Just to make a start on this difficult subject.

- In our 3d space cannot sensibly be considered absolute as movement modifies the perception of each- other's clock time quite apart from the experiments in the past that looked for a spatial Ether.
- A more holistic view over all spacetime to date provides a different view. The Age of the Universe for example is an absolute measurement
- It can be argued that if some object ‘Z’ has never been accelerated (thought experiment) then it has only time as a measure (absolute) whereas any object (say a galaxy) that has moved in space will display a different time to that of ‘Z’
- Similarly, there is no way of thinking of space as absolute unless of course nothing ever moved (?)
- So, taking an average of all galactic movements maybe could be used to identify “still”.
- The diagram (!) below I made using letters so it is inadequate and crude. However, the circle represents the universe as if it were a sphere (dropping 2 dimensions). The horizontal line is distance and the vertical is time.
- Imagine both lines passed through the centre of the circle (through the origin) so that they became diameters. A radius pointing up then is time and the point where it intersects the circle is “now” in our universe and its length is expressed as years. Similarly, a horizontal radius from the origin (The Big Bang) shows the distance in light years.
- The radius is a valid ‘spacetime Interval’. It describes Special Relativity, time dilation and distance dilation. Explanation: Take any radius – preferably in the top hemisphere- and draw it to intersect the circle. Then by dropping a line down from the intersection to the horizontal line and similarly a horizontal line from the intersection to the vertical line: you have all the geometry needed to use Pythagoras to determine the dilation of time and distance for any spacetime position determined from where you drew the radius. I heard Brian Cox mention its validity on TV. It may have been as a result of my communication with his office – or not. I just thought it was original and worth mentioning as an original description of the Special Relativity theory.

- The diagram has miraculously disappeared so reading the above will have to do. Ok so if we can hold the imaginary circle and radius in our head it is clear that where the vertical radius intersects the circle can be considered as our place in time and space. But any position on the circle could be considered, in reality, our place in space and time. If we had simply stood still (with no spatial movement) the radius would represent the direction in space-time that time pointed.
- So, if you follow me so far (!) time can be represented by any radius and more, by any radius within a sphere. This relegates time to a process occurring in 4 dimensions rather than the 4th dimension itself.
that is a radial dimension of 1 second =299792458km__Time then becomes to us (as a flatlander equivalent) the result of the universe expanding__:- Note though that time running in an opposite direction would be perceived to be negative. On opposing sides of the sphere then their time would appear to be negative; although to them it is positive (if you exist anywhere on the circle time would appear positive)
- Antimatter is an electron in time negative for example. So, the other side of the n-sphere is antimatter (?)