Question Infinity or not infinity that is the question.

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It's amazing how people can say you are wrong.

Is the universe infinite?

Do the parts withing the universe expand and contract?
Harry you ask): Do the parts within the universe expand and contract?? Absolutely Yes!! We have absolute proof from the Discovery of The Repulsive Dipole RePeller Void in 2017 that Voids are expanding and that galaxies, Superclusters and The Great Attractor and The Shapley Attractor are contracting!!

Also, We are given that our local galactic group and the Virgo Supercluster are moving at 631 km/s towards The Shapley And Great Attractors but I have no takers to my postulate that gravity is a direct function of mass and the rate at which the matter particles of mass heat up and that repulsive force/antigravity is released as matter particles with rest mass cool!!

Expanding Voids Reduce their Energy Density Per Cubic Meter AS The Galaxies Separate which I associate with voids' repulsive forces!!

And Superclusters contract their galaxies closer together increasing energy density while generating gravity!!

But no one has yet accepted my postulate that gravity is the direct result of mass and the rate at which the matter particles of the mass heat up!!

Instead, everyone is satisfied with the misassumption that each particle of matter is a perpetual gravitational force machine directly proportional to its mass!!

Talk More Later!! Have A Great Day!!
 
How do parts within the universe expand and contract?

Condensates vary in size from Solar to cores of galaxies.
Milkyway a few million solar masses
M87 over 8 billion solar masses
Centre core of super clusters over 100 billion solar masses.

The property of condensate is Dipolar Electromagnetic vector fields.
Similar properties of Black holes
Attract matter in and expel matter out.
This explains contraction and expansion.
 
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How do parts within the universe expand and contract?

Condensates vary in size from Solar to cores of galaxies.
Milkyway a few million solar masses
M87 over 8 billion solar masses
Centre core of super clusters over 100 billion solar masses.

The property of condensate is Dipolar Electromagnetic vector fields.
Similar properties of Black holes
Attract matter in and expel matter out.
This explains contraction and expansion.
But by what mechanics do superclusters change themselves to voids?? And by what mechanics do voids morph into superclusters??

What you need to understand is beyond the galactic level where galaxies and superclusters with increasing energy density and matter net heating up contract and voids where decreasing energy density and matter net cooling separate/expand!!

You are not alone, Harry!! You have over 3 million physics experts that support your argument that each particle of matter is a perpetual gravitational force energy machine in direct proportion to its mass and you are my first potential convert to the following!!

But until modern physicists come to understand that gravitational force is directly proportional to its mass and the rate at which the matter particles of mass heat up, they can never explain the physical mechanics that generate gravitational force!!

As a GP1 Aether Particle flow heads to the center of gravity of a galaxy or a mass): lead will be pulled faster to the center of Earth than silicon!!

At the solar system level, our Moon falls slower towards the Sun than Earth does!!

At the Galactic level, our Sun falls faster towards the center of gravity of the Milky Way Galaxy, than Earth does and Jupiter falls faster to the center of the Milky Way than Earth does!!

Talk More Soon!! Have A Great Day!!
 
What exactly is gravity? Why can't we control and manipulate it with devices?
We can control and manipulate it with spin . . . spin gravity. We would hope someday we can find a way to have artificial gravity, actually real gravity, a flat surface gravity, without the spin factor, or an external thrust acceleration factor, included. Find and custom control and manipulate the elusive "graviton" particle (infinitesimally small as it is (sic) and infinitely large as it is (and maybe both small enough and large enough a bubble to fit a ship inside; at once small and large enough to fit many bubbles inside floors, rooms, whatever, of the ship . . . customizing the gravity, potentially more and differing gravities, within ships and other space structures as is done in sci-fi)).
 
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What exactly is gravity? Why can't we control and manipulate it with devices?
Good Question, George!! And I am the only one in the world with a logical physical mechanical answer for you!!

In my original novel postulate on gravitational force generation, I state that Gravity is the result of a flow of tiny tiny invisible Gaseous GP1 Aether Particles about a quintillionth the mass of the neutrino given as about one millionth the mass of the electron to lowest GP1 Aether Particle pressure in the coldest densest center of a mass!!

These Tiny Gaseous Invisible GP1 Aether Particles of mass traveling to the center of Earth transfers part of their momentum to our atoms that join to make up our flesh and bones resulting in a push towards the center of Earth which is locally at lowest GP1 Aether Particle Pressure!!

The important thing to understand is that gravitational force is directly proportional to the mass and the rate at which the matter particles of the mass heat up and that gravity is a push to the center of Earth and NOT A PULL!!

I’ve posted proofs before about our Sun given as heating up from a hydrogen-helium molecular cloud at 10 degrees Kelvin, 5 billion years, ago, to 5800 Kelvin at the Sun’s Photosphere, today, while storing potential dark energy since “For Every Action, There Must Be An Equal And Opposite Reaction!!

We are given that our Sun will heat up by 6% per billion years for the next 5 billion years and that the Earth will become uninhabitable in a billion years from our Sun heating up by 6%!!

In 5 billion years, we are given that our Sun will stop heating up and start cooling from 7777 Kelvin and release the dark energy/antigravity that was stored during the 10 billion that our Sun heated up and generated gravity!!

We are given that in 5 billion years that our Sun will enter its Red Giant Phase, Blow Off Half Its Mass and leave a white dwarf remnant about the size of Earth about half a solar mass at 200,000 times Earth density!!

So, until modern physicists come to understand that gravitational force is directly proportional to its mass and the rate at which the matter particles of mass heat up, they can never explain the physical mechanics that generate gravitational force!!

We have no control over this invisible flow GP1 Aether Particles to the center of Earth and, therefore, we cannot magically create antigravity belts!!

Let's answer the paradox of how our Earth and our Sun can have both a hot dense core and a cold dense core apparently simultaneously!!

First it's important to understand that the Earth is given to pulsate every 26 seconds which means that the Earth's crust rises for about 14 seconds and falls for about 12 seconds because the rise in the Earth's crust is against the GP1 Aether Particle flow to the center of Earth/Against Gravity and as the Earth's crust falls toward the Earth's center, it is falling in the direction of the GP1 Aether Particle flow/in the direction of gravitational force!!

To verify simply google!!): Does the Earth pulsate?? and you will get!!):

“Discover Magazine): The Earth Is Pulsating Every 26 Seconds, and Seismologists Don't …!! Oct 27, 2020 · Newsletter. Every 26 seconds, the Earth shakes. Not a lot — certainly not enough that you’d feel it — but... just enough that …!!”

Also, our Sun is given to pulsate every five minutes and 34 seconds which is easy to verify by Googling): Does our Sun pulsate every 5 minutes and 34 seconds?? And You Get):

“Vanessa Thomas): JUL 20, 2021): ARTICLE): Observations from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory show giant waves of solar material traveling at the Sun’s surface. Creating a model of these waves helps scientists understand what’s going on in the Sun’s interior.

Without a solid surface, the Sun constantly churns and writhes. Sixty years ago, scientists discovered choppy waves, or oscillations, on the surface of the Sun that move up and down with periods – the time between each wave peak – of only about five minutes!!”

Google AI): However, it’s important to note that these pulsations are not as regular as a precise 5 minutes and 34 seconds interval. The phenomena are complex and can vary based on numerous factors.

What the above means is all large masses, moons, planets, stars, black holes are giant compressors that extract heat from their cores and all accreting matter and generate gravity by heating matter up in the outer core through the Siemens’ refrigeration process): Compression Heats Up Matter, Heat Exchanger Removes Heat, Decompression Cools Matter!!

For our Sun these compression-heat exchanger-decompression cycles after 12 billion years result in a white dwarf remnant at 200,000 times Earth density, about the volume of Earth and at 600,000 Adoni-Kelvin Degrees below absolute zero at the core!!

Because modern physicists cannot measure temperatures below absolute zero because the total absence of electromagnetic waves is to physicists absolute zero, I invented a temperature scale for the core of compact objects at 3 times the multiple of Earth density!!

I estimate the core of the moon size white dwarf at given at 20,000,000 times Earth density at 60,000,000 Adoni-Kelvin Degrees Below Absolute Zero!!

Talk More, Soon!! Have A Great Day!!
 
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So far, at least, there has been no evidence that any of the forces we have delineated have a material carrier. All are said to be field effect. But is possible you to be right if has particle carriers which is out of today detection possibilities of human technology.
 
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So far, at least, there has been no evidence that any of the forces we have delineated have a material carrier. All are said to be field effect. But is possible you to be right if has particle carriers which is out of today detection possibilities of human technology.
Modern physicists are working their magical fluid like field theory towards a Gaseous GP1 Aether Particle Fluid Theory!!

But since modern physicists have not yet accepted my GP1 Aether Particle Theory nor the fact that the four given matter particles with rest mass are permeable indestructible sacs minted inside stars as embryonic neutrons that when warmed up and net imploded with compressed GP1 Aether Particles, reach maturity and decay to hydrogen!!

Can you imagine that as matter particle indestructible permeable sacs warm up through the net implosion of GP1 Aether particles, the particle sacs pulsate GP1 Aether Particles in and out faster resulting in a higher harmonized EM Wave frequency for the released radiant energy!!

Neutron, proton, electron and neutrino level pulsations can harmonize increase in amplitude only in a pressurized medium of GP1 Aether Particles just as sound waves can only harmonize/constructively and destructively interfere in pressurized gaseous air atoms or molecules!!

Because of a misinterpretation of the Michelson-Morley Experiments back in the 1890's, scientists went down the wrong path that prevents them from explaining gravity as low GP1 Aether Particle Pressure that adds up cumulatively from all the particles net warming up as neutrino (dark matter) or dust or in a moon, a planet, a star, a galaxy, a supercluster, a wall, etc!!

The only way to move theoretical physics forward is to correct the misassumptions of modern physicists made within the past 129 Years!! Otherwise, 96% of the universe will remain dark forever!!

Just, look at our own planet where hurricanes look exactly like a picture of a spiral galaxy except that in a spiral galaxy the precipitation is planets and stars instead of rain drops!!

Low air pressure hurricanes/low GP1 Aether Particle Systems form at the Equator where matter is net heating up and are given to power up/intensify over warm waters!!

And high air pressure polar vortexes/high GP1 Aether Particle pressure systems are given to form at the Earth’s Poles and more strongly in the winter than in the summer!!

Proof positive that large amounts of matter particle sacs are net cooling, net expelling compressed GP1 Aether Particles that expand, result in invisible high GP1 Aether Particle pressure that is observed as high air pressure!!

There are many proofs for my gaseous GP1 Aether Particle Theory Or should I say Irrefutable Facts!!

We are given that electromagnetic waves have all the properties of sound waves including but not limited to constructive and destructive interference, doppler effect, harmonization and homogenization but without substance and with momentum!!

No harm is done by allowing EM Waves to propagate in a pressurized medium because EM Waves are given as waves, just, as similarly situated sound waves propagate in a gaseous air sound medium and we can explain gravity, dark matter gravity, expanding space voids as energy density declines and contracting superclusters as energy density increases!!

In other words, we can explain how the cosmic web maintains itself and how there is a limit to how much SMBHs can accumulate and superclusters heat up causing at some point a supercluster to start transitioning to a void and a void to start warming up from cooling and transition to a supercluster!!

More on these facts later!! Have A Great Day!!
 
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There are many proofs for my gaseous GP1 Aether Particle Theory Or should I say Irrefutable Facts!!

We are given that electromagnetic waves have all the properties of sound waves including but not limited to constructive and destructive interference, doppler effect, harmonization and homogenization but without substance and with momentum!!

No harm is done by allowing EM Waves to propagate in a pressurized medium because EM Waves are given as waves, just, as similarly situated sound waves propagate in a gaseous air sound medium and we can explain gravity, dark matter gravity, expanding space voids as energy density declines and contracting superclusters as energy density increases!!

In other words, we can explain how the cosmic web maintains itself and how there is a limit to how much SMBHs can accumulate and superclusters heat up causing at some point a supercluster to start transitioning to a void and a void to start warming up from cooling and transiytion to a supercluster!!
o
More on these facts later!! Have A Great Day!!
One my friend from very long ago also has theories partially related to yours. His Facebook page.
 
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Sorry just came on board, late work.

Where do people get voids from and what are the forces associated with them.
Harry, I guess you haven't yet looked at the 5 minute 2017 DiPole RePeller Void YouTube Video!! Just Google): The Dipole Repeller Void YouTube!!

We are given the Cosmic Web as a mixture of Superclusters and Voids with 80% or higher percentage of less matter than in superclusters per cubic meter!!

In other words, low GP1 Aether Particle pressure from heating up superclusters and walls of superclusters with 5X or greater more matter density/cubic meter than voids are 3 dimensional valleys surrounded by high GP1 Aether Particle Pressure Expanding Cooling Cosmic Voids in the universe's Cosmic Web with the DiPole RePeller Void galaxies moving towards the Shapley Attractor at speeds up to 1000 km/s!!

From the discovery of the DiPole RePeller Void in 2017, we know that the Expanding DiPole RePeller Void is pushing us at 290 km/s towards the Shapley and Great Attractors and that the Shapley and Great Attractors are pulling us at 341 km/s towards the Shapley and Great Attractors for a net "peculiar" velocity of 631 km/s towards the Attractors/Superclusters!!

"Peculiar Velocity" here is not "strange" velocity!! It's the remaining velocity/Redshift Or Blue-shift after the removal of the Cosmological Redshift/Hubble Flow Redshift!!

For instance): Galaxies orbiting the Great Attractor have "peculiar" velocities of +700 km/s towards us and -700 km/s away from us!!

I'm here to answer all your questions about the Cosmos!!

Talk More Later!! Have A Great Day!!
 
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One my friend from very long ago also has theories partially related to yours. His Facebook page.
Thanks George!! But can we take down Einstein's half-truth that E=mc2!!

Yes, I say half-truth because while we know that matter-antimatter annihilation interactions can power all supernova explosions instantly, I argue that embryonic neutrons must be minted inside the centers of stars as the stars compress matter to compact objects through the Siemens' Refrigeration Cycle Process!!

Indestructible neutron permeable sacs, the giver of all recognized matter particles with rest mass above the neutrino, cannot be miraculously pulled out of vacuum in pairs!! We need to stop the gas lighting, now, but how??

Compression to heat the core up!! Heat Exchanger to remove heat to the outercores!! Decompression to cool the core, reduce entropy and make the core denser!! Repeated Siemens' Refrigeration Cycles is how stars create over the life of the star the compact objects): White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and The Neutronium Balls of Black Holes!!

More on how protons are transformed to antiprotons and vice versa later!!

Talk More Soon!! Have A Great Day!!
 
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One my friend from very long ago also has theories partially related to yours. His Facebook page.
George referenced Author Vassil on Facebook): Vassil says): February 25, 2015):
This is the main body of our qualitatively new disc shaped flying machine. My calculations show that it will fly with very low fuel consumption even in a very tenuous atmosphere. Expect more specifications in the next few days…

Interesting Vassil Posts on Facebook about his “flying machine” and “centripetal force” somehow partially violating Newton's Second Law on Motion Force, Mass & Acceleration and partially creating a perpetual energy machine that uses reduced fuel!!

My take on Vassil’s Posts is different from yours?? How do you perceive Vassil’s Spaceship/flying machine reduction of fuel consumption??

Do you know the meaning of the name Vassil Or Basil or my mother’s name Vasiliki??

Greek): Basil as a boys' name is pronounced BAZ-el. It is of Greek origin, and the meaning of Basil is " royal, kingly". From the Greek name Basileios, derived from "basileus", meaning "king"!!

Talk more, soon!! Have A Great Day!!
 
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George referenced Author Vassil on Facebook): Vassil says): February 25, 2015):
This is the main body of our qualitatively new disc shaped flying machine. My calculations show that it will fly with very low fuel consumption even in a very tenuous atmosphere. Expect more specifications in the next few days…

Interesting Vassil Posts on Facebook about his “flying machine” and “centripetal force” somehow partially violating Newton's Second Law on Motion Force, Mass & Acceleration and partially creating a perpetual energy machine that uses reduced fuel!!

My take on Vassil’s Posts is different from yours?? How do you perceive Vassil’s Spaceship/flying machine reduction of fuel consumption??

Do you know the meaning of the name Vassil Or Basil or my mother’s name Vasiliki??

Greek): Basil as a boys' name is pronounced BAZ-el. It is of Greek origin, and the meaning of Basil is " royal, kingly". From the Greek name Basileios, derived from "basileus", meaning "king"!!

Talk more, soon!! Have A Great Day!!
I have generally assumed that my friend may have been influenced by the fashion of the time (30+ years ago) which was not necessarily scientific. Otherwise, it sounds to me like he wanted to imply that there are prerequisites that can be met by a given civilization, when it has fully mastered all aspects of its universe, only then is it able to make some kind of transition to the next scale. Even before that, it will have reached lower levels on the Kardashev scale, which will allow an increase in the possibilities of propagation and movement within the universe in which it originated. I am not educated enough to specifically discuss the spacecraft technology described.
 
In my opinion the age of the universe is infinite in a never-ending cycle of events.

Saying that
The following paper does not agree with me.

[Submitted on 5 Mar 2024]

JWST PRIMER: A new multi-field determination of the evolving galaxy UV luminosity function at redshifts z≃9−15​

C. T. Donnan, R. J. McLure, J. S. Dunlop, D. J. McLeod, D. Magee, K. Z. Arellano-Córdova, L. Barrufet, R. Begley, R. A. A. Bowler, A. C. Carnall, F. Cullen, R. S. Ellis, A. Fontana, G. D. Illingworth, N. A. Grogin, M. L. Hamadouche, A. M. Koekemoer, Feng-Yuan Liu, C. Mason, P. Santini, T. M. Stanton
We present a new determination of the evolving galaxy UV luminosity function (LF) over the redshift range 8.5<z<15.5 using a combination of several major Cycle-1 JWST imaging programmes - PRIMER, JADES and NGDEEP. This multi-field approach yields a total of ≃370 sq. arcmin of JWST/NIRCam imaging, reaching (5-σ) depths of ≃30 AB mag in the deepest regions. We select a sample of 2548 galaxies with a significant probability of lying at high redshift (p(z>8.5)>0.05) to undertake a statistical calculation of the evolving UV LF. Our new measurements span ≃4 magnitudes in UV luminosity at z=9−12.5, placing new constraints on both the shape and evolution of the LF at early times. We fit our observational data-points with a double-power law (DPL) function and explore the evolution of the DPL parameters. Our UV LF measurements yield a new estimate of the early evolution of cosmic star-formation rate density (ρSFR) which confirms the gradual, log-linear decline deduced from early JWST studies, at least out to z≃12. Finally we show that the observed early evolution of the galaxy UV LF (and ρSFR) can be reproduced in a ΛCDM Universe, with no change in dust properties or star-formation efficiency required out to z≃12. Instead, we show that a progressive trend towards younger stellar population ages can reproduce the observations, and we show that the typical ages required at z≃ 8, 9, 10, and 11 all converge on a time ≃380−330 Myr after the Big Bang, indicative of a rapid emergence of early galaxies at z≃12−13. This is consistent with the first indications of a steeper drop-off in the galaxy population we find beyond z≃13, possibly reflecting the rapid evolution of the halo mass function at earlier times.
 
Yes, I do not agree with the finding that the universe is about 14 billion.
But! who knows maybe I'm wrong.

[Submitted on 18 Mar 2024]

FLRW Cosmology in Myrzakulov F(R,Q) Gravity​

Dinesh Chandra Maurya, K. Yesmakhanova, R. Myrzakulov, G. Nugmanova
In the present work, we investigate some exact cosmological models in the Myrzakulov F(R,Q) gravity or the Myrzakulov gravity-II (MG-II) which was proposed in [arXiv:1205.5266]. Here R and Q are the curvature and nonmetricity scalars using non-special connection, respectively. We have solved field equations in two different contexts using a flat FLRW metric. We have obtained two exact solutions in the form of scale factor a(t), and using this scale factor, we have derived other cosmological parameters. After that using recent observational datasets H(z) and Pantheon SNe Ia, we have obtained best fit constrained values of model parameters by applying the MCMC analysis. Using these best fit values of model parameters, we have discussed the results behaviour of the derived models. We have found that both models are transit phase model and approaches to ΛCDM model at late-time universe. We have found that the geometrical sector dark equation of state ω(geom) behaves just like dark energy candidate. Also, we have estimated the transition redshift zt and present age of the universe t0 which are consistent with recent observations.


"We can observe that as z → ∞, (t0 − t) tends to a constant value t0 that represents the cosmic ageof the universe, (t0 − t) → t0 = 0.0149320642, 0.01523738097, respectively, along two datasets H(z)and Pantheon SNe Ia. The present cosmic age of the universe, we have measured as t0 = 14.60, 14.90Gyrs, respectively along two observational datasets, which are very closed to observational estimatedvalues. Recently [106, 107, 108] have measured present age of the universe as t0 ≈ 13.87 Gyrs."
 
Fundamental binary base2, '0' (null unity (vacuum, void, Abyss, total of matter and energy)) and/or '1' (unity (+1, -1, *1*)), plus electromagnetic perturbative trojan, parity '2' (balance '1/2' ("and/or" . . . always inclusive of fundamental binary '0')).
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"Communication across the revolutionary divide is inevitably partial." -- Thomas S. Kuhn.
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Don't even think about the "Infinity or not infinity that is the question"! Nonlocal, nonrelative, nonfinite . . . whether you know it or not you even have infinity (and/or infinities) within you -- and on, and in, the head of any pin -- so it [is] and it [isn't]!
 
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Regarding #70, I edited out "gravitational" and edited in "electromagnetic". Gravity (at once antigravity), the factor of zoom to open system and quality of opening up and out and down and in (both hyperspace and subspace "opening" SPACE) in the fractal zooms' universe structure of the universes, isn't the force that produces the shock quality event horizons that also produces the universes' perturbative "music." Gravity has been blamed, and credited, with much that belongs to others that make adjustments to its zooms, finitely local, relative, and observational.

Gravity DOES NOT end in any compaction or contraction in the universe -- to closure -- or anything in it to closing, no matter what things look like from one point of view! Closure, closing, closed system and systemic, is finitely local and relative and belongs to others than endless zoom gravity to an opening (at once zoom antigravity). Any barrier, any event horizon, struck during zooms is of and from forces not gravity. Newton's apple way back when was falling into an opening system (the universe accelerating in expansion) when it struck a quantum systemic barrier to continuing accelerating into the open system opening before it.

When I landed from flights above the surface of the Earth, nothing below was gravitationally compacting or contracting from my viewpoint . . . it was all [gravitationally] "accelerating in expansion of the universe" below the aircraft and me!
 
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If two electrons are placed near each other, the charge repulsion force will be 10^32 times greater than the gravitational attraction force.
True but not quite true, Bill. At this time, I can't find the articles I've read, and possibly pointed to, where in certain situations or conditions, they've been found to attract, stabilizing in attraction, rather than repulse.

I think, if I remember right, "tunneling between" is one of those conditions. In my reading, I've read there are exceptions to the rule (also including electron / positron).
 
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As best I know, two electrons can't be squished together to make a new particle with a charge of -2. Electrons combine with protons to make neutrons.
Now I've a problem. Rather than a charge of -2 ((-1) (-1)) you invoke, I envision a possibility of a charge of +1. But I will admit, Bill, the probability of being out of my depth in this particular situation . . . and simply reaching geometrically in an equal but opposite (positronic?) direction.
 
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