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The research into Black Holes (non-Classic) is very important. I said Non-Classic Blackholes without out a singularity.
The question of!
What does the spinning?
The total compact object
or the Properties within the BH unifying as one spin.
The answer may lie in understanding.
Supersymmetry (QCD)
Since the answer may be explained by Quantum Mechanics.

[Submitted on 13 Dec 2023]

Cubic action for Spinning Black Holes from massive higher-spin gauge symmetry​

Evgeny Skvortsov, Mirian Tsulaia
The singularity is never the gravitational dynamic, being always the quantum dynamic. The quantum and the gravitational will operate in unison.
 
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Nucleosynthesis is important to understand how parts of the universe evolve from a compact object as in the Theory of the Big Bang.
I do not believe in the Big Bang, but! I do think that Nucleosynthesis is logical.
So, it is important to understand quantum states in condensed matter.

[Submitted on 28 Oct 2023]

Quantum Interactions in Topological R166 Kagome Magnet​

Xitong Xu, Jia-Xin Yin, Zhe Qu, Shuang Jia
Sooooo Harry, You do not believe in Modern Physicist's God, The Bing Bang Energy Release Singularity, Given as The Maker of Heaven and Earth and of everything Visible and Invisible but you do believe in Magical Nucleosynthesis given as the MAGICAL "creation of new atomic nuclei, the centers of atoms that are made up of protons and neutrons.
Nucleosynthesis first occurred within a few minutes of the Big Bang. At that time, a quark-gluon plasma, a soup of particles known as quarks and gluons, condensed into protons and neutrons. After the universe cooled slightly, the neutrons fused with protons to make nuclei of deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen!!"

The above misses the given farce that protons and antiprotons are given as magically being pulled out vacuum in pairs that immediately annihilate each other!! In order to gaslight the populous and themselves modern physicists expanded on the farce by stating that in the early universe): 'Out Of Every Billion Proton-Antiproton Pairs Pulled Out Of Vacuum, One Extra Proton Was Pulled Out Of Vacuum!!'

Plus, Modern Physicists, also, forget that quarks cannot exist outside the nucleon indestructible permeable sacs that pulsate GP1 Aether Particles in and out at various speeds depending on the internal and external GP1 Aether Particle Pressure!!

So Harry, are ready to concede that the universe evolved indestructible embryonic neutrons that warmed up from the CMBR to Indestructible Neutron Permeable Sacs that decayed to Indestructible Proton Permeable Sacs And Indestructible Electron Permeable Sacs and the farce of gluons allegedly given to hold destructible quarks together!!

Why not just let the universe evolve neutron permeable sacs from God Particle 1s (GP1s) defined as the tiniest gaseous particle of mass in our finite in volume ageless universe over infinite time allowing for star formation from neutrons decaying to hydrogen that net minted more embryonic neutrons that eventual warmed up to neutrons from the CMBR expanding star and galaxy formation throughout our finite in volume universe??
 
Hello Adoni
If you wish to believe in whatever you want, that is OK.

I just don't agree with your statements.

From the 1000 s of papers and decades of research, I'm on a different path.

If there are a Trillion Galaxies and as far as we can see over 20 billion light years.
The possibility of a Big Bang is too farfetched.

I can give you advice, but! you have already made up your mind.

Be Happy
 
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Hello Adoni
If you wish to believe in whatever you want, that is OK.

I just don't agree with your statements.

From the 1000 s of papers and decades of research, I'm on a different path.

If there are a Trillion Galaxies and as far as we can see over 20 billion light years.
The possibility of a Big Bang is too farfetched.

I can give you advice, but! you have already made up your mind.

Be Happy
Be Happy!! Thanks I Will!! You, too!! And Happy Holidays!! Have you ever asked yourself): Why in over 100 years modern physicists have not figured out how matter generates gravitational force?? Nor): How light waves propagate in nothing as physically something??

All modern physicists mysteries could be explained if modern physicists allowed for gaseous God Particle 1s (GP1s) to evolve to strings that evolved to permeable sacs with rest mass like the hypothetical sterile neutrino that evolved to the neutrino, then, the electron, next the up quark-electron combo, next the neutron embryonic permeable sac that when warmed up to absolute zero to neutron permeable sacs that decay to hydrogen??

I didn't get your answer to the question): If as you say that matter was not created by the absurd impossible Big Bang Singularity magically and miraculously, why couldn't embryonic indestructible neutrons be physical minted at highest GP1 Aether Particle Pressure at the center of the universe or the center of stars, neutron stars and the neutronium balls at the center of black holes??

In other words, is my neutron gaseous permeable sac evolution theory in a finite in volume ageless universe plausible?? And is the origin of all the matter particles with rest mass in the universe): A GP1 Aether Particle Evolution Story??

Have A Great Day!!
 
There is a 0-d point / 1-d string "singularity" 'other' to the universes(s). The Planck / Big Bang collapsed (collapsing) cosmological constant Horizon of all of an infinity of discreet quanta horizon universes (u) . . . aka the multi-dimensional 'Infinite MULTIVERSE Universe' (U).

Just don't put that Horizon (H) 'Set' "singularity" together -- as being singular -- with what is inside and/or outside of that Horizon (H) 'Set'. They are a fundamental binary base2 "and/or".
 
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There is a 0-d point / 1-d string "singularity" 'other' to the universes(s). The Planck / Big Bang collapsed (collapsing) cosmological constant Horizon of all of an infinity of discreet quanta horizon universes (u) . . . aka the multi-dimensional 'Infinite MULTIVERSE Universe' (U).

Just don't put that Horizon (H) 'Set' "singularity" together -- as being singular -- with what is inside and/or outside of that Horizon (H) 'Set'. They are a fundamental binary base2 "and/or".
Dear Atlan0001,
Please, Consider whether or not the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation discovery means that the universe must be finite in volume!!
We are given that Empty Space Vacuum Energy is expressed in joules!! and that the CMBR at 160 GHz can be expressed at temperature 2.75 Kelvin and as energy in joules!!

Modern Cosmological Theorists give that as the galaxies stand physically still the space between the galaxies is expanding at superluminal speeds!!

But the only way to expand the space between two galaxies is to move the galaxies farther apart!! So, quite clearly, the space between two galaxies standing physically still cannot be growing!!

Hubble for the entirety of his life argued that his "redshift discovery" was not "doppler" redshift which means that if you discount the Hubble Flow-Cosmological Redshift, you end up with peculiar velocities that are the real velocities relative to the stationary position of the universe!!

The Main point here is that the CMBR is the harmonized and homogenized end product of all the light produced by all the stars in our universe over infinite time and reflected endlessly from the matter and energy edges of the universe!!

We know that light waves redshift as the light waves travel through space!! After light waves travel back and forth from the ends of the universe, the light waves redshift until the light waves can redshift no more due to constructive interference!!
If the universe could expand infinitely into nothing that becomes something called space, then, the CMBR could NOT BE!!

Smile Often And Happy Holidays!!
 
Scientists are investigating Neutrino Matter as a possible dense condensate.
In my opinion, the right path.
The start of Nucleosynthesis from Neutrino to normal matter has been discussed within the Big Bang Theory.
Hey! just because I post science papers, does not mean I agree with them.
Food for thought,

[Submitted on 21 Dec 2023]

Three-Loop Inverse Scotogenic Seesaw Models​

Asmaa Abada, Nicolás Bernal, Antonio E. Cárcamo Hernández, Sergey Kovalenko, Téssio B. de Melo
We propose a class of models providing an explanation of the origin of light neutrino masses, the baryon asymmetry of the Universe via leptogenesis and offering viable dark matter candidates. In these models the Majorana masses of the active neutrino are generated by the inverse seesaw mechanism with the lepton number violating right-handed Majorana neutrino masses μ arising at three loops. The latter is ensured by the preserved discrete symmetries, which also guarantee the stability of the dark matter candidate. We focus on one of these models and perform a detailed analysis of the phenomenology of its leptonic sector. The model can successfully accommodate baryogenesis through leptogenesis in both weak and strong washout regimes. The lightest heavy fermion turns out to be a viable dark matter candidate, provided that the entries of the Majorana submatrix μ are in the keV to MeV range. The solutions are consistent with the experimental constraints, accommodating both mass orderings for active neutrinos, in particular charged-lepton flavor violating decays μ→eγ, μ→eee, and the electron-muon conversion processes get sizable rates within future sensitivity reach.
 
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Scientists are investigating Neutrino Matter as a possible dense condensate.
In my opinion, the right path.
The start of Nucleosynthesis from Neutrino to normal matter has been discussed within the Big Bang Theory.
Hey! just because I post science papers, does not mean I agree with them.
Food for thought,

[Submitted on 21 Dec 2023]

Three-Loop Inverse Scotogenic Seesaw Models​

Asmaa Abada, Nicolás Bernal, Antonio E. Cárcamo Hernández, Sergey Kovalenko, Téssio B. de Melo
Harry,

RE): Your Post): The Three-Loop Inverse Scotogenic Seesaw Models’ Paper and endorsements): “In my opinion, the right path!!” and “Scientists are investigating Neutrino Matter as a possible dense condensate!!”

Harry, What you have to get right about dense matter condensates is that matter does not magically condense on its own as given for Neutron Stars, White Dwarfs and The Neutronium Balls inside Black Holes!!

The Earth’s core gets denser and colder while the Earth’s outer core gets hotter because heat is squeezed out of the Earth’s innermost core as The Earth Cycle’s Through Its Given Compression-Decompression Cycles Every 26 Seconds!!

We are given separately that the Earth’s innermost core is denser than its outer cores and that entropy and temperature decline with density!! Both of the givens above support my argument that given Earth’s Pulsations/26 Second Compression-Decompression Cycles cool the Earth’s innermost core as the pulsations extract heat from the innermost core into its outer cores!!

The key takeaways, here, are that our Sun is forming the White Dwarf Compact Remnant that our Sun will leave behind in 7 billion years after our Sun’s 2 Billion Year Red Giant Phase during its entire 12 billion year life span!! And That The Neutronium Ball Compact Remnants of Supernovas do not collapse magically as given but instead are formed during the progenitor star’s entire lifetime during the progenitor stars compression-decompression cycles!!

Do you remember that our Sun is given to pulsate/compress and decompress every 5 minutes and 34 seconds and that, by extension, we can extrapolate that larger and more massive supernova progenitor stars will take longer to pulsate/compress and decompress!!

Your Cited Paper Says): “We propose a class of models providing an explanation of the origin of light neutrino masses, the baryon asymmetry of the Universe via leptogenesis and offering viable dark matter candidates!!”

Now, with respect to “the baryon asymmetry of the Universe via leptogenesis and offering viable dark matter candidates??”): I propose that only matter particles with rest mass heating up can generate gravity and that since for every action, we are given that an equal and opposite reaction must ensue that as gravity is generated dark energy is stored inside the matter particles that comes out when the matter particles net cool!! And That the Universe evolved neutron permeable sacs over infinite time in a finite ageless universe with matter and energy reflective edges!! And That Extreme GP1 Aether Particle Compression-Decompression Pressure Can Transform A Right-handed Spinning Proton To A Left-handed Spinning Antiproton by simply Reversing the proton’s magnetic poles!!

Since Neutrinos are given to have rest mass and as neutrinos are given to be all around us, I, also, agree with you that neutrinos are a viable candidate for dark matter gravity when the neutrinos are heated up by the radiant heat of stars as evidenced by the proof of dark matter with Bullet Cluster Galaxies and NOT With An Equal Amount Of Cooling Matter Dragged Behind The Two Clusters of Galaxies In A Bullet Cluster!!

Talk More Soon!! Have A Great Day!!
 
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Hello Andoni
I know how matter compacts in order of confinement.

Wow another year has past.

We are so lucky on this planet spaceship.

We carry enough oxygen etc
Harry, You say you know "How Matter Compacts In Order Of Confinement!!"

Does that mean that you believe that the Earth, Our Sun, All Stars, Neutron Stars And Black Holes are giant compactors extracting heat from their cores as their respective cores are compressed to higher and higher density??

Or Do you believe that all compact objects magically collapse under gravity "AS GIVEN" to your various order of confinement without compression-decompression work inputs??
Have A Happy New Year!!
 
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Matter cannot be created or destroyed.
So what happens to matter when it collects and collects and becomes denser and denser.
Understanding what happens, gives us the chance to observe objects out there and predict.
There are probably even smaller particles and even more powerful forces acting between them, which at our current technical development, we are not able to create and observe, because we do not have sufficiently powerful and compact lasers, or powerful enough accelerators for particle collisions , to recreate the conditions of a "black hole" as far as we can imagine them. So, our current agreement that quarks are at the bottom and there is nothing at a finer level will be revised at some point.
 
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There are probably even smaller particles and even more powerful forces acting between them, which at our current technical development, we are not able to create and observe, because we do not have sufficiently powerful and compact lasers, or powerful enough accelerators for particle collisions , to recreate the conditions of a "black hole" as far as we can imagine them. So, our current agreement that quarks are at the bottom and there is nothing at a finer level will be revised at some point.
Harry and George,

I find it interesting that you two “currently agree that quarks are at the bottom and there is nothing at a finer level will be revised at some point that may support my GP1 Aether Particle Theory!!”

I propose that in beta decay when an indestructible electron permeable sac particle is ejected from a neutron gaseous permeable sac particle turning a down quark to an up quark and the neutron permeable sac to a proton permeable sac that the indestructible electron permeable sac ejected was an orbiting combination previously with an up quark spinning permeable sac appearing as a down quark!!

The main point here is that since an electron is indestructible outside the nucleon permeable sac envelope, it must have been indestructible inside the nucleon permeable sac envelope!!

I further propose that in reverse beta decay, when the electron indestructible permeable sac is absorbed by the proton indestructible permeable sac that the absorbed electron indestructible sac takes up a combo orbit around one of the up quarks to reconstitute a down quark and transform a proton permeable sac to a neutron permeable sac particle!!

What do you guys think?? Have I proven beyond a reasonable doubt that a nucleon down quark is an orbiting combo with an electron indestructible permeable sac and an up quark permeable sac from the given facts??

Have A Happy New Year!!
 
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Hi Adoni Yannop, going down one step below quarks is not my view, nor that below a given size there can be no particles. Infinity on a scale down, just as it is infinity on a scale up. In this sense, I do not see the Planck constants as real, but only as a temporary and fictitious limit that we have chosen to limit ourselves to.
 
I just do not understand how you concluded that quarks are the finest.
Partonic matter makes up Quarks.
Electrons make up partonic matter.
Axion matter and Neutrino Matter make up the finest.

You may research Transient Condensates.

Happy New Year
 
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I just do not understand how you concluded that quarks are the finest.
Partonic matter makes up Quarks.
Electrons make up partonic matter.
Axion matter and Neutrino Matter make up the finest.

You may research Transient Condensates.

Happy New Year
I am happy and almost dead too.
There is nothing in your words and this theory to refute my thesis. In fact, it is far from mine alone, it has been said many times over the centuries. I have already specified that there is no bottom in the size and energy of particles, just as there is no ceiling (the universe is infinite) You are trying to put a bottom, only claiming that it is not where you think I put it. I have not set a bottom, there is none. There is only a limit to what we can reach with our current capabilities.
 
To understand how matter compacts to various Transient phases, one needs to go on the journey,
Keep on researching, there is a lot of work done on the subject.
My thoughts are that we are at the early stages of understanding.

[Submitted on 12 Jun 2021 (v1), last revised 24 Sep 2021 (this version, v3)]

Stiffening of matter in quark-hadron continuity​

Toru Kojo
We discuss stiffening of matter in quark-hadron continuity. We introduce a model that relates quark wave functions in a baryon and the occupation probability of states for baryons and quarks in dense matter. In a dilute regime, the confined quarks contribute to the energy density through the masses of baryons, but do not directly contribute to the pressure; hence, the equations of state are very soft. This dilute regime continues until the low momentum states for quarks get saturated; this may happen even before baryons fully overlap, possibly at density slightly above the nuclear saturation density. After the saturation the pressure grows rapidly while changes in energy density are modest, producing a peak in the speed of sound. If we use baryonic descriptions for quark distributions near the Fermi surface, we reach a description similar to the quarkyonic matter model of McLerran and Reddy. With a simple adjustment of quark interactions to get the nucleon mass, our model becomes consistent with the constraints from 1.4-solar mass neutron stars, but the high density part is too soft to account for two-solar mass neutron stars. We delineate the relation between the saturation effects and short range interactions of quarks, suggesting interactions that leave low density equations of state unchanged but stiffen the high density part.
 
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To understand how matter compacts to various Transient phases, one needs to go on the journey,
Keep on researching, there is a lot of work done on the subject.
My thoughts are that we are at the early stages of understanding.

[Submitted on 12 Jun 2021 (v1), last revised 24 Sep 2021 (this version, v3)]

Stiffening of matter in quark-hadron continuity​

Toru Kojo
Harry,
Once, you realize that the universe is infinitely old, then, it will be easy for you to see that matter can be physically compacted by stars, neutron stars and black holes an infinite number of times moving forward as neutron permeable sacs are rejuvenated and freshly minted to new embryonic indestructible neutron permeable sacs that when warmed up to absolute zero decay to hydrogen!!

Condensate Droplets cannot exist and therefore cannot be ejected from the neutronium ball of black holes formed from the compaction of proton permeable sacs and electron permeable sacs through reverse beta decay to embryonic neutrons and newly minted embryonic indestructible neutron permeable sacs to over 100 Trillion Times Earth Density and 300 Trillion Adoni-Kelvin Degrees Below Absolute Zero!!

But the neutronium balls of black holes and neutron stars can be chipped during neutron star mergers or neutron-black hole mergers or black hole-black hole mergers and those neutronium ball chips of embryonic neutrons will, immediately, warm by the CMBR to absolute zero, decay to hydrogen and rapidly accrete the newly inflated neutrons to form the observed gold and higher elements of neutron star mergers!!

Proof): Neutron star collisions are a “goldmine” of heavy elements, study finds Mergers between two neutron stars have produced more heavy elements in last 2.5 billion years than mergers between neutron stars and black holes.
Jennifer Chu | MIT News Office
Publication Date):October 25, 2021

“The magnitude of gold produced in the merger was equivalent to several times the mass of the Earth,” Chen says. “That entirely changed the picture. The math showed that binary neutron stars were a more efficient way to create heavy elements, compared to supernovae.”

Talk More Soon!! Have A Great Day!!
 
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Condensates and their confinement, transients have a sequence.
Normal matter can be compacted to 10^5
The core can be Neutron Matter. Proton gain an electron under confinement and change to Neutrons.
The Core of Neutron matter under confinement becomes quark matter.
and the transient sequence keeps going.
Not to infinite
It is always finite.
The dipolar vector fields developed by all condensates, prevents an infinite compaction.
There are some interesting papers to follow, after this one.

[Submitted on 12 Jun 2021 (v1), last revised 24 Sep 2021 (this version, v3)]
Stiffening of matter in quark-hadron continuity
Toru Kojo
We discuss stiffening of matter in quark-hadron continuity. We introduce a model that relates quark wave functions in a baryon and the occupation probability of states for baryons and quarks in dense matter. In a dilute regime, the confined quarks contribute to the energy density through the masses of baryons, but do not directly contribute to the pressure; hence, the equations of state are very soft. This dilute regime continues until the low momentum states for quarks get saturated; this may happen even before baryons fully overlap, possibly at density slightly above the nuclear saturation density. After the saturation the pressure grows rapidly while changes in energy density are modest, producing a peak in the speed of sound. If we use baryonic descriptions for quark distributions near the Fermi surface, we reach a description similar to the quarkyonic matter model of McLerran and Reddy. With a simple adjustment of quark interactions to get the nucleon mass, our model becomes consistent with the constraints from 1.4-solar mass neutron stars, but the high density part is too soft to account for two-solar mass neutron stars. We delineate the relation between the saturation effects and short range interactions of quarks, suggesting interactions that leave low density equations of state unchanged but stiffen the high density part.
 
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Normal matter can be compacted to 10^5
10⁵ is the linear distance between the nucleus and electron shell of atoms, if that is the exact number. But this number was introduced to us in elementary school. Volumetric shrinkage, you will have to calculate yourself using the formula for the volume of a sphere.
 
Calculate anyway you want.
So! tell me now that you identified.

What next.
The plot thickens

[Submitted on 4 Jan 2024]

Hybrid star models in the light of new multi-messenger data​

Jia Jie Li (SWU, Chongqing), Armen Sedrakian (FIAS Frankfurt and U. Wroclaw), Mark Alford (Washington U., St. Louis)
Recent astrophysical mass inferences of compact stars (CSs) HESS J1731-347 and PSR J0952-0607, with extremely small and large masses respectively, as well as the measurement of the neutron skin of Ca in the CREX experiment challenge and constrain the models of dense matter. In this work, we examine the concept of hybrid stars - objects containing quark cores surrounded by nucleonic envelopes - as models that account for these new data along with other (multimessenger) inferences. We employ a family of 81 nucleonic equations of state (EoSs) based on covariant density functional with variable skewness and slope of symmetry energy at saturation density and a constant speed-of-sound EoS for quark matter. For each nucleonic EoS, a family of hybrid star EoS is generated by varying the transition density from nucleonic to quark matter, the density jump at the transition, and the speed-of-sound. These models are tested against the data from GW170817 and J1731-347, which favor low-density soft EoS and PSR J0592-0607 and J0740+6620, which require high-density stiff EoS. We then examine the occurrence of twin configurations and quantify the ranges of masses and radii that they can possess. It is shown that including J1731-347 data favors EoS models which predict low-mass twin stars with masses M≲1.3M⊙ that can be realized if the deconfinement transition density is low. If combined with a large speed-of-sound in quark matter such models allow for maximum masses of hybrid stars in the range 2.0-2.6M⊙.
 
If you haven't already seen this, Harry.... I may have missed it and if so here it is again (in your line I believe):

 
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10⁵ is the linear distance between the nucleus and electron shell of atoms, if that is the exact number. But this number was introduced to us in elementary school. Volumetric shrinkage, you will have to calculate yourself using the formula for the volume of a sphere.
Harry, The Bohr Radius is given as 5.29177210903 × 10e-11 Meter or 5.29177210903 × 10e4 Femtometers (FM)!! What Unit of distance are you using for your 10e5 for the Bohr Radius??

Given): The Bohr radius is a physical constant, approximately equal to the most probable distance between the nucleus and the electron in a hydrogen atom in its ground state. It is named after Niels Bohr, due to its role in the Bohr model of an atom. Its value is 5.29177210903(80)×10−11 m.

Have A Great Day!!
 
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