Non-Perpendicular Gravity Axis Theory

This is to outline & detail a possible alternative to the illogical 'dark matter' hypothesis,
at least in so far as it concerns the particulars within each galaxy.

Non-Perpendicular Gravity Axis Theory:

Scale down space-time to a single sheet of rubber which is warped/pulled 'downward' as the curvature of gravity.
(This is the time-speed dimension.)
Since we know space-time is curved we know that locally perpendicular gravity axes can not all be parallel (they point different directions).
My theory takes this one step further & proposes that gravity axes may not even always be locally perpendicular,
that they may be locally non-perpendicular.
I speculate that the outer stars of the/a galaxy have the 'bottom' of their gravity axes (the stellar centers) drawn inward, namely towards the event horizon of the central black hole of any given galaxy.
I additionally pose that the inner stars of a given galaxy have the 'top' of their gravity axes drawn inward towards the central black hole.
This would mean that the outer stars have, on average, a gravity axis that is at an acute angle to the space-time between them and the central black hole of their galaxy.
The inner stars would have, on average, a gravity axis that is at an obtuse angle to the space-time between them & the central black hole of their galaxy.
This, i speculate, would mean the outer stars gravity, due to the acute angle, is additive to the gravity towards the central black hole.
The inner stars would, due to the obtuse angle, have a subtractive effect from the gravity towards the central black hole.

Now one must wonder why these non-perpendicularities occur.
We know that the rotation of objects creates a space-time 'drag' effect.
It seems easy to me to imagine that a central black hole that is thought to curve to infinity must be pulling all
the space ('nearby') around it into itself. This seems like it would likely pull the entire 'top' of the gravity form around inner (axes) stars towards it.
While those stars have not actually changed position in the higher dimensional space the curvature of their gravity has.

Now i need to address the more challenging explanation for the reason the outer stars (actually all the stars) have the bottom of their gravity axes pulled/drawn towards the event horizon of the central black hole.
In the interior of stars photons are created that are entangled with other central stellar elements.
Eventually these radiate outward from the star in all directions.
Over time a good portion of these arrive at the event horizon of the central black hole.
While many of these entangled photons decohere (lose their entanglement), the ones that arrive at the black hole's event horizon are slowed, almost stopped, in time, to a reasonable degree 'locking' them into a coherent (superposition) state with elements of a given star's interior, at least on their particular parameter of entanglement. Quantum tunneling is an event of decoherence, but these photons instead remain in a superposition state which sustains spatial/location ambiguity. The superposition is in the center of the star as well as at/on the event horizon of the central black hole.
All the stars have this occuring, but for the outer stars, being so much further from the center of the galaxy, this produces a much more pronouced effect. It produces a more sharply acute angle.

My thought is with non-perpendicular gravity axes, most especially the ones around objects that rotate, it would cause local rotating space to be flexing back & forth through different angles.
I think space-time may resist the constant flexing and tends to 'even' out (re-perpendicularize) the angular position locally.
Which imposes a local perpendicularity, but in local space that is at a different angle to the broad orientation of the space-time average.
This creates wrinkles in space-time, which means there is more space required than in flat (regions of) space.
If this compounded speculation is true it may produce some unusual gravity effects on the inner side of the far outer stars' gravity wells. It might even rise somewhat above the average flatter plane in the time-speed dimension. This might create some reverse gravity where distances are increased & time is sped up. Matter would tend to avoid, exit, go around these longer curving regions.
So that would be something to look for, matter avoiding, bypassing, circumnavigating on the inner side of outer galactic stars' gravity fields probably at some range of radii from each star.
This might make stable orbits more difficult to acheive, so perhaps a galaxy's outermost stars have very few planets that manage to stay in a reasonably stable orbits.


Thoughts:

Possibly observable effects,

1) With the inner stars, at least the ones between us and the central black hole, we may be 'seeing' them differently than they actually are if measuring directly from a star to the central black hole.
The distance from our viewpoint to an inner galactic star & then from that star to the central black hole is a longer distance than the distance directly from our viewpoint to the central black hole.
Use the '2' shape to think about it. We see the light from a star over the curve of the top of the '2' and when that is subtracted from our distance to the central black hole they may be calculated as apparently closer to the black hole than if one measured directly from the star across/through the flat bottom of the '2' to the central black hole.
It may be that on randomized average that the stars immediately on the far side of the central black hole from us 'seem' further away than the stars more directly between us and the central black hole.

2) A second thing to think about, is nacent young stars would have to wait until their initial entangled photons actually reach the central black hole, possibly a hundred thousand years, for this effect to even begin to take hold.
It might be possible to observe young outer galactic stars that seem less drawn towards the galactic center, which might give them some tendency to wander outward as a galaxy rotates, until they finally begin to demonstrate this additive gravity influence.

All of this is to attempt to explain the unexpected orbital speeds of stars in the vast majority of galaxies we can observe.
This would not account for any other non-uniform distributions of gravity that can not be accounted for by visible matter.
 
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Thoughts,
first a definition
'Negative gravity': a bulge above the mean/average 'flat' plane/space of space-time in the opposite direction that positive/standard gravity bends.

(all of this is scaled down by several dimensions)
In thinking of tilting the 'top' of a rotating outer star's gravity well,
a crude analogy is using a rigid disk/circle with the star at the center and rotating/spinning it out of the plane around the star's orbit line,
with the galactic outer side going/stretching 'down' like regular/positive gravity & the galactic inner side rising up in negative gravity.
This would create a sort of crescent trough on its galactic outside & a complimentary crescent ridge on its galactic inner side.
If however the universe/space-time resists or abhors negative gravity it could be that the disk/circle hinges only at the edge of its inner most point creating sort of a wedge of cylinder depression in space-time.
This second case would increase the total quantity of (positive) gravity, whereas the first case would increase the positive gravity less so and create an equal quantity of negative gravity.
I'm not sure how the second case would affect potential orbiting planets. Maybe it would support limited specific eccentric orbits?
Since space-time seems to have some tautness all of these forms would be rounded and smoothed to some degree.

In either case i believe the curved troughs on the galactic outer side of the outer stars would bend light a little around each star and possibly cumulatively result in the/a lensing effect, but in a fragmentary way.
 
While I stick with my idea for the outer stars my concept for the slowed inner stars is bogus.
i make it sound like the central black hole showed up after the stars formed which is the converse of the facts.
The central black hole was there long before these stars formed.

If one did web all the galactic stars together it would look like what is observed, but when one star's entangled photon arrives at another star it will in all probability decohere.
So mutual webbing by my mechanism is out.

Maybe if the entangled photons from the inner stars went deep down the infinite 'vertical' spike of the central black hole (beyond its event horizon) they form a deep inner spike at their centers.
This might create an alternative draw to the 'surface'/regular gravity towards the central black hole.
And perhaps the reason the arch between these two spikes doesn't 'lower' and merge is because the space near/around the central black hole is so taut with all the crisscrossing pulls between stars and especially the pull of space to infinity by the black hole.
It creates a sort of suspension system?
But then what supports the event horizon of the central black hole to keep it from 'lowering' 'down' and merging with all the innermost stars' gravity wells?
It just runs out of space to curve with?

Back to the drawing board on this one...
 
Updated NPGAT
2023 Oct 29

This is to explain only the unexpected seeming gravitational effects in most galaxies imo erroneously attributed to some mysterious 'dark matter'.

To visualize/grasp the concept one needs to scale space-time down several dimensions to a rubber sheet.
We will view that sheet edge on.
The 'downward' dips are the curvature(s) of gravity.

What i believe is happening is there is a vector of connection between the interiors of the stars and the event horizon of the central black hole of their galaxy.
Somewhat analogous to a water skier's tow line.
Better is a tow line between boats that is below the waterline.

For the inner stars of a galaxy because they are closer to the central black hole it is still more of a 'down' angle connection (pull).

For the outer stars of a galaxy that connection is closer to parallel to the 'rubber' sheet of space-time.
This performs as if the 'rubber' sheet were much more steeply angled towards the central black hole,
but it isn't actually.
So the space-time surface is (mostly) not directly effected,
but the performance seems like it is.

What may happen, especially with rotating (outer) stars is their axis of rotation aligns with the unseen vector.
What this may do, due to frame dragging is create an odd deformation of space-time.
It would cause an extension of the star's own gravity warping/bending ('valley') on the galactic outer side of the star and a 'hill' ('upward' bulge) (negative gravity) on the galactic inner side of the star.
This would create a crescent shaped trough on the outer side of the outer stars.
(not sure if that could create a 'valley' deeper than the star's own gravity well or not)
This curve would bend/turn any light passing across the trough. That light likely would be caught by another outer star's crescent trough and so on.
That might explain the lensing effect from light wrapping around both ends of a galaxy and thereby amplifying it.

If this deformation of space-time is correct with a galaxy's outer stars it would make stable planetary orbits much more difficult to form.
Something to look for.

My speculation about a possible cause of this hidden connector is photons that retain entanglement with some element(s) of the star's interior.
These entangled photons go off in all directions.
If they encounter stars, planets or dust they decohere.
For some of these entangled photons they arrive at the vicinity of the central black hole where time dilation comes into play.
The time dilation extends the entanglement and the associated spatial ambiguity.
Some of these photons go directly into the black hole, but slower and slower with time dilation.
Some of these photons just to either side of the central black hole will orbit the event horizon for who knows how long.

The spatial ambiguity is the proposed connector.
Think of quantum tunneling, except these photons are still in the superposition state of their aspect of entanglement.
The relationship is both in the star's interior and at the central black hole's event horizon
at the same time.

This would explain why a galaxy carries this effect with it wherever it goes.
 
So this effect in galaxies isn't strictly speaking gravity, which is the warping/bending of space-time (which it is not), this would literally be 'spooky action at a distance' (per my hypothetical cause).
Unseen connections due to the spatial ambiguity of shared superposition(s) extended through time via time dilation.

Along with the difficulty of planets finding stable orbits around galactic outer stars,
nacent young stars would only begin to encounter this effect once enough of their photons had been able to reach the central black hole of their galaxy.
So one might see if these young stars tend to wander outward until the effect takes hold.

This would happen with any 'local' black hole, but be most pronouced with black holes with larger event horizons.
This is why there is such a tight correlation between the size of the galactic central black hole and the observed effect (in galaxies).

There are probably other unaccounted seeming gravitational effects in the Universe, but this is only to explain what is observed in the orbiting stars of galaxies.
 
I suppose what one might look for is a small or medium black hole with stars around it within a few light years and see if there was a greater attraction than the black hole's gravity per mass in evidence.
 
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High Questioner,
I have not read all of this series. It is difficult visualising stuff from words alone, - without a diagram. I think I have got the basics maybe. From the first post.
If space is curved by gravity then the direction of influence is at 90 degrees but you challenge this by suggesting the angle of influence of gravity is somehow deflected.
It is not clear to me what causes this in your proposal, But -
The very idea of action at 90 degrees to space curvature (as per the rubber sheet analogy) is most interesting. I wonder if this alone is enough to support your general idea.
Maybe we can fuse this with my thoughts regarding time which have similar logic.
That is time runs at 90 degrees to space. As you noted regarding gravitation influence at 90 degrees to space then this may indicate that time and gravity are closely associated. (You might refer to my posts regarding the hypersphere where (to match your terms) the rubber sheet can be extended to represent the whole universe - as a spherical rubber sheet.
But returning to your thoughts in a local gravity well could it be that the rubber sheet expanding outwards (by time) experiences resistance from matter? That is matter is forced up against the rubber sheet forcing it to shape/bend. Time then becomes a possible causation of gravity. I dunno, this is a bit of a stretch (forgive the pun). Can you knock it into shape? (oops again)
 
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This is to outline & detail a possible alternative to the illogical 'dark matter' hypothesis,
at least in so far as it concerns the particulars within each galaxy.

Non-Perpendicular Gravity Axis Theory:
Questioner alleges that the 'dark matter' hypothesis is illogical as to it's particulars within each galaxy {found to have dark matter}!!

We know that Questioner is misinformed because astrophysicists have gotten very good at determining both the total visible mass of a galaxy and the velocity of the stars orbiting the center of gravity of the galaxy!!

Astrophysicists have discovered that the velocity of stars orbiting (let’s say the center of gravity of the Andromeda galaxy) does not decline as the inverse square of the distance from the center of gravity of the Andromeda galaxy and that the stars orbiting around Andromeda galaxy have reached escape velocity because of insufficient visible mass to hold the high velocity stars in orbit around Andromeda!!

Astrophysicists believe as gospel that gravitational force is a direct function of mass and that each and every particle of the mass is a perpetual gravitational force machine in perpetuity!!

Logically, based on the premises above and the actual measurements of the visible matter in galaxies and the velocity of stars orbiting any particular galaxy, astrophysicists have concluded that there must up to 10X dark matter over visible matter in galaxies as a whole and Andromeda Galaxy in particular!!

Partial quote from phys.libretexts.org/28.4: “The Challenge of Dark Matter): “Stars move much faster in their orbits around the centers of galaxies, and galaxies around centers of galaxy clusters, than they should according to the gravity of all the luminous matter (stars, gas, and dust) astronomers can detect. This discrepancy implies that galaxies and galaxy clusters are dominated by dark matter rather than normal luminous matter. Gravitational lensing and X-ray radiation from massive galaxy clusters confirm the presence of dark matter. Galaxies and clusters of galaxies contain about 10 times more dark matter than luminous matter. While some of the dark matter may be made up of ordinary matter (protons, neutrons, and electrons), perhaps in the form of very faint stars or black holes, most of it probably consists of some totally new type of particle not yet detected on Earth. Observations of gravitational lensing effects on distant objects have been used to look in the outer region of our Galaxy for any dark matter in the form of compact, dim stars or star remnants, but not enough such objects have been found to account for all the dark matter.”

Stay tuned to this thread because, on my next post, we’ll measure the exact amount of dark matter between Mercury and Neptune versus the given 1.1 solar masses of visible matter in our solar system!!

NASA for kids says): “The Sun contains almost ALL of the material in our solar system. 99% of it. All the planets, asteroids and comets add up to less than 1% of the total. The Sun is so far away that it takes light about 8 minutes and 20 seconds for it to get to us – and light is the fastest thing in the universe.”

Plus, for those up to it, on my third post on this thread, I will explain the exact physical mechanical processes that cause large masses to curve spacetime and generate gravity!!

Talk more, soon!! Have a great day!!
 
Jun 11, 2023
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High Questioner,
I have not read all of this series. It is difficult visualising stuff from words alone, - without a diagram. I think I have got the basics maybe. From the first post.
If space is curved by gravity then the direction of influence is at 90 degrees but you challenge this by suggesting the angle of influence of gravity is somehow deflected.
It is not clear to me what causes this in your proposal, But -

But returning to your thoughts in a local gravity well could it be that the rubber sheet expanding outwards (by time) experiences resistance from matter? That is matter is forced up against the rubber sheet forcing it to shape/bend. Time then becomes a possible causation of gravity. I dunno, this is a bit of a stretch (forgive the pun). Can you knock it into shape? (oops again)
Gibsense Questions Questioner’s Comment): “That is matter is forced up against the rubber sheet forcing it to shape/bend. Time then becomes a possible causation of gravity. I dunno, this is a bit of a stretch (forgive the pun). Can you knock it into shape?? (oops again)

Well Gibsense, the curvature of light waves around a large mass and time dilation/the lengthening of light waves around large masses are given as functions of spacetime/gibberish because physicists do not know the exact physical mechanical processes that generate gravitational force and, never, will because of certain misassumptions a hundred years ago that the universe is not ageless and finite in volume and that light waves propagate in a vacuum/the nothingness of space without a physical actual pressurized gaseous GP1 Aether tiny tiny particle of mass medium for electromagnetic waves.

By correcting all the misassumptions listed above, anyone, can solve all the mysteries of modern physics!!

Exactly, what are the mechanical physical forces that generate the gravitational force of attraction and the curving of light/gravitational lensing around a large mass??

I suggest that each particle of a mass is not a perpetual gravitational force energy machine as given and that gravity is the direct function of mass and the rate at which the particles of the mass heat up.

This is an extremely novel original concept of mine looking for my first convert from the Big Bang accelerating universe absurdity creationist story to my neutron indestructible permeable sac evolution story in a finite in volume ageless universe with matter and energy reflective edges!!

I suggest that there is an invisible GP1 Aether Particle accretion disc around our Sun and around Sag a and that as the GP1 Aether Particles flow to the center of our Sun or the center of Sag a that gravitational force is observed and the alleged "warping of spacetime"/time dilation observed is the result of GP1 Aether Particles of mass flowing to the center of our Sun or Saga and shifting the GP1 Aether Particle Medium Of Electromagnetic Waves, curving the light waves propagating in the GP1 Aether Particle Medium to a longer path and that it’s this longer path that is causing the EM waves to lengthen!!

The Proofs About My Suggestion That Gravity Is The Direct Function Of Mass And The Rate At Which The Matter Particles Of The Mass Heat Up!!):
1): Take Our Own Sun As An Example Of Gravity Generation As Our Sun’s Matter Heats Up!!):
A): We Are Given That Our Sun Formed From The Collapse Of A Molecular Hydrogen-Helium Cloud At 10 Degrees Kelvin!!
B): We Are Given That For The Past 5 Billion Years That Our Sun Has Been Heating Up And Generating Gravity!!
C): We Are Given That Our Sun Will Heat Up By 6% Per Billion Years For The Next 5 Billion Years While Generating Gravity!!
D): In 5 Billion Years); We Are Given That Our Sun Will Start Cooling From 7777 Kelvin To 3000 Kelvin While Net Emitting The Stored Anti-Gravity/Dark Energy Stored Inside The Nucleon, Electron And Neutrino Indestructible Mass-Energy Vessel Permeable Hovering Sacs In The Form Of Compressed GP1 Aether Particles That Were Stored During The 10 Billion Years That Our Sun Heated Up And Generated Gravity Blowing Off Half Its Mass Leaving A White Dwarf Remnant About The Size Of Earth At 200,000 Times Earth Density!!
E): One Proof That As Matter Cools And Net Expels GP1 Aether Particles); Dark Energy Is Released Is The Red Giant Phase Of Our Sun’s Life Cycle And All Red Giant Stars!!

2): From Observations Of Bullet Clusters We Know That Gravity And Dark Matter Gravity Stays With The Star Matter And Dark Neutrino Matter Heating Up From The Radiant Energy Of Stars And Not With An Equal Amount Of Cooling Hot Gaseous Matter Left Behind As The Two Galactic Clusters Separate!!

Above 1 & 2): Coincidence Or Direct Proof That Gravity Is A Direct Function Of Mass And The Rate At Which The Matter Particles Of The Mass Heat Up And That As Matter Particles Cool And Net Expel GP1 Aether Particles); Dark Energy Is Released Like By The Cooling Hot Gases Equal To The Mass Of The Stars Of A Bullet Cluster And The Cooling Gases At 7777 Kelvin When Our Sun Will Begin To Transform To A Red Giant!!

3): From The Discovery Of The DiPole RePeller Void In 2017): We Are Given That Lowering The Energy Quotient Per Cubic Meter In A Void Releases Measurable Dark Repulsive Energy As The Matter Including Dark Neutrino Matter In The Void Cools And Net Expels Compressed GP1 Aether Particles Creating A Void With Repulsive High GP1 Aether Particle Pressure System!!

4): Suggestion): As Superclusters Crunch And Energy Density Per Cubic Meter Increases And As Nucleon Matter In All The Stars And Neutrino Dark Matter Heats Up By Net Compressing GP1 Aether Particles Inside The Matter Vessel Sacs While Reducing The Volume Of Space): We Generate Increasing Low GP1 Aether Particle Pressure Throughout The Supercluster As We Are Given That Gravity And Dark Matter Gravity Will Be Generated By The Reduction In GP1 Aether Particle Pressure Relative To The High GP1 Aether Particle Pressure Of Expanding Voids!!

5): We Are Given That As The Great Attractor And The Shapley Attractor Crunch And Energy Density-Vacuum Energy Increases Per Cubic Meter); Matter Gravity And Dark Matter Gravity Is Generated In The Attractors That Causes The Local Galactic Group, The Virgo Galactic Centric Cluster And The Virgo Supercluster To Be Pulled At 341 Kilometers/Second Towards The Attractors); While The Cooling DiPole RePeller Void With Decreasing Vacuum Energy Per Cubic Meter Pushes Us At 290 Kilometers Per Second Towards The Great Attractor For A Net Total Peculiar Velocity Of 631 Kilometers/Second For Our Virgo Supercluster And Our Local Galactic Group!!

6): We Are Given That Low Air Pressure Hurricane Systems Develop At The Equator And That Hurricanes Intensify From Solar Radiant Heat And Warm Water!!

From The Given Above): I Suggest That The Heating Up Of Matter Particles Results In Low GP1 Aether Particle Pressure That Results In Low Air Pressure And/Or Gravitational Force Is Generated As Potential Dark Energy And Mass Is Stored In Matter Particle Permeable Sacs!!

And At The Earth’s Poles We Are Given That As Matter Cools High Air Pressure Systems Develop As Compressed Net GP1 Aether Particles Pulsate Out Of Nucleon, Electron And Neutrino Pulsating Hovering Permeable Indestructible Vessel Sacs Resulting In High GP1 Aether Particle Systems That Transform Air Particles To High Air Pressure Systems As They Cool!!

7): Side Note): If You Look At A Picture Of A Low Air Pressure Hurricane System On Earth And A Picture Of A Low GP1 Aether Particle Spiral Galaxy System In Space Side By Side); You Will Find The Pictures Are Nearly Identical Because Both Are Low GP1 Aether Particle Systems!!

I welcome any and all questions about any and all of my posts, theories and associated proofs!! If you should question, you will learn about gravity, dark matter gravity and dark energy mysteries as given by modern physicists along with logical easy to understand physical mechanical explanations based on given facts!!

Talk More Soon!! Have A Great Day!!