Question CYCLIC UNIVERSE

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Many scientists believe that the Big Bang Theory is strong enough to make assumptions.
In so doing they assume a start to the universe parts.
When they look into Deep Field and see galaxies 13.4 billion Lt yrs away they assume they are the early Universe.
Regardless of Trillions of galaxies found.
Regardless of of Galaxies been ten times larger that the Milky Way.

Think of the logic.
Trillions of galaxies found", eh, Harry. Quite a dense cloud (dense clouding up in the fields of scope). Quite a dense primordial cloudy soup clouding to infinity going away on the distant non-local 'Horizon', being the distant non-local quantum / cosmological 'cloud' 'Horizon' (my 'el ponderosa'), isn't it? But since it is "spooky action at a distance" as well, us being in that densely soupy storm cloud 'Horizon' (also looking like a bramble bush or 'Menger Sponge' like the pictures coming so recently from the center of our own Milky Way), too, the very definition of a vortex -- countless vortices, and stringy funneling tunnels, going and coming mingling evermore thickly, and thinly, in the wrap-around -- quantum (and cosmological (the same thing)) tangled, tangling, entanglements. A lot of cellular structure (a lot of cell division as well as entanglement going on), a lot of universes . . . in the flat . . . and in the vertical. And in the fraction, and the fractal?!
 
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Expelling matter from Black Holes is one form of recycling.


[Submitted on 18 Sep 2007]

A search for Very High Energy gamma-ray emission from Passive Super-massive Black Holes​

G. Pedaletti, S. Wagner, W. Benbow (for the HESS collaboration)
Jets of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are established emitters of very high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) gamma-rays. VHE radiation is also expected to be emitted from the vicinity of super-massive black holes (SMBH), irrespective of their activity state. Accreting SMBH rotate and generate a dipolar magnetic field. In the magnetosphere of the spinning black hole, acceleration of particles can take place in the field gaps. VHE emission from these particles is feasible via leptonic or hadronic processes. Therefore quiescent systems, where the lack of a strong photon field allows the VHE emission to escape, are candidates for emission. The H.E.S.S. experiment has observed the passive SMBH in the nearby galaxy NGC 1399. No VHE gamma-ray signal is observed from the galactic nucleus. Constraints set by the NGC 1399 observations are discussed in the context of different mechanisms for the production of VHE gamma-ray emission.
 
It is the little things that make the big things work.

[Submitted on 10 May 2023]

Geometric characterization for cyclic heat engines far from equilibrium​

Tan Van Vu, Keiji Saito
Considerable attention has been devoted to microscopic heat engines in both theoretical and experimental aspects. Notably, fundamental limits pertaining to power and efficiency have been intensively studied, as well as trade-off relations between these two quantities. This Letter aims to shed further light on the ultimate limits of heat engines by exploring the relationship between the geometric length along the path of cyclic heat engines operating at arbitrary speeds and their power and efficiency. We reveal that the power of a heat engine is always upper bounded by the product of its geometric length and the statistics of energy. This finding implies that increasing both the energy gap and the energy fluctuation is necessary for achieving high power output. Moreover, we establish a trade-off relation between power and efficiency using the geometric length and the timescale of the heat engine. Our results provide a comprehensive framework for the performance of cyclic heat engines and are universally applicable to both classical and quantum heat engines driven far from equilibrium.
 
Jun 11, 2023
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Expelling matter from Black Holes is one form of recycling.


[Submitted on 18 Sep 2007]

A search for Very High Energy gamma-ray emission from Passive Super-massive Black Holes​

G. Pedaletti, S. Wagner, W. Benbow (for the HESS collaboration)
Maybe!! One day you guys will come to understand that the neutronium ball at the center of a black hole is at 3 quintillion Adoni-Kelvin Degrees below absolute zero and consists of embryonic neutrons that when warmed up to Absolute Zero from the net absorption of GP1 aether particles will yield a minimum of 8 solar masses of pristine new hydrogen per solar mass of neutronium warmed up to absolute zero perpetuating our cosmic web forever and ever in a similar form!!
Among the proofs for my postulate is how hydrogen gas at 68 Fahrenheit With Declining Entropy is reduced in temperature to 20 Kelvin through repeated "work input" cycles while being compressed to a liquid at 830 times gaseous hydrogen's density through the Siemens Refrigeration Cycle Process): compression to heat the hydrogen gas, heat exchanger to remove heat, decompression to cool the hydrogen gas, repeated cycles of compression, heat removal through heat exchanger and decompression to eventually create liquid hydrogen at 20 Kelvin and density 830 times density of gaseous hydrogen!!
Our Earth Is Given To Pulsate Every 26 Seconds And Our Sun Is Given To Pulsate Every 5 Minutes And 34 Seconds!! Are You Guys Any Closer To Understanding That The Earth And The Sun Are Acting As Giant Compressors Extracting Heat From The Inner Most Cores While Reducing Entropy And Temperature And Increasing The Density Of The Inner Most Core Of The Earth And The Forming White Dwarf Matter Core Of Our Sun??
 
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Jun 11, 2023
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Hello Adoni

With what you say
Where is the gravity sink?
Harry asked Adoni): With what you say): Where is the gravity sink??
Translation): What are the exact physical mechanics that generate gravity overall and specifically for black holes??
In order to understand the relationship between gravity and matter, you must first understand that gravity is the direct function of matter particles net imploding Gaseous GP1 Aether Particles, thereby, reducing the volume of space and creating low GP1 Aether Particle Pressure!!
It’s easy to see this on Earth as tropical low GP1 Aether Particle systems form into low air pressure Atlantic ocean tropical depressions at the Equator and into hurricanes as the tropical depressions heat up and move towards the Gulf Of Mexico!!
Upon hitting land and less overall matter heating up tropical depressions lose intensity!!
At the Earth’s Poles as matter particles cool and net expel GP1 Aether Particles, High Gaseous GP1 Aether Particle Pressure results that creates high air pressure by pushing air particles outward!!
On Earth or Into A Black Hole, a flow of Tiny Tiny GP1 Aether Particles to the Center Of Earth Or The Cold Neutronium Ball At The Center Of The Event Horizon Of A Black Hole results in various strength pushes to the center of Earth Or The Center Of The Neutronium Ball Inside A Black Hole!!
The Main Point Here Is That Large Masses Do Not Pull Other Masses In): Large Masses That Are Heating Up Creating Low GP1 Aether Particle Systems That Result In A Flow GP1 Aether Particles To The Center Of Earth Or The Center Of The Neutronium Ball Of A Black Hole!!
The Flow Of GP1 Aether Particles To The Center Of A Mass Is What Pushes Matter To The Center Of Earth Or A Large Mass!!
Planetary and Stellar Low GP1 Aether Particle Systems combine to Galactic Level Low GP1 Aether Particle Systems That Combine To Supercluster Low GP1 Aether Particle Systems Etc!!
Maybe!! One day you guys will come to understand that the neutronium ball at the center of a black hole is at 3 quintillion Adoni-Kelvin Degrees below absolute zero and consists of embryonic neutrons that when warmed up to Absolute Zero from the net absorption of GP1 aether particles will yield a minimum of 8 solar masses of pristine new hydrogen per solar mass of neutronium warmed up to absolute zero perpetuating our cosmic web forever and ever in a similar form!
 
Hello Adoni

I'm not saying that you are wrong.
I'm saying get other people to agree with you.

Further research to enable us to understand.

Worm holes are those dipolar vortices that come out of compact objects that mimic Black Hole properties without a singularity.

[Submitted on 5 Jul 2023]

Traversable Lorentzian wormhole on the Shtanov-Sahni braneworld with matter obeying the energy conditions​

Rikpratik Sengupta, Shounak Ghosh, M. Kalam
In this paper we have explored the possibility of constructing a traversable wormhole on the Shtanov-Sahni braneworld with a timelike extra dimension. We find that the Weyl curvature singularity at the throat of the wormhole can be removed with physical matter satisfying the NEC ρ+p≥0, even in the absence of any effective Λ-term or any type of charge source on the brane. (The NEC is however violated by the effective matter description on the brane arising due to effects of higher dimensional gravity.) Besides satisfying NEC the matter constituting the wormhole also satisfies the Strong Energy Condition (SEC), ρ+3p≥0, leading to the interesting possibility that normal matter on the brane may be harnessed into a wormhole. Incidentally, these conditions also need to be satisfied to realize a non-singular bounce and cyclic cosmology on the brane\cite{Sahni4} where both past and future singularities can be averted. Thus, such a cyclic universe on the brane, constituted of normal matter can naturally contain wormholes. The wormhole shape function on the brane with a time-like extra dimension represents the tubular structure of the wormhole spreading out at large radial distances much better than in wormholes constructed in a braneworld with a spacelike extra dimension and have considerably lower mass resulting in minimization of the amount of matter required to construct a wormhole. Wormholes in the Shtanov-Sahni (SS) braneworld also have sufficiently low tidal forces, facilitating traversability. Additionally they are found to be stable and exhibit a repulsive geometry. We are left with the intriguing possibilty that both types of curvature singularity can be resolved with the SS model, which we discuss at the end of the concluding section.
 
Wormhole: A "soliton" that quantum entangles to one only with a clone (the clones then one and the same) at two different points in space thus forming a stargate without any time between the two solitons whatsoever.

A non-quantum entangled solitary soliton (sic) is a self-accelerating powering soliton wave, a warp-space-bubble, that inertialessly travels, slips, space like a ghost particle. Useful to self-accelerating, self-powering, UFOs. NASA engineers have studied the possibility of artificially creating soliton waves, warp-space-bubbles, through space one day if they can develop a internal acceleration drive that will be continuous in a constant of acceleration (altogether, able to take advantage of hyper-surfaces of space (hyper-space) . . . including in hyper-surfaces of space, sub-surfaces of space (sub-space); quite possibly one and the same).
 
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Hello Atlan
To understand the formation of SOLITONS, one needs to understand,
QCD.
Chiral Super-Symmetry and the formation of Dipolar Electromagnetic Vortices.
Time has nothing to do with it.
Although if you had a clock of whatever form, would not record time.
The electromagnetic fields would stop any time mechanism.
 
Hello Atlan
To understand the formation of SOLITONS, one needs to understand,
QCD.
Chiral Super-Symmetry and the formation of Dipolar Electromagnetic Vortices.
Time has nothing to do with it.
Although if you had a clock of whatever form, would not record time.
The electromagnetic fields would stop any time mechanism.
Wrong, Harry, per John Scott Russell 1834CE who first identified it as a solitary wave in water, minimally. It can apply to any warp-space-bubble, wave, or bulge and can even mimic a black hole without being a black hole at all.
 
Wrong my foot.
John Scott maybe right.
His understanding is limited.
I could be wrong.
Got nothing to do with water.
We are not talking about bubble.
We are talking about a dipolar vortex that is generated by a compact object.
These Vortices
Milkyway one in particular is a few million solar masses and dipolar vortices 7000 Ltyrs
M87 100,000 Ltyrs
Centre of a supercluster of Galaxies a few million Ltyrs.
 
Years gone by, scientists thought that the dipolar vortices were created by falling matter as in a tornado.
To form stable dipolar vortices, you need an internal Quantum matter creating the dipolar fields. This property is the most important property in the universe, allowing matter to be recycled.


[Submitted on 9 Jun 2023]

Pure quartic three-dimensional spatiotemporal Kerr solitons​

Pedro Parra-Rivas, Yifan Sun, Fabio Mangini, Mario Ferraro, Mario Zitelli, Stefan Wabnitz
We analyze the formation of three-dimensional spatiotemporal solitons in waveguides with a parabolic refractive index profile and pure quartic chromatic dispersion. We show, by applying both variational approaches and full three-dimensional numerical simulations, that fourth-order dispersion has a positive impact on soliton stabilization against spatiotemporal wave collapse. Specifically, pure quartic spatiotemporal solitons remain stable within a significantly larger energy range with respect to their second-order dispersion counterparts.
 
Wrong my foot.
John Scott maybe right.
His understanding is limited.
I could be wrong.
Got nothing to do with water.
We are not talking about bubble.
We are talking about a dipolar vortex that is generated by a compact object.
These Vortices
Milkyway one in particular is a few million solar masses and dipolar vortices 7000 Ltyrs
M87 100,000 Ltyrs
Centre of a supercluster of Galaxies a few million Ltyrs.
My foot!


My foot! Harry! I paid particular attention to the Alcubierre drive and the pointer to traversable wormholes.
 
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Smile
A passing note.

Wiki is only work created by people who express their opinions.

Take an example.
Meaning of APOLO?
Look up WIKI
Odd! I found it on looking further on one of the NASA websites. And there are many other references as well! Wiki was just the simplest and quickest, Harry! Very odd that you don't check further references than your narrow view.
 
Nasa i have had decades of discussion with them.
They tried to prove the Big Bang was a true theory.

Deep field images 13.2 Billion light years.
Befor the even seth the hubble telescope on and area of a rice seed. They said that they will prove the Big Bang by looking at the early universe. I said that they will observe over 5000 galaxies in various stages.

After a million seconds the said to the world, thatdeep field image showed over 5000 galaxies in various stage.

They said space and time 13.2 billion years was different..

go figure.
 
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Could all these scientists be on the right track.
They are getting closer and yet so far away.

I was just going to make a comment, but! I will hold off for now.

Narrow minded people sometimes do that.
Keep smiling


[Submitted on 26 Apr 2023]

A ring-like accretion structure in M87 connecting its black hole and jet​

Ru-Sen Lu, Keiichi Asada, Thomas P. Krichbaum, Jongho Park, Fumie Tazaki, Hung-Yi Pu, Masanori Nakamura, Andrei Lobanov, Kazuhiro Hada, Kazunori Akiyama, Jae-Young Kim, Ivan Marti-Vidal, José L. Gómez, Tomohisa Kawashima, Feng Yuan, Eduardo Ros, Walter Alef, Silke Britzen, Michael Bremer, Avery E. Broderick, Akihiro Doi, Gabriele Giovannini, Marcello Giroletti, Paul T. P. Ho, Mareki Honma, David H. Hughes, Makoto Inoue, Wu Jiang, Motoki Kino, Shoko Koyama, Michael Lindqvist, Jun Liu, Alan P. Marscher, Satoki Matsushita, Hiroshi Nagai, Helge Rottmann, Tuomas Savolainen, Karl-Friedrich Schuster, Zhi-Qiang Shen, Pablo de Vicente, R. Craig Walker, Hai Yang, J. Anton Zensus, Juan Carlos Algaba, Alexander Allardi, Uwe Bach, Ryan Berthold, Dan Bintley, Do-Young Byun, Carolina Casadio, Shu-Hao Chang, Chih-Cheng Chang, Song-Chu Chang, Chung-Chen Chen, Ming-Tang Chen, Ryan Chilson, Tim C. Chuter, John Conway, Geoffrey B. Crew, Jessica T. Dempsey, Sven Dornbusch, Aaron Faber, Per Friberg, Javier González García, Miguel Gómez Garrido, Chih-Chiang Han, Kuo-Chang Han, Yutaka Hasegawa, Ruben Herrero-Illana, Yau-De Huang, Chih-Wei L. Huang, Violette Impellizzeri, Homin Jiang, Hao Jinchi, Taehyun Jung, Juha Kallunki, Petri Kirves, Kimihiro Kimura, Jun Yi Koay, Patrick M. Koch, Carsten Kramer, Alex Kraus, Derek Kubo, Cheng-Yu Kuo, Chao-Te Li, Lupin Chun-Che Lin, Ching-Tang Liu, Kuan-Yu Liu, Wen-Ping Lo, Li-Ming Lu, Nicholas MacDonald, Pierre Martin-Cocher, Hugo Messias, Zheng Meyer-Zhao, Anthony Minter, Dhanya G. Nair, Hiroaki Nishioka, Timothy J. Norton, George Nystrom, Hideo Ogawa et al. (21 additional authors not shown)
The nearby radio galaxy M87 is a prime target for studying black hole accretion and jet formation^{1,2}. Event Horizon Telescope observations of M87 in 2017, at a wavelength of 1.3 mm, revealed a ring-like structure, which was interpreted as gravitationally lensed emission around a central black hole^3. Here we report images of M87 obtained in 2018, at a wavelength of 3.5 mm, showing that the compact radio core is spatially resolved. High-resolution imaging shows a ring-like structure of 8.4_{-1.1}^{+0.5} Schwarzschild radii in diameter, approximately 50% larger than that seen at 1.3 mm. The outer edge at 3.5 mm is also larger than that at 1.3 mm. This larger and thicker ring indicates a substantial contribution from the accretion flow with absorption effects in addition to the gravitationally lensed ring-like emission. The images show that the edge-brightened jet connects to the accretion flow of the black hole. Close to the black hole, the emission profile of the jet-launching region is wider than the expected profile of a black-hole-driven jet, suggesting the possible presence of a wind associated with the accretion flow.
 
Most scientists think that the accretion flow creates the jet.
If this was the case, it would not be possible to hold onto a straight jet for 100,000 years.

The core of M87 is yet to be calculated correctly as to its mass.
For now, some say 6 to 8 billion solar masses.
The core could be a composite of partonic matter and quark matter.
The vector fields pulling in matter is similar to the classic Black Hole properties.
In this case the Core develops a dipolar electromagnetic field that expels matter from the core.
These dipolar fields create a stable jet, that we can observe for over 100,000 years.

This is part of a cyclic event.
 
Even though I may disagree with it.
It's worth reading what they have to say.

You never know I may be completely wrong.

[Submitted on 7 Dec 2021]

Spinning black holes magnetically connected to a Keplerian disk -- Magnetosphere, reconnection sheet, particle acceleration and coronal heating​

I. El Mellah, B. Cerutti, B. Crinquand, K. Parfrey
Context: Accreting black holes (BHs) may be surrounded by a highly magnetized plasma threaded by a poloidal magnetic field. Non-thermal flares and high energy components could originate from a hot, collisionless and nearly force-free corona. The jets we often observe from these systems are believed to be rotation-powered and magnetically-driven.
Aims: We study axisymmetric BH magnetospheres where some magnetic field lines anchored in a surrounding disk can connect to the event horizon of a rotating BH. We identify the sites of magnetic reconnection within 30 gravitational radii depending on the BH spin.
Methods: With the fully general relativistic particle-in-cell code GRZeltron, we solve the time-dependent dynamics of the electron-positron pair plasma and of the electromagnetic fields around the BH. The disk is represented by a steady plasma in Keplerian rotation, threaded by a frozen dipolar field.
Results: For prograde disks, twisted open magnetic field lines crossing the horizon power a Blandford-Znajek jet while beyond a critical distance, open field lines on the disk are open. In the innermost regions, coupling field lines ensure the transfer of significant amounts of angular momentum and energy between the BH and the disk. From the Y-point at the intersection, a current sheet forms where particle acceleration via magnetic reconnection takes place. We compute the synchrotron images of the current sheet emission.
Conclusions: Our estimates for jet power and BH-disk exchanges match those derived from purely force-free models. Dissipation at the Y-point heats the corona and provides a physically motivated source of hard X-rays above the disk for reflection models. Episodic plasmoid ejection might explain millisecond flares observed in Cyg X-1. Particles flowing from the Y-point down to the disk could produce a hot spot at the footpoint of the outermost closed field line.
 
Are we getting there yet.
How long will it take us to understand.
Oh! well
Keep on reading and hope one day we may be able to understand.


[Submitted on 5 Jul 2023 (v1), last revised 31 Jul 2023 (this version, v2)]

Traversable Lorentzian wormhole on the Shtanov-Sahni braneworld with matter obeying the energy conditions​

Rikpratik Sengupta, Shounak Ghosh, M. Kalam
In this paper we have explored the possibility of constructing a traversable wormhole on the Shtanov-Sahni braneworld with a timelike extra dimension. We find that the Weyl curvature singularity at the throat of the wormhole can be removed with physical matter satisfying the NEC ρ+p≥0, even in the absence of any effective Λ-term or any type of charge source on the brane. (The NEC is however violated by the effective matter description on the brane arising due to effects of higher dimensional gravity.) Besides satisfying NEC the matter constituting the wormhole also satisfies the Strong Energy Condition (SEC), ρ+3p≥0, leading to the interesting possibility that normal matter on the brane may be harnessed into a wormhole. Incidentally, these conditions also need to be satisfied to realize a non-singular bounce and cyclic cosmology on the brane\cite{Sahni4} where both past and future singularities can be averted. Thus, such a cyclic universe on the brane, constituted of normal matter can naturally contain wormholes. The wormhole shape function on the brane with a time-like extra dimension represents the tubular structure of the wormhole spreading out at large radial distances much better than in wormholes constructed in a braneworld with a spacelike extra dimension and have considerably lower mass resulting in minimization of the amount of matter required to construct a wormhole. Wormholes in the Shtanov-Sahni (SS) braneworld also have sufficiently low tidal forces, facilitating traversability. Additionally they are found to be stable and exhibit a repulsive geometry. We are left with the intriguing possibilty that both types of curvature singularity can be resolved with the SS model, which we discuss at the end of the concluding section.
 
Are we getting there yet.
How long will it take us to understand.
Oh! well
Keep on reading and hope one day we may be able to understand.


[Submitted on 5 Jul 2023 (v1), last revised 31 Jul 2023 (this version, v2)]

Traversable Lorentzian wormhole on the Shtanov-Sahni braneworld with matter obeying the energy conditions​

Rikpratik Sengupta, Shounak Ghosh, M. Kalam
I've come to a conclusion that only an untethered (untethered to, and opposing, any external forces) self-propelled, self-accelerating, object can realize a wormhole in the first place, transit it to the other side of the single coin of two sides "at a distance". The two sides then two separate bubbles of space quantum entangled "at a distance" from each other.

It has to be untethered from any external force, or control from any kind of external entity, be opposed to the external, else it could not even possibly deal in traversing a wormhole.
 
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