supernova and the dipolar jets observed in Neutron Stars such a magneto-thermal evolution.

Maybe these are the steppingstones in understanding.

[Submitted on 3 Apr 2023]
Non-Fermi Liquids from Dipolar Symmetry Breaking
Amogh Anakru, Zhen Bi
The emergence of fractonic topological phases and novel universality classes for quantum dynamics highlights the importance of dipolar symmetry in condensed matter systems. In this work, we study the properties of symmetry-breaking phases of the dipolar symmetries in fermionic models in various spatial dimensions. In such systems, fermions obtain energy dispersion through dipole condensation. Due to the nontrivial commutation between the translation symmetry and dipolar symmetry, the Goldstone modes of the dipolar condensate are strongly coupled to the dispersive fermions and naturally give rise to non-Fermi liquids at low energies. The IR description of the dipolar symmetry-breaking phase is analogous to the well-known theory of a Fermi surface coupled to an emergent U(1) gauge field. We also discuss the crossover behavior when the dipolar symmetry is slightly broken and the cases with anisotropic dipolar conservation.
[Submitted on 23 Mar 2023]

Vortices in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates​

Thomas Bland, Giacomo Lamporesi, Manfred J. Mark, Francesca Ferlaino
Quantized vortices are the hallmark of superfluidity, and are often sought out as the first observable feature in new superfluid systems. Following the recent experimental observation of vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates comprised of atoms with inherent long-range dipole-dipole interactions [Nat. Phys. 18, 1453-1458 (2022)], we thoroughly investigate vortex properties in the three-dimensional dominantly dipolar regime, where beyond-mean-field effects are crucial for stability, and investigate the interplay between trap geometry and magnetic field tilt angle.
Understanding dipolar fields, may possibly give us the understanding of compact objects out there.

[Submitted on 3 Jun 2023]

Tunable Bose-Einstein condensation and roton-like excitation spectra with dipolar exciton-polaritons in crossed fields​

Timofey V. Maximov, Igor L. Kurbakov, Nina S. Voronova, Yurii E. Lozovik
We develop the many-body theory of dipolar exciton-polaritons in an optical microcavity in crossed transverse electric and in-plane magnetic fields. Even for relatively weak fields, we reveal the existence of two minima in the bare lower-polariton dispersion, which give rise to the tuneable transition between the polariton Bose-Einstein condensate and that of excitons, produced by the competition between these minima. We predict that such dipolar condensate exhibits a roton-maxon character of the excitation spectrum, never before observed for polaritons. We show that upon the transition between the two condensation regimes, the weak correlations in the polariton gas give way to the intermediate interparticle correlations characteristic for excitons, and that the transition is accompanied by a sharp quenching of photoluminescence as the lifetime is increased by several orders of magnitude. While in the polariton regime, the luminescence peak corresponding to the condensate is shifted to a non-zero angle. The angular dependence of the two-photon decay time in the Hanbury Brown and Twiss experiment is calculated and used as a tool to evidence the formation of the macroscopically-coherent state. Our proposal opens opportunities towards manipulating the superfluid properties and extended-range dipole-dipole correlations of exciton-polariton condensates.
Condensates hold the key to understanding how matter can change transient phase from normal matter to Neutron matter to Quark matter.

In so doing understand the reverse of quantum matter having a memory to reform partonic matter to quark matter to Neutron matter to atomic matter.

[Submitted on 19 Jun 2023]

Chiral symmetry breaking and phase diagram of dual chiral density wave in a rotating quark matter​

S. M. A. Tabatabaee
We study the inhomogeneous phase of a two-flavor quark matter under rotation at finite temperature and density using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. To do this, we consider the chiral broken phase, in particular, described by the so-called dual chiral density wave which is formed as a standing wave of simultaneous scalar and pseudoscalar condensates. The solution of the corresponding Dirac equation as well as energy spectrum found in the mean field approximation. We then use the thermodynamic potential calculated for this model, to study the μ and Ω dependence of constituent mass and the wave vector at T=0. We find there exist two islands in the μ−Ω plane that the dual chiral density wave survives. The first region lies at intermediate densities and small Ω. We observe by increasing the angular velocity of matter, dual chiral density wave forms in regions with smaller chemical potential. On the other hand, in contrast to the former, the second region is located at the large Ω and small densities. Finally, we study this phase of quark matter at finite temperature and present T−μ, T−Ω and μ−Ω phase portraits of a hot rotating quark matter at finite density.
Jun 11, 2023
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Condensates hold the key to understanding how matter can change transient phase from normal matter to Neutron matter to Quark matter.

In so doing understand the reverse of quantum matter having a memory to reform partonic matter to quark matter to Neutron matter to atomic matter.

[Submitted on 19 Jun 2023]

Chiral symmetry breaking and phase diagram of dual chiral density wave in a rotating quark matter​

S. M. A. Tabatabaee
I can't correct the hundred year old missassumption by Einstein and others that Energy And Matter are interchangeable until I get some converts to my Neutron Permeable Indestructible Mass-Energy Vessel Sac Universe Evolution Theory!!

The Big Bang "Singularity Energy Release" Is Impossible Because Only Matter Particles That Can Permanently Store Both Mass And Energy Can Power Stars and Supernova Explosions!! Without the evolution of neutrons in our ageless finite in volume universe, we never would have had the first hydrogen star that made more embryonic neutrons than were destroyed in the life cycle of the first hydrogen star!!

The key to understading all the mysteries of the universe is to understand that electromagnetic waves propagate in a GP1 Aether Gaseous Particle Medium under pressure from which evolved the first neutron permeable mass-energy vessel sacs that decayed to hydrogen that formed the first hydrogen star that made mucho more embryonic neutrons that when warmed and pumped up by the CMBR with GP1 Aether Particles evolved to neutron sacs that decayed to hydrogen resulting in all the stars in the universe in perpetuity as well as the cosmic web!!
Hello Adoni

Matter/Energy has a memory in changing phases under confinement and out of confinement.

From compact matter out of confinement.
Axion gluon matter (even neutrino matter)
forms partonic matter
forms Quark composite matter
forms Neutrons and Protons
forms Atomic matter still under compaction 10^5.

to normal matter.

the same in reverse confinement

This forms a cyclic process throughout the universe.
This paper is quite interesting.
The write still thinks along the BBT.
By stating Era of cosmic inflation.
So be it.

[Submitted on 5 Jul 2023]

Anisotropic Inflation in Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates​

Arun Rana, Abhijit Pendse, Sebastian Wüster, Sukanta Panda
Early during the era of cosmic inflation, rotational invariance may have been broken, only later emerging as a feature of low-energy physics. This motivates ongoing searches for residual signatures of anisotropic space-time, for example in the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background. We propose that dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) furnish a laboratory quantum simulation platform for the anisotropy evolution of fluctuation spectra during inflation, exploiting the fact that the speed of dipolar condensate sound waves depends on direction. We construct the anisotropic analogue space-time metric governing sound, by linking the time-varying strength of dipolar and contact interactions in the BEC to the scale factors in different coordinate directions. Based on these, we calculate the dynamics of phonon power spectra during an inflation that renders the initially anisotropic universe isotropic. We find that the expansion speed provides an experimental handle to control and study the degree of final residual anisotropy. Gravity analogues using dipolar condensates can thus provide tuneable experiments for a field of cosmology that was until now confined to a single experiment, our universe.
I'm not trying to prove one way or another, I'm just on the journey to find and understand, how things work

[Submitted on 1 Aug 2023]

Lecture Notes: Bose-Einstein condensation and the Simplified Approach to interacting Bosons​

Ian Jauslin
These are lecture notes for a week-long summer school course delivered at the TXST Summer School in Mathematical Physics, July 24-28, 2023, organized by Jake Fillman. In them, we discuss properties of systems of many interacting Bosons, such as gasses of Helium atoms. We pay special attention to the phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation, which is a quantum phase in which a positive fraction of particles are all in the same state. We first give an overview of Bose-Einstein condensation in non-interacting systems. Next, we introduce the Simplified Approach, and prove some of its properties.
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Isn't a super cold state at once a super pressure state, thus absolute zero one form of vortex into an explosive pressure cooker? Nothing will go beyond absolute zero because it blows at absolute zero; It has met . . . made contact with . . . the spinning wheels going nowhere further (so to speak) of the absolute of heat at that point? Hottest hell suddenly frozen over, and vice-versa, always, eternally, an explosive constant, exploding?!

There is an explosive constant of absolutism to the universe, and I think it is the meeting point constant vortex of equal but opposite absolute pressures, temperatures, spin, and so on, based. If I'm off base, Harry, based upon your own intense study here, threads, posts and quotes of papers, why?
Hello Atlan
Although I disagree with you, does not mean that I'm right.

A condensate has dipolar electromagnetic fields.
If you research
Chiral Supersymmetry it may give you a more understanding.

The dipolar vector fields shoot away from the condensate.
The vector fields attracted to the condensate core, to the outsider would seem very cold.
Inside you have atomic matter broken down to protons and Neutrons, under confined conditions, a proton would gain an electron, changing to Neutron.
Neutrons will compact to 10^17 .
In my opinion the inner core of Sun may have a Neutron matter core. This would account for 95% of the matter of the Solar System. 5% would include the solar envelope and everything else.

When we look at Neutron stars, research has found that the core of Neutron Stars may have a Quark Core.
You can research this, it's quite interesting.
We know that:
Normal matter will compact to 10^5.
Neutron matter compact to 10^17.
Quark matter estimate with composites, 10^18 to 10^25.

This is extreme at 10^25 or there abouts the compact core may mimic Black Hole properties.
The Dipolar Electromagnetic properties will prevent a singularity from forming (Classic Black Hole).

[Submitted on 1 Sep 2023]

Unified Interacting Quark Stars in Regularized 4D Einstein Gauss-Bonnet Gravity​

Michael Gammon, Sarah Rourke, Robert B. Mann
Since the derivation of a well-defined D→4 limit for 4D Einstein Gauss-Bonnet (4DEGB) gravity coupled to a scalar field, there has been interest in testing it as an alternative to Einstein's general theory of relativity. Using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations modified for 4DEGB gravity, we model the stellar structure of quark stars using a novel interacting quark matter equation of state. We find that increasing the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant α or the interaction parameter λ both tend to increase the mass-radius profiles of quark stars described by this theory, allowing a given central pressure to support larger quark stars in general. These results logically extend to cases where λ<0, in which increasing the magnitude of the interaction effects instead diminishes masses and radii. We also analytically identify a critical central pressure in both regimes, below which no quark star solutions exist due to the pressure function having no roots. Most interestingly, we find that quark stars can exist below the general relativistic Buchdahl bound and Schwarzschild radius R=2M, due to the lack of a mass gap between black holes and compact stars in 4DEGB. Even for small α well within current observational constraints, we find that quark star solutions in this theory can describe Extreme Compact Objects (ECOs), objects whose radii are smaller than what is allowed by general relativity.
I believe our science is all wrong about matter. I believe that matter contracts and shrinks with high energy. And this might be mistaken for superposition of matter. But ever since we started particle collision, we have never seen superposition of matter.....all this time and energy of CERN. If anything CERN has proven that matter refuses to superposition. And gives us a huge selection of dissolving charge fragments. It's very clear to me.

Charge contraction was predicted one hundred years ago with classical theory. And recently been confirmed at the ignition facility. To their great surprise after investigation of missing mass. But it wasn't missing, it was right there were is was........but much, much smaller. And now trying to understand it.
I believe our science is all wrong about matter. I believe that matter contracts and shrinks with high energy. And this might be mistaken for superposition of matter. But ever since we started particle collision, we have never seen superposition of matter.....all this time and energy of CERN. If anything CERN has proven that matter refuses to superposition. And gives us a huge selection of dissolving charge fragments. It's very clear to me.

Charge contraction was predicted one hundred years ago with classical theory. And recently been confirmed at the ignition facility. To their great surprise after investigation of missing mass. But it wasn't missing, it was right there were is was........but much, much smaller. And now trying to understand it.
You must be kidding of course, if I'm reading you right. We see superposition all the time in nature and its physics and cosmology. You sit typing keys on something that is in superposition over its molecules. We live in a solar system that is in superposition over the Earth. We observe a Milky Way Galaxy that is in superposition over our Sun's Solar System. And galactic clusters in superposition over galaxies. Our observability from our relatively limited position . . . very limited position . . . just does extend to the zoom fractal superpositions of macrocosmic hyperspace universes . . . or microcosmic subspace universes.

Someday we may discover "superpositions" (meaning going superposition) to be fast access ways -- unrealized shortcuts -- throughout Space.
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There are only two forms of entity. Charge, and the fields from charge. That's all there is. I never kid. Charge can not superposition. Only the fields from charge can superposition. two separate entities that reside, or occupy the same space at the same time. Only fields can do that, charge can not. Mass can not superposition.

And CERN proves this. It's the only useful information from CERN. All that other junk is dissolving charge particles, because they can not superposition. It's the most expensive information we have ever bought. And It was over-priced.
Masses superimpose (superimposition's / superposition's) observably, regularly.

Another picture: Hawking's description of a singular six-sided particle that is at once [distinguishably] six independent particles.
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I tried to download an image that I draw up.
Unable to download.

The image shows a condensate at critical compaction showing dipolar vortex that penetrates the Event Horizon created by the compact body, and the pulling in vector fields that even EMR cannot escape, thus forming EH.
As the JWT delves into the light element hydrogen state of the universe I went to reverse engineering the universe once more in, as Einstein put it, "the mind's eye." From heavy element production to light element production, to the now "somehow" predecessor state of the light element state of the universe, which to me, is a paralleling universe state as I always keep in mind now that Stephen Hawking drifted around in thoughts about the universe! In this case stating in 'A Brief History of Time', along with "Grand Central Station of the universe (and its single-handed, single digited, clock)" that there is a permanent "life zone" state to the universe and the life in the universe always must and does migrate keeping to the "life zone".

But as I said, there are other "zones" paralleling it in place in our universe as well as in parallel dimensional developmental universes. So, I went for that now "somehow" predecessor state of the light element state of the universe and where both of them would, should, be . . . while doing the "how" of the "somehow".

There was only one place for it, and I didn't want to go there (because of Hawking's permanency of "life zone" and "Grand Central Station") until I thought of the possible wormhole "bypass" state -- and lanes of bypass -- bypassing the intervening expansionist mass-energy state between galaxies. With it in place in my mind's eye, I could go where otherwise I didn't want to go in going for the "how" of "somehow." That "where" was the baffling matter of the possible matter / antimatter collision state, releasing "total mass-energy," that supposedly lost the universe its antimatter state. That state is still around and a constant of collision, too, releasing into a "total mass-energy" expansionist state.

That "total mass-energy" state the primordial soup predecessor state, and as I have it at once also the paralleling state, of the light elemental state of the universe, the predecessor, paralleling and undergirding, state of the heavier elemental state of the universe. As the universe loses the old zones, it gains the new zones out of the loss. and keeps Hawking's "Middle-Earth"-like Life and Grand Central Station zone going for the migration (the Exodus) of life to.... There is a fundamental life force, the seventh, along with the six other fundamental forces to the infinity, and thus the constancy, of universes.

As well as matter production from the "total mass-energy" state, there is always antimatter production, and matter / antimatter collisions, and room for them all, in co-existence. And countless lanes, lines, of an inter-galactic tunnel bypass system state, along with another interstellar one, in there as well. A lot of Einstein's entangling "spooky action at a distance" -- and not so distant -- going on!
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The was never a start to the universe.
We cannot assume and then try to fit the narrative with whatever.

If there was a start.
What was before?
Does this happen again and again.

Matter cannot be created.
Matter cannot be destroyed.

But! we know that matter can undergo fission, Fusion, Photo Intergration, change from one phase transient to the next under compaction.
I believe that mass and energy are being lost continuously, all the time. Every emission is a loss of energy and mass. But the greatest loss is from stars. Stars disassociate matter into raw matter, which is accelerated to un-usable velocities. The raw matter has not been destroyed, but has been put into an un-usable state.

In all likely hood, after all the eons, most matter today might be in this state.
Nucleosynthesis is important to understand how parts of the universe evolve from a compact object as in the Theory of the Big Bang.
I do not believe in the Big Bang, but! I do think that Nucleosynthesis is logical.
So, it is important to understand quantum states in condensed matter.

[Submitted on 28 Oct 2023]

Quantum Interactions in Topological R166 Kagome Magnet​

Xitong Xu, Jia-Xin Yin, Zhe Qu, Shuang Jia
Kagome magnet has been found to be a fertile ground for the search of exotic quantum states in condensed matter. Arising from the unusual geometry, the quantum interactions in the kagome lattice give rise to various quantum states, including the Chern-gapped Dirac fermion, Weyl fermion, flat band and van Hove singularity. Here we review recent advances in the study of the R166 kagome magnet (RT6E6, R = rare earths; T = transition metals; and E = Sn, Ge, etc.) whose crystal structure highlights the transition-metal-based kagome lattice and rare-earth sublattice. Compared with other kagome magnets, the R166 family owns the particularly strong interplays between the d electrons on the kagome site and the localized f electrons on the rare-earth site. In the form of spin-orbital coupling, exchange interaction and many-body effect, the quantum interactions play an essential role in the Berry curvature field in both the reciprocal and real spaces of R166 family. We discuss the spectroscopic and transport visualization of the topological electrons hosted in the Mn kagome layer of RMn6Sn6 and the various topological effects due to the quantum interactions, including the Chern-gap opening, the exchange-biased effect, the topological Hall effect and the emergent inductance. We hope this work serves as a guide for future explorations of quantum magnets.
The research into Black Holes (non-Classic) is very important. I said Non-Classic Blackholes without out a singularity.
The question of!
What does the spinning?
The total compact object
or the Properties within the BH unifying as one spin.
The answer may lie in understanding.
Supersymmetry (QCD)
Since the answer may be explained by Quantum Mechanics.

[Submitted on 13 Dec 2023]

Cubic action for Spinning Black Holes from massive higher-spin gauge symmetry​

Evgeny Skvortsov, Mirian Tsulaia
Scattering of two Kerr Black Holes emitting gravitational waves can be captured by an effective theory of a massive higher-spin field interacting with the gravitational field. While other compact objects should activate a multitude of non-minimal interactions it is the black holes that should be captured by the simplest minimal interaction. Implementing massive higher-spin symmetry via a string-inspired BRST approach we construct an action that reproduces the correct cubic amplitude of Arkani-Hamed--Huang--Huang. The same is achieved for the root-Kerr theory, i.e. for the minimal electromagnetic interaction of a massive higher-spin field.

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