Non-Perpendicular Gravity Axis Theory

Mar 8, 2022
This is to outline & detail a possible alternative to the illogical 'dark matter' hypothesis,
at least in so far as it concerns the particulars within each galaxy.

Non-Perpendicular Gravity Axis Theory:

Scale down space-time to a single sheet of rubber which is warped/pulled 'downward' as the curvature of gravity.
(This is the time-speed dimension.)
Since we know space-time is curved we know that locally perpendicular gravity axes can not all be parallel (they point different directions).
My theory takes this one step further & proposes that gravity axes may not even always be locally perpendicular,
that they may be locally non-perpendicular.
I speculate that the outer stars of the/a galaxy have the 'bottom' of their gravity axes (the stellar centers) drawn inward, namely towards the event horizon of the central black hole of any given galaxy.
I additionally pose that the inner stars of a given galaxy have the 'top' of their gravity axes drawn inward towards the central black hole.
This would mean that the outer stars have, on average, a gravity axis that is at an acute angle to the space-time between them and the central black hole of their galaxy.
The inner stars would have, on average, a gravity axis that is at an obtuse angle to the space-time between them & the central black hole of their galaxy.
This, i speculate, would mean the outer stars gravity, due to the acute angle, is additive to the gravity towards the central black hole.
The inner stars would, due to the obtuse angle, have a subtractive effect from the gravity towards the central black hole.

Now one must wonder why these non-perpendicularities occur.
We know that the rotation of objects creates a space-time 'drag' effect.
It seems easy to me to imagine that a central black hole that is thought to curve to infinity must be pulling all
the space ('nearby') around it into itself. This seems like it would likely pull the entire 'top' of the gravity form around inner (axes) stars towards it.
While those stars have not actually changed position in the higher dimensional space the curvature of their gravity has.

Now i need to address the more challenging explanation for the reason the outer stars (actually all the stars) have the bottom of their gravity axes pulled/drawn towards the event horizon of the central black hole.
In the interior of stars photons are created that are entangled with other central stellar elements.
Eventually these radiate outward from the star in all directions.
Over time a good portion of these arrive at the event horizon of the central black hole.
While many of these entangled photons decohere (lose their entanglement), the ones that arrive at the black hole's event horizon are slowed, almost stopped, in time, to a reasonable degree 'locking' them into a coherent (superposition) state with elements of a given star's interior, at least on their particular parameter of entanglement. Quantum tunneling is an event of decoherence, but these photons instead remain in a superposition state which sustains spatial/location ambiguity. The superposition is in the center of the star as well as at/on the event horizon of the central black hole.
All the stars have this occuring, but for the outer stars, being so much further from the center of the galaxy, this produces a much more pronouced effect. It produces a more sharply acute angle.

My thought is with non-perpendicular gravity axes, most especially the ones around objects that rotate, it would cause local rotating space to be flexing back & forth through different angles.
I think space-time may resist the constant flexing and tends to 'even' out (re-perpendicularize) the angular position locally.
Which imposes a local perpendicularity, but in local space that is at a different angle to the broad orientation of the space-time average.
This creates wrinkles in space-time, which means there is more space required than in flat (regions of) space.
If this compounded speculation is true it may produce some unusual gravity effects on the inner side of the far outer stars' gravity wells. It might even rise somewhat above the average flatter plane in the time-speed dimension. This might create some reverse gravity where distances are increased & time is sped up. Matter would tend to avoid, exit, go around these longer curving regions.
So that would be something to look for, matter avoiding, bypassing, circumnavigating on the inner side of outer galactic stars' gravity fields probably at some range of radii from each star.
This might make stable orbits more difficult to acheive, so perhaps a galaxy's outermost stars have very few planets that manage to stay in a reasonably stable orbits.


Possibly observable effects,

1) With the inner stars, at least the ones between us and the central black hole, we may be 'seeing' them differently than they actually are if measuring directly from a star to the central black hole.
The distance from our viewpoint to an inner galactic star & then from that star to the central black hole is a longer distance than the distance directly from our viewpoint to the central black hole.
Use the '2' shape to think about it. We see the light from a star over the curve of the top of the '2' and when that is subtracted from our distance to the central black hole they may be calculated as apparently closer to the black hole than if one measured directly from the star across/through the flat bottom of the '2' to the central black hole.
It may be that on randomized average that the stars immediately on the far side of the central black hole from us 'seem' further away than the stars more directly between us and the central black hole.

2) A second thing to think about, is nacent young stars would have to wait until their initial entangled photons actually reach the central black hole, possibly a hundred thousand years, for this effect to even begin to take hold.
It might be possible to observe young outer galactic stars that seem less drawn towards the galactic center, which might give them some tendency to wander outward as a galaxy rotates, until they finally begin to demonstrate this additive gravity influence.

All of this is to attempt to explain the unexpected orbital speeds of stars in the vast majority of galaxies we can observe.
This would not account for any other non-uniform distributions of gravity that can not be accounted for by visible matter.
Mar 8, 2022
first a definition
'Negative gravity': a bulge above the mean/average 'flat' plane/space of space-time in the opposite direction that positive/standard gravity bends.

(all of this is scaled down by several dimensions)
In thinking of tilting the 'top' of a rotating outer star's gravity well,
a crude analogy is using a rigid disk/circle with the star at the center and rotating/spinning it out of the plane around the star's orbit line,
with the galactic outer side going/stretching 'down' like regular/positive gravity & the galactic inner side rising up in negative gravity.
This would create a sort of crescent trough on its galactic outside & a complimentary crescent ridge on its galactic inner side.
If however the universe/space-time resists or abhors negative gravity it could be that the disk/circle hinges only at the edge of its inner most point creating sort of a wedge of cylinder depression in space-time.
This second case would increase the total quantity of (positive) gravity, whereas the first case would increase the positive gravity less so and create an equal quantity of negative gravity.
I'm not sure how the second case would affect potential orbiting planets. Maybe it would support limited specific eccentric orbits?
Since space-time seems to have some tautness all of these forms would be rounded and smoothed to some degree.

In either case i believe the curved troughs on the galactic outer side of the outer stars would bend light a little around each star and possibly cumulatively result in the/a lensing effect, but in a fragmentary way.
Mar 8, 2022
While I stick with my idea for the outer stars my concept for the slowed inner stars is bogus.
i make it sound like the central black hole showed up after the stars formed which is the converse of the facts.
The central black hole was there long before these stars formed.

If one did web all the galactic stars together it would look like what is observed, but when one star's entangled photon arrives at another star it will in all probability decohere.
So mutual webbing by my mechanism is out.

Maybe if the entangled photons from the inner stars went deep down the infinite 'vertical' spike of the central black hole (beyond its event horizon) they form a deep inner spike at their centers.
This might create an alternative draw to the 'surface'/regular gravity towards the central black hole.
And perhaps the reason the arch between these two spikes doesn't 'lower' and merge is because the space near/around the central black hole is so taut with all the crisscrossing pulls between stars and especially the pull of space to infinity by the black hole.
It creates a sort of suspension system?
But then what supports the event horizon of the central black hole to keep it from 'lowering' 'down' and merging with all the innermost stars' gravity wells?
It just runs out of space to curve with?

Back to the drawing board on this one...
Mar 8, 2022
Updated NPGAT
2023 Oct 29

This is to explain only the unexpected seeming gravitational effects in most galaxies imo erroneously attributed to some mysterious 'dark matter'.

To visualize/grasp the concept one needs to scale space-time down several dimensions to a rubber sheet.
We will view that sheet edge on.
The 'downward' dips are the curvature(s) of gravity.

What i believe is happening is there is a vector of connection between the interiors of the stars and the event horizon of the central black hole of their galaxy.
Somewhat analogous to a water skier's tow line.
Better is a tow line between boats that is below the waterline.

For the inner stars of a galaxy because they are closer to the central black hole it is still more of a 'down' angle connection (pull).

For the outer stars of a galaxy that connection is closer to parallel to the 'rubber' sheet of space-time.
This performs as if the 'rubber' sheet were much more steeply angled towards the central black hole,
but it isn't actually.
So the space-time surface is (mostly) not directly effected,
but the performance seems like it is.

What may happen, especially with rotating (outer) stars is their axis of rotation aligns with the unseen vector.
What this may do, due to frame dragging is create an odd deformation of space-time.
It would cause an extension of the star's own gravity warping/bending ('valley') on the galactic outer side of the star and a 'hill' ('upward' bulge) (negative gravity) on the galactic inner side of the star.
This would create a crescent shaped trough on the outer side of the outer stars.
(not sure if that could create a 'valley' deeper than the star's own gravity well or not)
This curve would bend/turn any light passing across the trough. That light likely would be caught by another outer star's crescent trough and so on.
That might explain the lensing effect from light wrapping around both ends of a galaxy and thereby amplifying it.

If this deformation of space-time is correct with a galaxy's outer stars it would make stable planetary orbits much more difficult to form.
Something to look for.

My speculation about a possible cause of this hidden connector is photons that retain entanglement with some element(s) of the star's interior.
These entangled photons go off in all directions.
If they encounter stars, planets or dust they decohere.
For some of these entangled photons they arrive at the vicinity of the central black hole where time dilation comes into play.
The time dilation extends the entanglement and the associated spatial ambiguity.
Some of these photons go directly into the black hole, but slower and slower with time dilation.
Some of these photons just to either side of the central black hole will orbit the event horizon for who knows how long.

The spatial ambiguity is the proposed connector.
Think of quantum tunneling, except these photons are still in the superposition state of their aspect of entanglement.
The relationship is both in the star's interior and at the central black hole's event horizon
at the same time.

This would explain why a galaxy carries this effect with it wherever it goes.
Mar 8, 2022
So this effect in galaxies isn't strictly speaking gravity, which is the warping/bending of space-time (which it is not), this would literally be 'spooky action at a distance' (per my hypothetical cause).
Unseen connections due to the spatial ambiguity of shared superposition(s) extended through time via time dilation.

Along with the difficulty of planets finding stable orbits around galactic outer stars,
nacent young stars would only begin to encounter this effect once enough of their photons had been able to reach the central black hole of their galaxy.
So one might see if these young stars tend to wander outward until the effect takes hold.

This would happen with any 'local' black hole, but be most pronouced with black holes with larger event horizons.
This is why there is such a tight correlation between the size of the galactic central black hole and the observed effect (in galaxies).

There are probably other unaccounted seeming gravitational effects in the Universe, but this is only to explain what is observed in the orbiting stars of galaxies.
Mar 8, 2022
I suppose what one might look for is a small or medium black hole with stars around it within a few light years and see if there was a greater attraction than the black hole's gravity per mass in evidence.