Question CYCLIC UNIVERSE

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Jun 11, 2023
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Hello Adoni

I do read your links

Sorry my work takes a lot of my time.
Thanks!! I'm glad you have a job!! I've been out of work since the end of February 2020. Unemployment benefits helped out alot in 2020 and 2021 due to Covid extensions and addons but after that, in 2022, I got frustrated looking for work and, just, took to the retired life!!

Talk more, soon!! Have a great day!!
 
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I do not agree with the following paper. But! is worth reading.

[Submitted on 11 Dec 2023]

Collapsing universe before time​

Gary Shiu, Flavio Tonioni, Hung V. Tran
In this note, we prove analytic bounds on the equation of state of a cosmological fluid composed of an arbitrary number of canonical scalars evolving in a negative multi-exponential potential. Because of the negative energy, the universe is contracting and eventually undergoes a big crunch. A contracting universe is a fundamental feature of models of ekpyrosis and cyclic universes, which are a proposed alternative to cosmic inflation to solve the flatness and horizon problems. Our analytic bounds set quantitative constraints on general effective theories of ekpyrosis. When applied to specific top-down constructions, our bounds can be used to determine whether ekpyrosis could in principle be realized. We point out some possible sources of tension in realizing the ekpyrotic universe in controlled constructions of string theory.
 
Recycling matter in the universe is not a new thing.

[Submitted on 25 Sep 2007]

Recycling Matter in the Universe. X-ray observations of SBS 1150+599A (PN G135.9+55.9)​

Gagik Tovmassian, John Tomsick, Ralf Napiwotzki, Lev Yungelson, Miriam Peña, Grazyna Stasińska, Michael Richer
We present X-ray observations of the close binary nucleus of the planetary nebula SBS 1150+599A obtained with the XMM-Newton satellite. Only one component of the binary can be observed in optical-UV. New X-ray observations show that the previously invisible component is a very hot compact star. This finding allows us to deduce rough values for the basic parameters of the binary. With a high probability the total mass of the system exceeds Chandrasekhar limit and makes the SBS 1150+599A one of the best candidate for a supernova type Ia progenitor.
 
Scientists keep moving forward.
We need to know how matter recycles.

[Submitted on 1 Mar 2024]

Gravitational waves in a cyclic Universe: resilience through cycles and vacuum state​

Mariaveronica De Angelis, Adam Smith, William Giarè, Carsten van de Bruck
We present a generalised calculation for the spectrum of primordial tensor perturbations in a cyclic Universe, making no assumptions about the vacuum state of the theory and accounting for the contribution of tensor modes produced in the dark energy phase of the previous cycle. We show that these modes have minimal impact on the spectrum observed in the current cycle, except for corrections on scales as large as the comoving Hubble radius today. These corrections are due to sub-horizon modes produced towards the end of the dark energy phase, persisting into the ekpyrotic phase of the next cycle as additional quanta. In relation to the vacuum state, we argue that non-Bunch-Davies quanta can easily overwhelm the energy density driving the dark energy phase, potentially compromising the model. Therefore, avoiding backreaction effects sets restrictive constraints on deviations away from the Bunch-Davies vacuum during this phase, limiting the overall freedom to consider alternative vacua in the cyclic Universe.
 
Our Sun has a cyclic process.
In my Opinion:
The core of the Sun has about 95% of all mass of the Solar System.

5% includes.

Solar Envelope
All the planets and moons
All the rocks within the envelope of Pluto.
All the rocks beyond controlled by the Sun.

The core maybe a Neutron Composite.

Protons under confinement gain an electron and change to Neutrons, allowing compaction of Neutrons.

The Core dipolar vector fields expel Neutrons into the Solar Envelops, changing to Protons (H).

H+H fusion to Helium

Fusion creates all the elements known to us.
Most stable Element is Iron (Fe), due to a full shell of electrons.

Elements above Fe are photo-disintegrate back to Fe.

Element find their way back to the CORE via gravity.

Elements photo-disintegrate to Neutrons and Protons

Protons gain an electron, forming Neutrons.

This cycle gives our Sun long Jeopardy.
 

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