Question CYCLIC UNIVERSE

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Hello Atlan

So called worm holes are generated by vector force fields.

Find the object and you can determine its affects to the surrounding.
And a "soliton" (practically immeasurable ghost wave / field / bulge / discrete quanta / ....)?

What effect does an 'open system' have upon a paralleling equal but opposite 'closed system'? Or an 'opening system' upon a paralleling equal but opposite 'closing system'?

What effect does a 'white hole' (e=mc^2) have upon a paralleling equal but opposite 'black hole' (m=e/c^2)? . . . a wormhole being the neutrality . . . neutral to both. Or the constant of 'c' upon the paralleling equal but opposite collapsed / expanded constant of 'c^2'?
 
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To resolve issues with Solitons, its a big ask at the present.
We know so little about Solitons and their actual formation.

[Submitted on 16 Aug 2023]

Discovery and regulation of chiral magnetic solitons: Exact solution from Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation​

Xin-Wei Jin, Zhan-Ying Yang, Zhimin Liao, Guangyin Jing, Wen-Li Yang
The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation has emerged as a fundamental and indispensable framework within the realm of magnetism. However, solving the LLG equation, encompassing full nonlinearity amidst intricate complexities, presents formidable challenges. In this context, we develop a precise mapping through geometric representation, establishing a direct linkage between the LLG equation and an integrable generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation. This novel mapping provides accessibility towards acquiring a great number of exact spatiotemporal solutions. Notably, exact chiral magnetic solitons, critical for stability and controllability in propagation with and without damping effects are discovered. Our formulation provides exact solutions for the long-standing fully nonlinear problem, facilitating practical control through spin current injection in magnetic memory applications.
 
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To resolve issues with Solitons, its a big ask at the present.
We know so little about Solitons and their actual formation.

[Submitted on 16 Aug 2023]

Discovery and regulation of chiral magnetic solitons: Exact solution from Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation​

Xin-Wei Jin, Zhan-Ying Yang, Zhimin Liao, Guangyin Jing, Wen-Li Yang
It really isn't an answer, as I knew there is none to be had really, but I appreciate the comeback anyway, Harry.
 
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I will come back to this when time allows me.
Sometime TIME is really bossy.

[Submitted on 27 Jun 2023]

Vortex solitons in moire optical lattices​

Sergey K. Ivanov, Vladimir V. Konotop, Yaroslav V. Kartashov, Lluis Torner
We show that optical moire lattices enable the existence of vortex solitons of different types in self-focusing Kerr media. We address the properties of such states both in lattices having commensurate and incommensurate geometries (i.e., constructed with Pythagorean and non-Pythagorean twist angles, respectively), in the different regimes that occur below and above the localization-delocalization transition. We find that the threshold power required for the formation of vortex solitons strongly depends on the twist angle and, also, that the families of solitons exhibit intervals where their power is a nearly linear function of the propagation constant and they exhibit strong stability. Also, in the incommensurate phase above the localization-delocalization transition, we found stable embedded vortex solitons whose propagation constants belong to the linear spectral domain of the system.
 
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Just because I post this, does not mean I agree with the paper.
We are at the steps of learning the unknown.


[Submitted on 2 Oct 2022 (v1), last revised 22 Dec 2022 (this version, v2)]

Black hole in quantum wave dark matter​

Reggie C. Pantig, Ali Övgün
In this work, we explored the effect of the fuzzy dark matter (FDM) (or wave dark matter) halo on a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Such a dark matter introduces a soliton core density profile, and we treat it ideally as a spherical distribution that surrounds the SMBH located at its center. In this direction, we obtained a new metric due to the union of the black hole and dark matter spacetime geometries. We applied the solution to the two known SMBH - Sgr. A* and M87* and used the empirical data for the shadow diameter by EHT to constrain the soliton core radius rc given some values of the boson mass mb. Then, we examine the behavior of the shadow radius based on such constraints and relative to a static observer. We found that different shadow sizes are perceived at regions robs<rc and robs>rc, and the deviation is greater for values mb<10−22 eV. Concerning the shadow behavior, we have also analyzed the effect of the soliton profile on the thin-accretion disk. Soliton dark matter effects manifest through the varying luminosity near the event horizon. We also analyzed the weak deflection angle and the produced Einstein rings due to soliton effects. We found considerable deviation, better than the shadow size deviation, for the light source near the SMBH with impact parameters comparable to the soliton core. Our results suggest the possible experimental detection of soliton dark matter effects using an SMBH at the galactic centers.
 
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The mindset that the Universe had an origin, determines in a way the type of evidence and the interpretation of that evidence or observations.

[Submitted on 3 May 2023]

Dissipative Genesis of the Inflationary Universe​

Hiroki Matsui, Alexandros Papageorgiou, Fuminobu Takahashi, Takahiro Terada
We study an inflation model with a flat scalar potential supported by observations and find that slow-roll inflation can emerge after a quasi-cyclic phase of the Universe, where it undergoes repeated expansions and contractions for a finite time period. The initial conditions and the positive spatial curvature required for such nontrivial dynamics align with the quantum creation of the Universe. The key ingredients that trigger inflation are dissipative interactions of the inflaton, which are necessary to reheat the Universe after inflation and thus give us an observational handle on pre-inflationary physics. Our discovery implies that inflation occurs more robustly after the creation.
 
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and

[Submitted on 3 May 2023]

Dissipative Emergence of Inflation from Quasi-Cyclic Universe​

Hiroki Matsui, Alexandros Papageorgiou, Fuminobu Takahashi, Takahiro Terada
Inflationary models, especially those with plateau-type potentials, are consistent with the cosmological data, but inflation itself does not resolve the initial singularity. This singularity is resolved, for example, by the idea of the quantum creation of the Universe from nothing such as the tunneling and no-boundary proposals. The simplest one predicts a closed Universe. Motivated by these facts, we investigate the classical dynamics of a closed Universe with a plateau-type potential. Depending on the initial inflaton field value, the Universe can undergo a variety of events: an immediate Big Crunch, a bounce or cyclic phase, and inflation. Although the non-inflationary solutions may appear irrelevant to our Universe, they can be turned into a single or multiple bounces followed by inflation, taking into account the interactions necessary for the reheating of the Universe after inflation. Thus, the dissipative mechanism in our setup explains both the graceful entry to and exit from inflation and gives us an indirect observational handle on the Universe just after creation. We also comment on the implications of these solutions on the probabilistic interpretations of the wave function of the Universe.
 
Considering I've begun reading 'Endless Universe: Beyond the Big Bang', by Paul Steinhardt and Neil Turok, I guess Harry's thread is as good as any of my own, or starting a new thread, to show irritation I already have with the read and to throw a little 'Schrodinger' into the cauldron mix of Cyclic Universe.

The nitty gritty first, as I have it. The cycling, or recycling, is not singularly in-line cycling as if the whole thing goes away -- expands away -- to s transparent vacuum in trillions of years only to return from that transparent vacuum by way of cycling primordial soup into a form of Big Crunch and Big Bang in trillions more years with no really good explanation of what, why, and how, the laws of the universe could be so eternally stupidly suicidal as to be so human-like.

No, the universe isn't that stupid, as I've pointed out in many different multiverse, multi-dimensional, ways so often (like Hawking's "six-sided particle" (I raise to many sided universes) that is at once six different individual particles (that I, dealing in universes, raise to the level of a universe being at once many different individual universes (a "many worlds" conceptualization)).

"Nature abhors a vacuum", yet here we supposedly have one being observed to expand endlessly (the 'Endless Universe: Beyond the Big Bang'). The materiality of the universe supposedly comes from out of vacuum. I take a look at the distributions in and of the universe, and it seems to me that the distributions, including in the clumping, look just fine. What it means to me is the recycling process is a forever constant Schrodinger-like process into an out of vacuum (out of and into materiality). We might detect the materiality process, but never observe it. We would observe the vacuum always expanding in the process of making room for the creative(-like) onset of materiality. Material universes always cycling (recycling) to energy, and always cycling (recycling from energy. The material (pardon the pun) point and word being "always"!

F = ma....
E = mc^2....
M = e/c^2....
Whatever!

* (The infinity collapsed cosmological constant Horizon, that I ponderously describe so often as I see it, is radially 14-billion, or 28-billion, or 40-odd-billion, light years observed from Earth. Observed, in fact, from ever central point of universe, the Earth being just one of an infinity of 0-point-centers, macrocosmic and microcosmic. The Horizon constant, unrecognized by too many, obviously then being -- all told -- expansive out from any particular one of the infinity of points it is always singularly constant too. Just as obviously then (or should be), the collapsed cosmological constant of Horizon is then -- in a Schrodinger-like incarnation -- universally everywhere and nowhere at all! And very relevant to the above!) *
 
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Hello Atlan0001

JWT has observed deep field over 32 billion light years.
Even with this evidence, some people still think of the Big Bang Theory, and try to fit it in their observations.
Years gone by, scientist, were estimating the universe to be 7 billion, then 7.2 billion, the 13.7 billion and now we are in unexplained territory.

We need to understand how matter can be recycled.
 
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Scientists will go into their poetic logic. Right or wrong it is a dance that needs to be performed. It is worth reading, just to understand, the different approach.


[Submitted on 5 Jul 2023 (v1), last revised 31 Jul 2023 (this version, v2)]

Traversable Lorentzian wormhole on the Shtanov-Sahni braneworld with matter obeying the energy conditions​

Rikpratik Sengupta, Shounak Ghosh, M. Kalam
In this paper we have explored the possibility of constructing a traversable wormhole on the Shtanov-Sahni brane world with a time like extra dimension. We find that the Weyl curvature singularity at the throat of the wormhole can be removed with physical matter satisfying the NEC ρ+p≥0, even in the absence of any effective Λ-term or any type of charge source on the brane. (The NEC is however violated by the effective matter description on the brane arising due to effects of higher dimensional gravity.) Besides satisfying NEC the matter constituting the wormhole also satisfies the Strong Energy Condition (SEC), ρ+3p≥0, leading to the interesting possibility that normal matter on the brane may be harnessed into a wormhole. Incidentally, these conditions also need to be satisfied to realize a non-singular bounce and cyclic cosmology on the brane\cite{Sahni4} where both past and future singularities can be averted. Thus, such a cyclic universe on the brane, constituted of normal matter can naturally contain wormholes. The wormhole shape function on the brane with a time-like extra dimension represents the tubular structure of the wormhole spreading out at large radial distances much better than in wormholes constructed in a braneworld with a spacelike extra dimension and have considerably lower mass resulting in minimization of the amount of matter required to construct a wormhole. Wormholes in the Shtanov-Sahni (SS) braneworld also have sufficiently low tidal forces, facilitating traversability. Additionally they are found to be stable and exhibit a repulsive geometry. We are left with the intriguing possibilty that both types of curvature singularity can be resolved with the SS model, which we discuss at the end of the concluding section.
 
Harry, it still comes down to set / reset theory versus chain necklace theory. Both may coexist, but, Harry, that means both will coexist all at once (always at the same time)! History (thus TIME) has a natural law constant. It is always repeating in large aspect (always resetting to the overall set), though rarely, if ever, holding small details, an infinity of them in their arrangements, to the large and stereotypical constant of "set" (thus keeping the detail quanta from universes on down, or up, to particles, "discrete quanta").
 
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All theories are up for grabs.

Contraction and expansion of small and extreme large are investigated.

Core of a supper cluster can pull in matter from afar millions of light years.
The core also expels along a vortex millions of light years. In the vortex you can fit galaxies. Prime example of Nucleosynthesis as explained by the Big Bang Theory, I'm not saying it is the Big Bang.
Our Milkyway is part of a group of galaxies that belong to a super cluster. We are in its grip and one day in a trillion years will be sucked into the core.

Contraction and expansion are determined by the gravity sinks around us.
 
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I think this following paper maybe on the right track.​

Understanding compact matter and its properties my lead us in understanding the formation and images that we may observe.

Condensed Matter > Quantum Gases​

[Submitted on 8 Oct 2023]

Vortex Lattice Formation in Spin-Orbit-Coupled Spin-2 Bose-Einstein Condensate Under Rotation​

Paramjeet Banger
We investigate the vortex lattice configuration in a rotating spin orbit-coupled spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a quasi-two-dimensional harmonic trap. By considering the interplay between rotation frequency, spin-orbit couplings, and inter atomic interactions, we explore a variety of vortex lattice structures emerging as a ground state solution. Our study focuses on the combined effects of spin-orbit coupling and rotation, analyzed by using the variational method for the single-particle Hamiltonian. We observe that the interplay between rotation and Rashba spin-orbit coupling gives rise to different effective potentials for the bosons. Specifically, at higher rotation frequencies, isotropic spin-orbit coupling leads to an effective toroidal potential, while fully anisotropic spin-orbit coupling results in a symmetric double-well potential. To obtain these findings, we solve the five coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations for the spin-2 BEC with spin-orbit coupling under rotation. Notably, we find that the antiferromagnetic, cyclic, and ferromagnetic phases exhibit similar behavior at higher rotation.
 
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Galaxies have different formations and stages.
The paper falls short of understanding stages in Galaxies and their various forms.
Active Galactic Nucleus forming a Jet vortex as in M87 has millions of stars in the vortex.
AGN that have ended their massive jet Vortex may have just as many stars.
That part I agree with.
I will keep my opinion limited, for now.

[Submitted on 26 Dec 2023]

Host galaxy and nuclear properties of IR-selected AGNs with and without outflow signatures​

Gabriel A. Oio, Y. Sophia Dai, C. G. Bornancini, Zi-Jian Li
Active galactic nucleus (AGN) driven outflows can have a significant impact on the evolution of the host galaxy. In this work, we compare the properties of galaxies that hosts AGNs with and without outflows. Our sample consists of 103 AGNs identified by mid-IR color-color selection, and confirmed with optical spectroscopy at a redshift range of 0.3 ≲ z ≲ 0.9. We fit the [OIII] λ5007 line using spectra from the zCOSMOS survey to identify and to study the occurrence of outflows. We find that ionized outflows are present in ∼25\% of our sample, with the largest incidence at the highest [OIII] and X-ray luminosity bins. The fastest outflows are found in the more extended and massive galaxies. We do not observe a difference in the star formation rate of AGNs with outflows compared to AGNs without outflows. From visual inspection and non-parametric morphological studies, we obtain that outflows are preferentially observed in galaxies with disk-type and elliptical morphologies.
 
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Harry,
You may have seen my previous posts on cyclic models.
I have suggested that there may be some analogy obtainable by looking at flatlander 'experience'.
A flatlander living 'on' the surface of a sphere experiences expansion of the surface of his spherical universe. However, to a being able to access (n + 1) dimensions, it is evident that the flatlander's sphere is expanding in its radius, which, of course, is not accessible to the flatlander.

That means that expansion is relative to / governed by the sensory input available to the 'beholder'.

Does this fit with your posts, please?

Cat :)
Although mathematics can describe these situations of "Flatlander experience" there still needs to be some philosophy/imagination to achieve any sort of reality. Taking your point; if a sphere were passing through a flatlander environment (a surface of 2d) they would experience an expanding circle changing to a contracting circle and then disappearing. Mathematics can describe it, produce formulae, etc but it requires luck or imagination or some such to stubble upon the 2-sphere explanation. Possible but difficult.
 
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Mathematics is great.
We can use it to express our opinions.

The problem is this, using mathematics to explain the unexplained.
The bottom line
Matter/Energy cannot be destroyed or created.
So, we follow the yellow brick road, to understand how matter recycles.
To do that we need to know how transients such as Neutron matter and Quark matter can be confined.

[Submitted on 28 Dec 2023]

Properties of the mixed phase core in maximum mass neutron stars​

Xuhao Wu, Peng-Cheng Chu, Min Ju, He Liu
In the context of observed massive neutron stars (NSs), we examine the internal structure, phase transitions, and the impacts of the equation of state (EOS) in maximum NSs. We investigate the stiffness changes in the EOS during the hadron-quark phase transition within the NSs. The relativistic mean-field (RMF) model and RMF model with a density-dependent isovector coupling, known as the RMFL model, are used to describe hadronic matter, while to the represent quark matter, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model is applied. We explore the strength of vector coupling in quark matter, which delayed the onset density and reduced the maximum mass of NS, but does not exhibit a clear correlation with the NS central density. A considerable size of the mixed phase core could exist in the maximum mass NS but with corresponding small mixed phase mass.
 
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Understanding the Cyclic process and Nucleosynthesis holds the key to understanding how a Cyclic Universe works.
Are we there yet, at the footsteps.

[Submitted on 16 Jan 2024]
Loop current states and their stability in small fractal lattices of Bose-Einstein condensates
Georg Koch, Anna Posazhennikova
We consider a model of interacting Bose-Einstein condensates on small Sierpinski gaskets. We study eigenstates which are characterised by cyclic supercurrents per each triangular plaquette ("loop" states). For noninteracting systems we find at least three classes of loop eigenmodes: standard; chaotic and periodic. Standard modes are those inherited from the basic three-site ring of condensates with phase differences locked to 2π/3. Standard modes become unstable in the interacting system but only when interaction exceeds a certain critical value uc. Chaotic modes are characterised by very different circular currents per plaquette, so that the usual symmetry of loop currents is broken. Circular supercurrents associated with chaotic modes become chaotic for any finite interaction, signalling the loss of coherence between the condensates. Periodic modes are described by alternating populations and two different phase differences. The modes are self-similar and are present in all generations of Sierpinskii gasket. When interaction is included, circular current of such a mode becomes periodic in time with the amplitude growing linearly with interaction. Above a critical interaction the amplitude saturates signalling a transition to a macroscopic self-trapping state originally known from a usual Bose Josephson junction. We perform a systematic analysis of this novel and rich physics.
 
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I put this paper in for those that can understand the processes.

[Submitted on 9 Nov 2023]

Cycling and spiral-wave modes in an active cyclic Potts model​

Hiroshi Noguchi, Frédéric van Wijland, Jean-Baptiste Fournier
We studied the nonequilibrium dynamics of a cycling three-state Potts model using simulations and theory. At low cycling energy, the homogeneous dominant state cycles via nucleation and growth, while spiral waves are formed at high energy. For large systems, a discontinuous transition occurs from these cyclic homogeneous phases to spiral waves, while the opposite transition is absent. Conversely, these two modes can coexist for small systems. The waves can be reproduced by a continuum theory, and the transition can be understood from the competition between nucleation and growth.
 
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What do we know?
The more we see the more we know that Trillions of Galaxies are found in deep field images.
Deep Field 13.4 billion years.
The monster galaxies themselves would be over 20 billion years to evolve and that's been conservative.
Trying to prove the Big Bang is an up-hill battle.
We also know that over 9 super clusters of galaxies, cluster.

Matter tends to cluster together.

If we look at an infinite universe we need to look at the cyclic process that occur.
 
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If the universe were circular (as per the surface of a sphere, say) then looking outward for 13+ billion light years away would simply be looking at stuff partly around the surface. The BB origin would be at the centre of the sphere.
Expect James Webb to see further still (until spatial expension prevents the arrival of light - anything detecting long radio waves. BB still valid)
 
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Understanding the Cyclic process and Nucleosynthesis holds the key to understanding how a Cyclic Universe works.
Are we there yet, at the footsteps.

[Submitted on 16 Jan 2024]
Loop current states and their stability in small fractal lattices of Bose-Einstein condensates
Georg Koch, Anna Posazhennikova
Welcome back, Harry. For certain the cosmos has cyclic processes that formed expanding voids and contracting overdensities all over our finite in volume ageless universe with matter and energy reflective ages!!

You, may, ask how do we know for sure that our universe has matter and energy reflective edges?? We know for sure that our universe has matter and energy reflective edges because of the discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) at frequencies between 60 GHz and 630 GHz at temperature of 2.73 Kelvin.

Sound waves have all the properties of light waves including but not limited to constructive and destructive interference, doppler effect, harmonization and homogenization and sound waves quantized energy the phonon to light waves quantized energy the photon!!

While not obvious to 99.99999 percent of interested parties, it’s obvious to me that the gaseous tiny tiny invisible GP1 Aether Particle Medium of light waves most be under pressure in order for the light waves to propagate, just as, air particles must be under pressure for sound waves to propagate and for the gaseous GP1 Aether Particle Medium of light waves to be under pressure the universe must be finite in volume with matter and energy reflective edges to support the CMBR observed “Vacuum Energy” of the universe which would have never strengthened to 2.73 Kelvin if the universe was infinite and ageless.

In 2017, the DiPole RePeller Group observed and published findings that the Dipole Repeller Void is pushing us at 290 km/s toward the Shapley and Great Attractors as the Shapley and Great Attractors pull us at 431 km/s towards the Attractors for a net “peculiar” velocity of 631 km/s for our local galactic group.

Please, check-out The Dipole Repeller Void Video): The Dipole Repeller

From The Discovery Of The DiPole RePeller Void In 2017): We Are Given That Lowering The Energy Quotient Per Cubic Meter In A Void Releases Measurable Dark Repulsive Energy As The Matter Including Dark Neutrino Matter In The Void Cools And Net Expels Compressed GP1 Aether Particles Creating A Void With Repulsive High GP1 Aether Particle Pressure System!!

Suggestion): As Superclusters Crunch And Energy Density Per Cubic Meter Increases And As Nucleon Matter In All The Stars And Neutrino Dark Matter Heats Up By Net Compressing GP1 Aether Particles Inside The Matter Vessel Sacs While Reducing The Volume Of Space): We Generate Increasing Low GP1 Aether Particle Pressure Throughout The Supercluster As We Are Given That Gravity And Dark Matter Gravity Will Be Generated By The Reduction In GP1 Aether Particle Pressure Relative To The High GP1 Aether Particle Pressure Of Expanding Voids!!

We Are Given That As The Great Attractor And The Shapley Attractor Crunch And Energy Density-Vacuum Energy Increases Per Cubic Meter); Matter Gravity And Dark Matter Gravity Is Generated In The Attractors That Causes The Local Galactic Group, The Virgo Galactic Centric Cluster And The Virgo Supercluster To Be Pulled At 341 Kilometers/Second Towards The Attractors); While The Cooling DiPole RePeller Void With Decreasing Vacuum Energy Per Cubic Meter Pushes Us At 290 Kilometers Per Second Towards The Great Attractor For A Net Total Peculiar Velocity Of 631 Kilometers/Second For Our Virgo Supercluster And Our Local Galactic Group!!

We Are Given That Low Air Pressure Hurricane Systems Develop At The Equator And That Hurricanes Intensify From Solar Radiant Heat And Warm Water!!

From The Given Above): I Suggest That The Heating Up Of Matter Particles Results In Low GP1 Aether Particle Pressure That Results In Low Air Pressure And/Or Gravitational Force Is Generated As Potential Dark Energy And Mass Is Stored In Matter Particle Permeable Sacs!!

And At The Earth’s Poles We Are Given That As Matter Cools High Air Pressure Systems Develop As Compressed Net GP1 Aether Particles Pulsate Out Of Nucleon, Electron And Neutrino Pulsating Hovering Permeable Indestructible Vessel Sacs Resulting In High GP1 Aether Particle Systems That Transform Air Particles To High Air Pressure Systems As They Cool!!

Side Note): If You Look At A Picture Of A Low Air Pressure Hurricane System On Earth And A Picture Of A Low GP1 Aether Particle Spiral Galaxy System In Space Side By Side); You Will Find The Pictures Are Nearly Identical Because Both Are Low GP1 Aether Particle Systems!!

I welcome any and all questions about any and all of my posts, theories and associated proofs!! If you should question, you will learn about gravity, dark matter gravity and dark energy mysteries as given by modern physicists along with logical easy to understand physical mechanical explanations based on given facts!!

Talk More Soon!! Have A Great Day!!
 

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