### Shapiro time delay is caused by refraction. Gravitational time dilation does not exist.

wikipedia said:The Shapiro time delayeffect, orgravitational time delayeffect, is one of the four classic Solar System tests of general relativity. Radar signals passing near a massive object take slightly longer to travel to a target and longer to return than they would if the mass of the object were not present.The time delay is caused bytime dilation, which increases the time it takes light to travel a given distance from the perspective of an outside observer.[...]

'Throughout this article discussing the time delay, Shapiro uses c as the speed of lightand calculates the time delay of the passage of light waves or rays over finite coordinate distance according to a Schwarzschild solution to the Einstein field equations.'

And, just like Pound and Rebka, completely ignores refraction. Which makes his whole calculation wrong, because he does not understand basic physics, which require to take into consideration the index of refraction, which affects the speed of light and of radio waves (electro-magnetic waves in general), each time the wave enters a medium.

Which immediately shows that the radio wave will slow down when passing near a massive object, because of the atmosphere which surrounds the massive object, i.e. sun or planet, which causes the radio wave to refract and decrease its speed to v=c/n, where n is the index of refraction of the medium. And, since time is distance over velocity, t=d/v, then if the velocity v decreases the time t increases. So it will take a longer time for the radio wave to travel the same distance, then if it was traveling at the speed of light in a vacuum c. That’s where the time delay comes from. It has absolutely nothing to do with gravity or general relativity.

So, just like in the case of gravitational redshift, einsteinian pseudo-physicists have confused an effect produced by refraction with one of gravitation. Which proves once more that general relativity is an absurd pseudo-science based on a complete ignorance of classical physics and refraction.

This is just another example of how general relativity is illogically proven by these so called scientists, who don't know basic refraction physics and confuse a well known effect of refraction with an immaginary one of gravitation. They just have to know that v=c/n, where n is index of refraction, which is learned in highschool, and do the math, which any highschool student can do. Instead they use c everywhere, instead of v=c/n, and illogically 'prove' that time is slowed down by gravity, as predicted by general relativity. But all that they prove is Einstein's prediction that:

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**'Two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity. And I’m not sure about the universe.’**
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