# QuestionCYCLIC UNIVERSE

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#### Harry Costas

Hello Atlan

So called worm holes are generated by vector force fields.

Find the object and you can determine its affects to the surrounding.

#### Atlan0001

Hello Atlan

So called worm holes are generated by vector force fields.

Find the object and you can determine its affects to the surrounding.
And a "soliton" (practically immeasurable ghost wave / field / bulge / discrete quanta / ....)?

What effect does an 'open system' have upon a paralleling equal but opposite 'closed system'? Or an 'opening system' upon a paralleling equal but opposite 'closing system'?

What effect does a 'white hole' (e=mc^2) have upon a paralleling equal but opposite 'black hole' (m=e/c^2)? . . . a wormhole being the neutrality . . . neutral to both. Or the constant of 'c' upon the paralleling equal but opposite collapsed / expanded constant of 'c^2'?

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#### Harry Costas

I just came in for 2 sec.
Im working at this moment.

I will make an image and hope it get through.

Catch you later

#### Harry Costas

To resolve issues with Solitons, its a big ask at the present.
We know so little about Solitons and their actual formation.

[Submitted on 16 Aug 2023]

### Discovery and regulation of chiral magnetic solitons: Exact solution from Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation​

Xin-Wei Jin, Zhan-Ying Yang, Zhimin Liao, Guangyin Jing, Wen-Li Yang
The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation has emerged as a fundamental and indispensable framework within the realm of magnetism. However, solving the LLG equation, encompassing full nonlinearity amidst intricate complexities, presents formidable challenges. In this context, we develop a precise mapping through geometric representation, establishing a direct linkage between the LLG equation and an integrable generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation. This novel mapping provides accessibility towards acquiring a great number of exact spatiotemporal solutions. Notably, exact chiral magnetic solitons, critical for stability and controllability in propagation with and without damping effects are discovered. Our formulation provides exact solutions for the long-standing fully nonlinear problem, facilitating practical control through spin current injection in magnetic memory applications.

Atlan0001

#### Atlan0001

To resolve issues with Solitons, its a big ask at the present.
We know so little about Solitons and their actual formation.

[Submitted on 16 Aug 2023]

### Discovery and regulation of chiral magnetic solitons: Exact solution from Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation​

Xin-Wei Jin, Zhan-Ying Yang, Zhimin Liao, Guangyin Jing, Wen-Li Yang
It really isn't an answer, as I knew there is none to be had really, but I appreciate the comeback anyway, Harry.

#### Harry Costas

I would be over the moon.

Its a journey

Sorry my work keeps me away.

#### Harry Costas

I will come back to this when time allows me.
Sometime TIME is really bossy.

[Submitted on 27 Jun 2023]

### Vortex solitons in moire optical lattices​

Sergey K. Ivanov, Vladimir V. Konotop, Yaroslav V. Kartashov, Lluis Torner
We show that optical moire lattices enable the existence of vortex solitons of different types in self-focusing Kerr media. We address the properties of such states both in lattices having commensurate and incommensurate geometries (i.e., constructed with Pythagorean and non-Pythagorean twist angles, respectively), in the different regimes that occur below and above the localization-delocalization transition. We find that the threshold power required for the formation of vortex solitons strongly depends on the twist angle and, also, that the families of solitons exhibit intervals where their power is a nearly linear function of the propagation constant and they exhibit strong stability. Also, in the incommensurate phase above the localization-delocalization transition, we found stable embedded vortex solitons whose propagation constants belong to the linear spectral domain of the system.

#### Harry Costas

Just because I post this, does not mean I agree with the paper.
We are at the steps of learning the unknown.

[Submitted on 2 Oct 2022 (v1), last revised 22 Dec 2022 (this version, v2)]

### Black hole in quantum wave dark matter​

Reggie C. Pantig, Ali Övgün
In this work, we explored the effect of the fuzzy dark matter (FDM) (or wave dark matter) halo on a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Such a dark matter introduces a soliton core density profile, and we treat it ideally as a spherical distribution that surrounds the SMBH located at its center. In this direction, we obtained a new metric due to the union of the black hole and dark matter spacetime geometries. We applied the solution to the two known SMBH - Sgr. A* and M87* and used the empirical data for the shadow diameter by EHT to constrain the soliton core radius rc given some values of the boson mass mb. Then, we examine the behavior of the shadow radius based on such constraints and relative to a static observer. We found that different shadow sizes are perceived at regions robs<rc and robs>rc, and the deviation is greater for values mb<10−22 eV. Concerning the shadow behavior, we have also analyzed the effect of the soliton profile on the thin-accretion disk. Soliton dark matter effects manifest through the varying luminosity near the event horizon. We also analyzed the weak deflection angle and the produced Einstein rings due to soliton effects. We found considerable deviation, better than the shadow size deviation, for the light source near the SMBH with impact parameters comparable to the soliton core. Our results suggest the possible experimental detection of soliton dark matter effects using an SMBH at the galactic centers.

#### Harry Costas

The mindset that the Universe had an origin, determines in a way the type of evidence and the interpretation of that evidence or observations.

[Submitted on 3 May 2023]

### Dissipative Genesis of the Inflationary Universe​

Hiroki Matsui, Alexandros Papageorgiou, Fuminobu Takahashi, Takahiro Terada
We study an inflation model with a flat scalar potential supported by observations and find that slow-roll inflation can emerge after a quasi-cyclic phase of the Universe, where it undergoes repeated expansions and contractions for a finite time period. The initial conditions and the positive spatial curvature required for such nontrivial dynamics align with the quantum creation of the Universe. The key ingredients that trigger inflation are dissipative interactions of the inflaton, which are necessary to reheat the Universe after inflation and thus give us an observational handle on pre-inflationary physics. Our discovery implies that inflation occurs more robustly after the creation.

#### Harry Costas

and

[Submitted on 3 May 2023]

### Dissipative Emergence of Inflation from Quasi-Cyclic Universe​

Hiroki Matsui, Alexandros Papageorgiou, Fuminobu Takahashi, Takahiro Terada
Inflationary models, especially those with plateau-type potentials, are consistent with the cosmological data, but inflation itself does not resolve the initial singularity. This singularity is resolved, for example, by the idea of the quantum creation of the Universe from nothing such as the tunneling and no-boundary proposals. The simplest one predicts a closed Universe. Motivated by these facts, we investigate the classical dynamics of a closed Universe with a plateau-type potential. Depending on the initial inflaton field value, the Universe can undergo a variety of events: an immediate Big Crunch, a bounce or cyclic phase, and inflation. Although the non-inflationary solutions may appear irrelevant to our Universe, they can be turned into a single or multiple bounces followed by inflation, taking into account the interactions necessary for the reheating of the Universe after inflation. Thus, the dissipative mechanism in our setup explains both the graceful entry to and exit from inflation and gives us an indirect observational handle on the Universe just after creation. We also comment on the implications of these solutions on the probabilistic interpretations of the wave function of the Universe.

#### Atlan0001

Considering I've begun reading 'Endless Universe: Beyond the Big Bang', by Paul Steinhardt and Neil Turok, I guess Harry's thread is as good as any of my own, or starting a new thread, to show irritation I already have with the read and to throw a little 'Schrodinger' into the cauldron mix of Cyclic Universe.

The nitty gritty first, as I have it. The cycling, or recycling, is not singularly in-line cycling as if the whole thing goes away -- expands away -- to s transparent vacuum in trillions of years only to return from that transparent vacuum by way of cycling primordial soup into a form of Big Crunch and Big Bang in trillions more years with no really good explanation of what, why, and how, the laws of the universe could be so eternally stupidly suicidal as to be so human-like.

No, the universe isn't that stupid, as I've pointed out in many different multiverse, multi-dimensional, ways so often (like Hawking's "six-sided particle" (I raise to many sided universes) that is at once six different individual particles (that I, dealing in universes, raise to the level of a universe being at once many different individual universes (a "many worlds" conceptualization)).

"Nature abhors a vacuum", yet here we supposedly have one being observed to expand endlessly (the 'Endless Universe: Beyond the Big Bang'). The materiality of the universe supposedly comes from out of vacuum. I take a look at the distributions in and of the universe, and it seems to me that the distributions, including in the clumping, look just fine. What it means to me is the recycling process is a forever constant Schrodinger-like process into an out of vacuum (out of and into materiality). We might detect the materiality process, but never observe it. We would observe the vacuum always expanding in the process of making room for the creative(-like) onset of materiality. Material universes always cycling (recycling) to energy, and always cycling (recycling from energy. The material (pardon the pun) point and word being "always"!

F = ma....
E = mc^2....
M = e/c^2....
Whatever!

* (The infinity collapsed cosmological constant Horizon, that I ponderously describe so often as I see it, is radially 14-billion, or 28-billion, or 40-odd-billion, light years observed from Earth. Observed, in fact, from ever central point of universe, the Earth being just one of an infinity of 0-point-centers, macrocosmic and microcosmic. The Horizon constant, unrecognized by too many, obviously then being -- all told -- expansive out from any particular one of the infinity of points it is always singularly constant too. Just as obviously then (or should be), the collapsed cosmological constant of Horizon is then -- in a Schrodinger-like incarnation -- universally everywhere and nowhere at all! And very relevant to the above!) *

billslugg

#### Harry Costas

Hello Atlan0001

JWT has observed deep field over 32 billion light years.
Even with this evidence, some people still think of the Big Bang Theory, and try to fit it in their observations.
Years gone by, scientist, were estimating the universe to be 7 billion, then 7.2 billion, the 13.7 billion and now we are in unexplained territory.

We need to understand how matter can be recycled.

#### Harry Costas

Scientists will go into their poetic logic. Right or wrong it is a dance that needs to be performed. It is worth reading, just to understand, the different approach.

[Submitted on 5 Jul 2023 (v1), last revised 31 Jul 2023 (this version, v2)]

### Traversable Lorentzian wormhole on the Shtanov-Sahni braneworld with matter obeying the energy conditions​

Rikpratik Sengupta, Shounak Ghosh, M. Kalam
In this paper we have explored the possibility of constructing a traversable wormhole on the Shtanov-Sahni brane world with a time like extra dimension. We find that the Weyl curvature singularity at the throat of the wormhole can be removed with physical matter satisfying the NEC ρ+p≥0, even in the absence of any effective Λ-term or any type of charge source on the brane. (The NEC is however violated by the effective matter description on the brane arising due to effects of higher dimensional gravity.) Besides satisfying NEC the matter constituting the wormhole also satisfies the Strong Energy Condition (SEC), ρ+3p≥0, leading to the interesting possibility that normal matter on the brane may be harnessed into a wormhole. Incidentally, these conditions also need to be satisfied to realize a non-singular bounce and cyclic cosmology on the brane\cite{Sahni4} where both past and future singularities can be averted. Thus, such a cyclic universe on the brane, constituted of normal matter can naturally contain wormholes. The wormhole shape function on the brane with a time-like extra dimension represents the tubular structure of the wormhole spreading out at large radial distances much better than in wormholes constructed in a braneworld with a spacelike extra dimension and have considerably lower mass resulting in minimization of the amount of matter required to construct a wormhole. Wormholes in the Shtanov-Sahni (SS) braneworld also have sufficiently low tidal forces, facilitating traversability. Additionally they are found to be stable and exhibit a repulsive geometry. We are left with the intriguing possibilty that both types of curvature singularity can be resolved with the SS model, which we discuss at the end of the concluding section.

#### Atlan0001

Harry, it still comes down to set / reset theory versus chain necklace theory. Both may coexist, but, Harry, that means both will coexist all at once (always at the same time)! History (thus TIME) has a natural law constant. It is always repeating in large aspect (always resetting to the overall set), though rarely, if ever, holding small details, an infinity of them in their arrangements, to the large and stereotypical constant of "set" (thus keeping the detail quanta from universes on down, or up, to particles, "discrete quanta").

#### Harry Costas

All theories are up for grabs.

Contraction and expansion of small and extreme large are investigated.

Core of a supper cluster can pull in matter from afar millions of light years.
The core also expels along a vortex millions of light years. In the vortex you can fit galaxies. Prime example of Nucleosynthesis as explained by the Big Bang Theory, I'm not saying it is the Big Bang.
Our Milkyway is part of a group of galaxies that belong to a super cluster. We are in its grip and one day in a trillion years will be sucked into the core.

Contraction and expansion are determined by the gravity sinks around us.

### I think this following paper maybe on the right track.​

Understanding compact matter and its properties my lead us in understanding the formation and images that we may observe.

### Condensed Matter > Quantum Gases​

[Submitted on 8 Oct 2023]

### Vortex Lattice Formation in Spin-Orbit-Coupled Spin-2 Bose-Einstein Condensate Under Rotation​

Paramjeet Banger
We investigate the vortex lattice configuration in a rotating spin orbit-coupled spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a quasi-two-dimensional harmonic trap. By considering the interplay between rotation frequency, spin-orbit couplings, and inter atomic interactions, we explore a variety of vortex lattice structures emerging as a ground state solution. Our study focuses on the combined effects of spin-orbit coupling and rotation, analyzed by using the variational method for the single-particle Hamiltonian. We observe that the interplay between rotation and Rashba spin-orbit coupling gives rise to different effective potentials for the bosons. Specifically, at higher rotation frequencies, isotropic spin-orbit coupling leads to an effective toroidal potential, while fully anisotropic spin-orbit coupling results in a symmetric double-well potential. To obtain these findings, we solve the five coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations for the spin-2 BEC with spin-orbit coupling under rotation. Notably, we find that the antiferromagnetic, cyclic, and ferromagnetic phases exhibit similar behavior at higher rotation.

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